Abstract

A tunable coherent infrared source based on a double-difference-frequency-mixing technique in an indium-doped GaSe crystal in the last stage, with a Nd:YAG laser as the basic pump source, is reported. Angular acceptance as well as spectral acceptance has been measured. The energy output of the infrared radiation has been measured. Absorption characteristics of polystyrene and polythene sheets have been measured with the generated radiation; the main peaks correspond to spectrophotometric measurement.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. I. Avdienko, D. V. Badikov, V. V. Badikov, V. I. Chizikov, V. I. Panyutin, G. S. Shevyrdyaeva, S. I. Scherbakov, and E. S. Scherbakova, "Optical properties of thallium mercury iodide," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 23, 569-563 (2003).
  2. R. Deming, H. Jinzhe, Q. Yanchen, H. Xiaoyong, Z. Lili, Yu. M. Andreev, P. Griko, V. V. Badikov, G. Lanskii, and A. Tikhomirov, "Optical properties and CO2 laser SHG with HgGa2S4," Chin. Opt. Lett. 1, 613-615 (2003).
  3. W. Shi and Y. J. Ding, "Coherent radiation in the range of 15-28 µm in a cadmium-selenide crystal," Opt. Commun. 207, 273-277 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, "High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser," Opt. Commun. 83, 322-326 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. G. Schunemann, "Recent advances in nonlinear materials for 5-20 µm wavelength generation," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postconference Digest, Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 353-354.
  6. Yu. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Sherstov, "Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm," Quantum Electron. 31, 1075-1078 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, V. Balakrishna, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, "Improved crystal quality and harmonic generation in GaSe doped with indium," Opt. Lett. 22, 775-777 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. B. Singh, D. H. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, "Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588-592 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. A. Kaindle, M. Wurm, K. Reimann, P. Hann, A. M. Weiner, and M. Woener, "Generation, shaping, and characterization of intense femtosecond pulses tunable from 3-20 µm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 2086-2094 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. L. Ouder, P. J. Kupecek, and D. S. Chemla, "Medium infrared tunable down conversion of a YAG-pumped infrared dye laser in gallium selenide," Opt. Commun. 29, 119-122 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Bianchi and M. Garbi, "Down conversion in the 4-18 µm range with GaSe and AgGaSe2 nonlinear crystals," Opt. Commun. 30, 122-124 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. L. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dregachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared down conversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-312 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. S. Putnam and D. G. Lancaster, "Continuous-wave laser spectrometer automatically aligned and continuously tuned from 11.8to16.1 µm by use of diode-laser-pumped difference-frequency generation in GaSe," Appl. Opt. 38, 1513-1522 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, "2.8 µm pumped type-I and type-II traveling wave optical parametric generator in GaSe," Opt. Commun. 114, 333-335 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, "New dispersion relationships for GaSe in the −0.65-18 µm spectral range," Opt. Commun. 114, 375-378 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, X. Mu, and N. Fernelius, "Tunable and coherent nanosecond radiation in the range of 2.7-28.7 µm based on difference-frequency generation in gallium selenide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3889-3891 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Finsterbusch, A. Bayer, and H. Zacharias, "Tunable, narrow-band picosecond radiation in the mid-infrared by difference frequency mixing in GaSe and CdSe," Appl. Phys. B 79, 457-462 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel'ev, E. Y. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, "New efficient material for nonlinear optics," JETP Lett. 16, 90-91 (1972).
  19. E. Takaoka and K. Kato, "Temperature phase-matching properties for harmonic generation in GaSe," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 38, 2755-2759 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Finsterbusch, A. Bayer, and H. Zacharias, "Tunable, narrow-band picosecond radiation in the mid-infrared by difference frequency mixing in GaSe and CdSe," Appl. Phys. B 79, 457-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

K. I. Avdienko, D. V. Badikov, V. V. Badikov, V. I. Chizikov, V. I. Panyutin, G. S. Shevyrdyaeva, S. I. Scherbakov, and E. S. Scherbakova, "Optical properties of thallium mercury iodide," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 23, 569-563 (2003).

R. Deming, H. Jinzhe, Q. Yanchen, H. Xiaoyong, Z. Lili, Yu. M. Andreev, P. Griko, V. V. Badikov, G. Lanskii, and A. Tikhomirov, "Optical properties and CO2 laser SHG with HgGa2S4," Chin. Opt. Lett. 1, 613-615 (2003).

