Abstract

A brief description of the basic spectroscopic properties of Tm3+-doped 20Ge-5Ga-10Sb-65S (GeGaSbS) glass is presented. Spontaneous-emission probabilities, radiative lifetimes, branching ratios, and quantum efficiency of Tm3+ in GeGaSbS glass are evaluated by use of Judd–Ofelt theory. Lifetime measurements are carried out at room and low temperatures. A large difference of the lifetime values occurs between the theoretical and experimental results. McCumber and Ladenburg–Funchtbauer techniques are used for the emission cross-section determinations. Discrepancies appear between these two techniques. Hypotheses about the presence of the diffusion-limited relaxation process are applied for explanations.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  31. D. R. Simson, A. J. Faber, and H. de Waal, 'GeSx glass for Pr3+-doped fiber amplifiers at 1.3 μm,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185, 283-288 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Scheffler, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and A. Schwuchow, 'Increased rare earth solubility in As-S glasses,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 59-62 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  36. R. S. Quimby and B. G. Aitken, 'Multiphonon energy gap law in rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 320, 100-112 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  37. T. Schweizer, P. E.-A. Möbert, J. R. Hector, D. W. Hewak, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and G. Huber, 'Optical measurement of narrow band rare-earth 4f levels with energies greater than the band gap of the host,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1537-1540 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  38. S. M. Lima, A. S. S. de Camargo, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and D. W. Hewak, 'Fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements of excitation and non-radiative de-excitation processes of rare earth 4f states in chalcogenide glasses,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 589-591 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (3)

L. Bigot, A.-M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, and J.-L. Adam, 'Inhomogeneous and homogeneous linewidths in Er3+-doped chalcogenide glasses,' Opt. Mater. 24, 97-102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, 'Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,' Opt. Mater. 24, 563-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby and B. G. Aitken, 'Multiphonon energy gap law in rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 320, 100-112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

S. M. Lima, A. S. S. de Camargo, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and D. W. Hewak, 'Fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements of excitation and non-radiative de-excitation processes of rare earth 4f states in chalcogenide glasses,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 589-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Cornacchia, L. Palatella, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, A. Baraldi, R. Capelletti, E. Cavalli, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, 'Temperature dependence of impurity quenched luminescence in Tm3+:LiLuF4,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 197-202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Jurdyc, G. Rault, W. Meffre, J. Le Person, S. Guy, F. Smektala, and J. L. Adam, 'Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in GeGaSbS glasses,' Proc. SPIE 4645, 79-84 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (2)

M. Scheffler, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and A. Schwuchow, 'Increased rare earth solubility in As-S glasses,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 59-62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, 'Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,' J. Comp. Neurol. 256-257, 378-382 (1999).

1998 (3)

T. Schweizer, P. E.-A. Möbert, J. R. Hector, D. W. Hewak, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and G. Huber, 'Optical measurement of narrow band rare-earth 4f levels with energies greater than the band gap of the host,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1537-1540 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Naftaly, A. Jha, and W. G. Jordan, '1.3 μm fluorescence quenching in Pr-doped glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1800-1804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Adam, Y. Guimond, A. M. Jurdyc, L. Griscom, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, 'Optical properties of stabilized Dy3+-doped sulfide glasses for 1.3-μm amplification,' Proc. SPIE 3280, 31-39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

B. B. Harbison, C. I. Merzbacher, and I. D. Aggarwal, 'Preparation and properties of BaS-Ga2S3-GeS2 glasses,' J. Comp. Neurol. 213-214, 16-21 (1997).

K. Abe, H. Takebe, and K. Morigana, 'Preparation and properties of Ge-Ga-S glasses for laser hosts,' J. Comp. Neurol. 212, 143-150 (1997).

1995 (3)

D. R. Simson, A. J. Faber, and H. de Waal, 'GeSx glass for Pr3+-doped fiber amplifiers at 1.3 μm,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185, 283-288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Wenzel, K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., 'Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-S glasses for 1.3 μm optical fiber amplifiers,' J. Comp. Neurol. 182, 257-261 (1995).

J. A. M. Neto, E. Taylor, B. N. Samson, J. Wang, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, E. Tarbox, P. D. Maton, G. M. Roba, B. E. Kinsman, and R. Hanney, 'The application of Ga:La:S based glass for optical amplification at 1.3 microns,' J. Comp. Neurol. 184, 292-296 (1995).