2002 (2)

W. Shi and Y. J. Ding, "Coherent radiation in the range of 15-28 µm in a cadmium-selenide crystal," Opt. Commun. 207, 273-277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, X. Mu, and N. Fernelius, "Tunable and coherent nanosecond radiation in the range of 2.7-28.7 µm based on difference-frequency generation in gallium selenide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3889-3891 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

N. B. Singh, D. H. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, "Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588-592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Putnam and D. G. Lancaster, "Continuous-wave laser spectrometer automatically aligned and continuously tuned from 11.8to16.1 µm by use of diode-laser-pumped difference-frequency generation in GaSe," Appl. Opt. 38, 1513-1522 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Takaoka and K. Kato, "Temperature phase-matching properties for harmonic generation in GaSe," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 38, 2755-2759 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. L. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dregachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared down conversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, "2.8 µm pumped type-I and type-II traveling wave optical parametric generator in GaSe," Opt. Commun. 114, 333-335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, "New dispersion relationships for GaSe in the −0.65-18 µm spectral range," Opt. Commun. 114, 375-378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, "High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser," Opt. Commun. 83, 322-326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yu. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Sherstov, "Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm," Quantum Electron. 31, 1075-1078 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

J. L. Ouder, P. J. Kupecek, and D. S. Chemla, "Medium infrared tunable down conversion of a YAG-pumped infrared dye laser in gallium selenide," Opt. Commun. 29, 119-122 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. Bianchi and M. Garbi, "Down conversion in the 4-18 µm range with GaSe and AgGaSe2 nonlinear crystals," Opt. Commun. 30, 122-124 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel'ev, E. Y. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, "New efficient material for nonlinear optics," JETP Lett. 16, 90-91 (1972).

Abdullaev, G. B.

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel'ev, E. Y. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, "New efficient material for nonlinear optics," JETP Lett. 16, 90-91 (1972).

Allakhverdiev, K. R.

K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, "High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser," Opt. Commun. 83, 322-326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, Yu. M.

R. Deming, H. Jinzhe, Q. Yanchen, H. Xiaoyong, Z. Lili, Yu. M. Andreev, P. Griko, V. V. Badikov, G. Lanskii, and A. Tikhomirov, "Optical properties and CO2 laser SHG with HgGa2S4," Chin. Opt. Lett. 1, 613-615 (2003).

Yu. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Sherstov, "Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm," Quantum Electron. 31, 1075-1078 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Avdienko, K. I.

K. I. Avdienko, D. V. Badikov, V. V. Badikov, V. I. Chizikov, V. I. Panyutin, G. S. Shevyrdyaeva, S. I. Scherbakov, and E. S. Scherbakova, "Optical properties of thallium mercury iodide," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 23, 569-563 (2003).

Badikov, D. V.

K. I. Avdienko, D. V. Badikov, V. V. Badikov, V. I. Chizikov, V. I. Panyutin, G. S. Shevyrdyaeva, S. I. Scherbakov, and E. S. Scherbakova, "Optical properties of thallium mercury iodide," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 23, 569-563 (2003).

Badikov, V. V.

K. I. Avdienko, D. V. Badikov, V. V. Badikov, V. I. Chizikov, V. I. Panyutin, G. S. Shevyrdyaeva, S. I. Scherbakov, and E. S. Scherbakova, "Optical properties of thallium mercury iodide," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 23, 569-563 (2003).

R. Deming, H. Jinzhe, Q. Yanchen, H. Xiaoyong, Z. Lili, Yu. M. Andreev, P. Griko, V. V. Badikov, G. Lanskii, and A. Tikhomirov, "Optical properties and CO2 laser SHG with HgGa2S4," Chin. Opt. Lett. 1, 613-615 (2003).

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. L. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dregachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared down conversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Sherstov, "Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm," Quantum Electron. 31, 1075-1078 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishna, V.

Bayer, A.

K. Finsterbusch, A. Bayer, and H. Zacharias, "Tunable, narrow-band picosecond radiation in the mid-infrared by difference frequency mixing in GaSe and CdSe," Appl. Phys. B 79, 457-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bianchi, A.

A. Bianchi and M. Garbi, "Down conversion in the 4-18 µm range with GaSe and AgGaSe2 nonlinear crystals," Opt. Commun. 30, 122-124 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

J. L. Ouder, P. J. Kupecek, and D. S. Chemla, "Medium infrared tunable down conversion of a YAG-pumped infrared dye laser in gallium selenide," Opt. Commun. 29, 119-122 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chizikov, V. I.

K. I. Avdienko, D. V. Badikov, V. V. Badikov, V. I. Chizikov, V. I. Panyutin, G. S. Shevyrdyaeva, S. I. Scherbakov, and E. S. Scherbakova, "Optical properties of thallium mercury iodide," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 23, 569-563 (2003).

Crouthamel, D. L.

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. L. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dregachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared down conversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deming, R.

Ding, Y. J.

W. Shi and Y. J. Ding, "Coherent radiation in the range of 15-28 µm in a cadmium-selenide crystal," Opt. Commun. 207, 273-277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, X. Mu, and N. Fernelius, "Tunable and coherent nanosecond radiation in the range of 2.7-28.7 µm based on difference-frequency generation in gallium selenide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3889-3891 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dregachev, A. Yu.

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. L. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dregachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared down conversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fernelius, N.

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, X. Mu, and N. Fernelius, "Tunable and coherent nanosecond radiation in the range of 2.7-28.7 µm based on difference-frequency generation in gallium selenide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3889-3891 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fernelius, N. C.

N. B. Singh, D. H. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, "Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588-592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, V. Balakrishna, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, "Improved crystal quality and harmonic generation in GaSe doped with indium," Opt. Lett. 22, 775-777 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finsterbusch, K.

K. Finsterbusch, A. Bayer, and H. Zacharias, "Tunable, narrow-band picosecond radiation in the mid-infrared by difference frequency mixing in GaSe and CdSe," Appl. Phys. B 79, 457-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garbi, M.

A. Bianchi and M. Garbi, "Down conversion in the 4-18 µm range with GaSe and AgGaSe2 nonlinear crystals," Opt. Commun. 30, 122-124 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Geiko, L. G.

Yu. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Sherstov, "Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm," Quantum Electron. 31, 1075-1078 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Geiko, P. P.

Yu. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Sherstov, "Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm," Quantum Electron. 31, 1075-1078 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gribenyukov, A. I.

K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, "High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser," Opt. Commun. 83, 322-326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Griko, P.

Hann, P.

Hopkins, F. K.

N. B. Singh, D. H. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, "Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588-592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, V. Balakrishna, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, "Improved crystal quality and harmonic generation in GaSe doped with indium," Opt. Lett. 22, 775-777 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivashchenko, M. V.

Yu. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Sherstov, "Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm," Quantum Electron. 31, 1075-1078 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, N.

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. L. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dregachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared down conversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jinzhe, H.

Kaindle, R. A.

Karapuzikov, A. I.

Yu. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Sherstov, "Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm," Quantum Electron. 31, 1075-1078 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

E. Takaoka and K. Kato, "Temperature phase-matching properties for harmonic generation in GaSe," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 38, 2755-2759 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kerimov, T. A.

K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, "High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser," Opt. Commun. 83, 322-326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kulevskii, L. A.

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, "New dispersion relationships for GaSe in the −0.65-18 µm spectral range," Opt. Commun. 114, 375-378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, "High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser," Opt. Commun. 83, 322-326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel'ev, E. Y. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, "New efficient material for nonlinear optics," JETP Lett. 16, 90-91 (1972).

Kupecek, P. J.

J. L. Ouder, P. J. Kupecek, and D. S. Chemla, "Medium infrared tunable down conversion of a YAG-pumped infrared dye laser in gallium selenide," Opt. Commun. 29, 119-122 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, D. G.

Lanskii, G.

Lee, W.

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. L. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dregachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared down conversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lili, Z.

Marable, M.

N. B. Singh, D. H. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, "Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588-592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, R.

N. B. Singh, D. H. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, "Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588-592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mirov, S. B.

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. L. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dregachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared down conversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mu, X.

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, X. Mu, and N. Fernelius, "Tunable and coherent nanosecond radiation in the range of 2.7-28.7 µm based on difference-frequency generation in gallium selenide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3889-3891 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Narayanan, R.

N. B. Singh, D. H. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, "Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588-592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Okorogu, A. O.

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. L. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dregachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared down conversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ouder, J. L.

J. L. Ouder, P. J. Kupecek, and D. S. Chemla, "Medium infrared tunable down conversion of a YAG-pumped infrared dye laser in gallium selenide," Opt. Commun. 29, 119-122 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Panyutin, V. I.

K. I. Avdienko, D. V. Badikov, V. V. Badikov, V. I. Chizikov, V. I. Panyutin, G. S. Shevyrdyaeva, S. I. Scherbakov, and E. S. Scherbakova, "Optical properties of thallium mercury iodide," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 23, 569-563 (2003).

Prokhorov, A. M.

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel'ev, E. Y. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, "New efficient material for nonlinear optics," JETP Lett. 16, 90-91 (1972).

Putnam, R. S.

Reimann, K.

Rosch, W.

N. B. Singh, D. H. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, "Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588-592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salaev, E. Y.