1994 (2)

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, 'Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulphide chalcogenide fiber for 1.3 μm fiber amplifier,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 13-15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, 'Spectroscopy of Dy3+ in Ge-Ga-S glass and its suitability for 1.3-μm fiber-optical amplifier applications,' Opt. Lett. 19, 904-906 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, '1.47 μm band Tm3+ doped fluoride fibre amplifier using a 1.064 μm up-conversion pumping scheme,' Electron. Lett. 29, 110-112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J. L. Adam, and M. J. Suscavage, 'Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,' Phys. Rev. B 39, 80-90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (2)

R. Reisfeld, 'Chalcogenide glasses doped by rare earths--structure and optical properties,' Ann. Chim. (Paris) 7, 147-160 (1982).

R. Reisfeld, 'Chalcogenide glasses doped by rare earths-structure and optical properties,' Ann. Chim. (Paris) 7, 147-160 (1982).

1977 (1)

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, and L. Boehm, 'Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+(4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49-53 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, 'Verres fluorés au tetrafluorure de zirconium; propriétés optiques d'un verre dopé au Nd3+,' Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 43 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, and B. H. Matsinger, 'Optical intensities of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,' Phys. Rev. B 8, 47-53 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

J. P. Van der Ziel, L. Korf, and L. G. van Uitert, 'Quenching of Tb3+ luminescence by direct transfer and migration in aluminum garnets,' Phys. Rev. B 6, 615-623 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

M. J. Weber, 'Luminescence decay by energy migration and transfer: observation of diffusion-limited relaxation,' Phys. Rev. B 4, 2932-2939 (1971), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, 'Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,' Phys. Rev. 136, A954 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, 'Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,' Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, 'Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth Ions,' J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Abe, K.

K. Abe, H. Takebe, and K. Morigana, 'Preparation and properties of Ge-Ga-S glasses for laser hosts,' J. Comp. Neurol. 212, 143-150 (1997).

Adam, J. L.

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, 'Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,' Opt. Mater. 24, 563-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Jurdyc, G. Rault, W. Meffre, J. Le Person, S. Guy, F. Smektala, and J. L. Adam, 'Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in GeGaSbS glasses,' Proc. SPIE 4645, 79-84 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, 'Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,' J. Comp. Neurol. 256-257, 378-382 (1999).

J. L. Adam, Y. Guimond, A. M. Jurdyc, L. Griscom, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, 'Optical properties of stabilized Dy3+-doped sulfide glasses for 1.3-μm amplification,' Proc. SPIE 3280, 31-39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J. L. Adam, and M. J. Suscavage, 'Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,' Phys. Rev. B 39, 80-90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Jurdyc, V. G. Truong, B. Jacquier, V. Nazabal, J. Leperson, and J. L. Adam, 'Sulphide glasses for optical amplifiers,' in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Photonics and Applications: Advances in Photonics and Applications (IWPA, 2004), pp. 201-208.

Adam, J.-L.

L. Bigot, A.-M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, and J.-L. Adam, 'Inhomogeneous and homogeneous linewidths in Er3+-doped chalcogenide glasses,' Opt. Mater. 24, 97-102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

B. B. Harbison, C. I. Merzbacher, and I. D. Aggarwal, 'Preparation and properties of BaS-Ga2S3-GeS2 glasses,' J. Comp. Neurol. 213-214, 16-21 (1997).

Aitken, B. G.

R. S. Quimby and B. G. Aitken, 'Multiphonon energy gap law in rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 320, 100-112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Awai, I.

Baniel, P.

F. Roy, A. LeSauze, P. Baniel, and D. Bayart, '0.8 μm+1.4 μm pumping for gain-shifted TDFA with power conversion efficiency exceeding 50%,' in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, N.E.Jolley, J.D.Minelly, and Y.Nakano, eds. (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper PD4-1-PD4-3.

Baraldi, A.

F. Cornacchia, L. Palatella, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, A. Baraldi, R. Capelletti, E. Cavalli, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, 'Temperature dependence of impurity quenched luminescence in Tm3+:LiLuF4,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 197-202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bayart, D.

F. Roy, A. LeSauze, P. Baniel, and D. Bayart, '0.8 μm+1.4 μm pumping for gain-shifted TDFA with power conversion efficiency exceeding 50%,' in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, N.E.Jolley, J.D.Minelly, and Y.Nakano, eds. (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper PD4-1-PD4-3.

Bigot, L.

L. Bigot, A.-M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, and J.-L. Adam, 'Inhomogeneous and homogeneous linewidths in Er3+-doped chalcogenide glasses,' Opt. Mater. 24, 97-102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boehm, L.

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, and L. Boehm, 'Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+(4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49-53 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Brocklesby, W. S.