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel'ev, E. Y. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, "New efficient material for nonlinear optics," JETP Lett. 16, 90-91 (1972).

Savel'ev, A. D.

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel'ev, E. Y. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, "New efficient material for nonlinear optics," JETP Lett. 16, 90-91 (1972).

Scherbakov, S. I.

K. I. Avdienko, D. V. Badikov, V. V. Badikov, V. I. Chizikov, V. I. Panyutin, G. S. Shevyrdyaeva, S. I. Scherbakov, and E. S. Scherbakova, "Optical properties of thallium mercury iodide," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 23, 569-563 (2003).

Scherbakova, E. S.

K. I. Avdienko, D. V. Badikov, V. V. Badikov, V. I. Chizikov, V. I. Panyutin, G. S. Shevyrdyaeva, S. I. Scherbakov, and E. S. Scherbakova, "Optical properties of thallium mercury iodide," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 23, 569-563 (2003).

Schunemann, P. G.

P. G. Schunemann, "Recent advances in nonlinear materials for 5-20 µm wavelength generation," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postconference Digest, Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 353-354.

Sherstov, I. V.

Yu. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Sherstov, "Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm," Quantum Electron. 31, 1075-1078 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shevyrdyaeva, G. S.

K. I. Avdienko, D. V. Badikov, V. V. Badikov, V. I. Chizikov, V. I. Panyutin, G. S. Shevyrdyaeva, S. I. Scherbakov, and E. S. Scherbakova, "Optical properties of thallium mercury iodide," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 23, 569-563 (2003).

Shi, W.

W. Shi and Y. J. Ding, "Coherent radiation in the range of 15-28 µm in a cadmium-selenide crystal," Opt. Commun. 207, 273-277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, X. Mu, and N. Fernelius, "Tunable and coherent nanosecond radiation in the range of 2.7-28.7 µm based on difference-frequency generation in gallium selenide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3889-3891 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Singh, N. B.

N. B. Singh, D. H. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, "Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588-592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Suhre, N. B. Singh, V. Balakrishna, N. C. Fernelius, and F. K. Hopkins, "Improved crystal quality and harmonic generation in GaSe doped with indium," Opt. Lett. 22, 775-777 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnov, V. V.

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel'ev, E. Y. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, "New efficient material for nonlinear optics," JETP Lett. 16, 90-91 (1972).

Suhre, D. H.

N. B. Singh, D. H. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, "Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588-592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suhre, D. R.

Takaoka, E.

E. Takaoka and K. Kato, "Temperature phase-matching properties for harmonic generation in GaSe," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 38, 2755-2759 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tikhomirov, A.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. L. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dregachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared down conversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, "New dispersion relationships for GaSe in the −0.65-18 µm spectral range," Opt. Commun. 114, 375-378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, "2.8 µm pumped type-I and type-II traveling wave optical parametric generator in GaSe," Opt. Commun. 114, 333-335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, "High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser," Opt. Commun. 83, 322-326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Voevodin, V. G.

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, "2.8 µm pumped type-I and type-II traveling wave optical parametric generator in GaSe," Opt. Commun. 114, 333-335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, "High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser," Opt. Commun. 83, 322-326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yu. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Sherstov, "Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm," Quantum Electron. 31, 1075-1078 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Woener, M.

Wurm, M.

Xiaoyong, H.

Yanchen, Q.

Zacharias, H.

K. Finsterbusch, A. Bayer, and H. Zacharias, "Tunable, narrow-band picosecond radiation in the mid-infrared by difference frequency mixing in GaSe and CdSe," Appl. Phys. B 79, 457-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zelmon, D. E.

N. B. Singh, D. H. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, "Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588-592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

K. Finsterbusch, A. Bayer, and H. Zacharias, "Tunable, narrow-band picosecond radiation in the mid-infrared by difference frequency mixing in GaSe and CdSe," Appl. Phys. B 79, 457-462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, X. Mu, and N. Fernelius, "Tunable and coherent nanosecond radiation in the range of 2.7-28.7 µm based on difference-frequency generation in gallium selenide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3889-3891 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

N. B. Singh, D. H. Suhre, W. Rosch, R. Meyer, M. Marable, N. C. Fernelius, F. K. Hopkins, D. E. Zelmon, and R. Narayanan, "Modified GaSe crystals for mid-IR applications," J. Cryst. Growth 198, 588-592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

JETP Lett. (1)

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel'ev, E. Y. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, "New efficient material for nonlinear optics," JETP Lett. 16, 90-91 (1972).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 (1)

E. Takaoka and K. Kato, "Temperature phase-matching properties for harmonic generation in GaSe," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 38, 2755-2759 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (7)

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, "2.8 µm pumped type-I and type-II traveling wave optical parametric generator in GaSe," Opt. Commun. 114, 333-335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, "New dispersion relationships for GaSe in the −0.65-18 µm spectral range," Opt. Commun. 114, 375-378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Ouder, P. J. Kupecek, and D. S. Chemla, "Medium infrared tunable down conversion of a YAG-pumped infrared dye laser in gallium selenide," Opt. Commun. 29, 119-122 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. Bianchi and M. Garbi, "Down conversion in the 4-18 µm range with GaSe and AgGaSe2 nonlinear crystals," Opt. Commun. 30, 122-124 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Okorogu, S. B. Mirov, W. Lee, D. L. Crouthamel, N. Jenkins, A. Yu. Dregachev, K. L. Vodopyanov, and V. V. Badikov, "Tunable middle infrared down conversion in GaSe and AgGaS2," Opt. Commun. 155, 307-312 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi and Y. J. Ding, "Coherent radiation in the range of 15-28 µm in a cadmium-selenide crystal," Opt. Commun. 207, 273-277 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, "High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser," Opt. Commun. 83, 322-326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) (1)

K. I. Avdienko, D. V. Badikov, V. V. Badikov, V. I. Chizikov, V. I. Panyutin, G. S. Shevyrdyaeva, S. I. Scherbakov, and E. S. Scherbakova, "Optical properties of thallium mercury iodide," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 23, 569-563 (2003).

Quantum Electron. (1)

Yu. M. Andreev, V. V. Badikov, V. G. Voevodin, L. G. Geiko, P. P. Geiko, M. V. Ivashchenko, A. I. Karapuzikov, and I. V. Sherstov, "Radiation resistance of nonlinear crystals at a wavelength of 9.55 µm," Quantum Electron. 31, 1075-1078 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. G. Schunemann, "Recent advances in nonlinear materials for 5-20 µm wavelength generation," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postconference Digest, Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 353-354.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption coefficient throughout the transmission range of a 10 mm thick In-doped (0.5%) GaSe crystal. Here the curve shows spectrophotometric measurements, and the heavy dots denote measured values. The large absorption peak near 16 μ m is due to three-phonon absorption, and the small peak near 1 μ m is due to two-photon absorption. The inset shows the transmission characteristics of undoped and In-doped (0.5%) GaSe crystals. Curve 1 corresponds to transmission of the In-doped GaSe crystal and curve 2 corresponds to the undoped GaSe crystal[4]; both crystals are 10 mm thick.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic experimental arrangement for the generation of tunable coherent radiation in a 5 16 μ m spectral range. Here P1 and P2 are 90° polarization rotators for the dye laser and the 1.064 μ m radiations, respectively. M1, M2, M3, and M4 are the dichroic mirrors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angular tuning characteristics for IR generation by difference-frequency mixing in a GaSe:In crystal pumped by 1.064 μ m radiation from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Curves are the theoretical predictions. Here curves (1), (2), and (3) are from the Sellmeier coefficients of Abdullaev et al.,[18] Takaoka and Kato,[19] and Vodopyanov and Kulevskii,[15] respectively, and squares denote our measured phase-matched angles. Circles and triangles are the measured phase-matched angles reported by Takaoka and Kato[19] and Shi et al.,[16] respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration of angular acceptance measured at 10.64 μ m of an In-doped GaSe crystal for generation of IR radiation. Here squares are the measured points, and the curve is the theoretical prediction obtained from the Sellmeier coefficients of Abdullaev et al.[18]

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Illustration of phase-matched spectral acceptance measured at 10.64 μ m of an In-doped GaSe crystal for generation of IR radiation. Here squares are the measured points, and the curve is the theoretical prediction obtained from the Sellmeier coefficients of Abdullaev et al.[18]

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission characteristics of a polysterene sheet of thickness 20 μ m . Here dots are the measured points, and the curve is spectrophotometric measurements from a Shimazdu IR spectrophotometer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission characteristics of a polythene sheet of thickness 15 μ m . Here dots are the measured points, and the curve is spectrophotometric measurements from a Shimazdu IR spectrophotometer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured output energy of the IR radiation, which is dependent on NIR as well as dye laser energy. (a) The measured output energy of the dye laser radiation, (b) measured NIR energy, and (c) measured IR energy.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical and Mechanical Properties of Undoped and Doped GaSe at Room Temperature

Tables Icon

Table 2 Some of the Experimental Phase-matching Angles Reported by Takaoka and Kato et al. and Shi et al. at Different Wavelengths, including this Report

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