T. Schweizer, F. Goutaland, E. Martins, D. W. Hewak, and W. S. Brocklesby, 'Site-selective spectroscopy in dysprosium-doped chalcogenide glasses for 1.3-μm optical-fiber amplifiers,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1436-1442 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, P. E.-A. Möbert, J. R. Hector, D. W. Hewak, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and G. Huber, 'Optical measurement of narrow band rare-earth 4f levels with energies greater than the band gap of the host,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1537-1540 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brun, P.

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, 'Verres fluorés au tetrafluorure de zirconium; propriétés optiques d'un verre dopé au Nd3+,' Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 43 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Capelletti, R.

F. Cornacchia, L. Palatella, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, A. Baraldi, R. Capelletti, E. Cavalli, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, 'Temperature dependence of impurity quenched luminescence in Tm3+:LiLuF4,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 197-202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Catunda, T.

S. M. Lima, A. S. S. de Camargo, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and D. W. Hewak, 'Fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements of excitation and non-radiative de-excitation processes of rare earth 4f states in chalcogenide glasses,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 589-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cavalli, E.

F. Cornacchia, L. Palatella, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, A. Baraldi, R. Capelletti, E. Cavalli, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, 'Temperature dependence of impurity quenched luminescence in Tm3+:LiLuF4,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 197-202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cornacchia, F.

F. Cornacchia, L. Palatella, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, A. Baraldi, R. Capelletti, E. Cavalli, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, 'Temperature dependence of impurity quenched luminescence in Tm3+:LiLuF4,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 197-202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Camargo, A. S. S.

S. M. Lima, A. S. S. de Camargo, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and D. W. Hewak, 'Fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements of excitation and non-radiative de-excitation processes of rare earth 4f states in chalcogenide glasses,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 589-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Waal, H.

D. R. Simson, A. J. Faber, and H. de Waal, 'GeSx glass for Pr3+-doped fiber amplifiers at 1.3 μm,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185, 283-288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J. L.

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, 'Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,' Opt. Mater. 24, 563-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faber, A. J.

D. R. Simson, A. J. Faber, and H. de Waal, 'GeSx glass for Pr3+-doped fiber amplifiers at 1.3 μm,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185, 283-288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fujiura, K.

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, 'Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulphide chalcogenide fiber for 1.3 μm fiber amplifier,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 13-15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, T.

F. Cornacchia, L. Palatella, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, A. Baraldi, R. Capelletti, E. Cavalli, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, 'Temperature dependence of impurity quenched luminescence in Tm3+:LiLuF4,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 197-202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Girard, S.

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, 'Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,' Opt. Mater. 24, 563-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goutaland, F.

Griscom, L.

J. L. Adam, Y. Guimond, A. M. Jurdyc, L. Griscom, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, 'Optical properties of stabilized Dy3+-doped sulfide glasses for 1.3-μm amplification,' Proc. SPIE 3280, 31-39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guimond, Y.

Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, 'Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,' J. Comp. Neurol. 256-257, 378-382 (1999).

J. L. Adam, Y. Guimond, A. M. Jurdyc, L. Griscom, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, 'Optical properties of stabilized Dy3+-doped sulfide glasses for 1.3-μm amplification,' Proc. SPIE 3280, 31-39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guy, S.

A. M. Jurdyc, G. Rault, W. Meffre, J. Le Person, S. Guy, F. Smektala, and J. L. Adam, 'Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in GeGaSbS glasses,' Proc. SPIE 4645, 79-84 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hanney, R.

J. A. M. Neto, E. Taylor, B. N. Samson, J. Wang, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, E. Tarbox, P. D. Maton, G. M. Roba, B. E. Kinsman, and R. Hanney, 'The application of Ga:La:S based glass for optical amplification at 1.3 microns,' J. Comp. Neurol. 184, 292-296 (1995).

Haquin, H.

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, 'Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,' Opt. Mater. 24, 563-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harbison, B. B.

B. B. Harbison, C. I. Merzbacher, and I. D. Aggarwal, 'Preparation and properties of BaS-Ga2S3-GeS2 glasses,' J. Comp. Neurol. 213-214, 16-21 (1997).

Hector, J. R.

T. Schweizer, P. E.-A. Möbert, J. R. Hector, D. W. Hewak, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and G. Huber, 'Optical measurement of narrow band rare-earth 4f levels with energies greater than the band gap of the host,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1537-1540 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

S. M. Lima, A. S. S. de Camargo, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and D. W. Hewak, 'Fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements of excitation and non-radiative de-excitation processes of rare earth 4f states in chalcogenide glasses,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 589-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, F. Goutaland, E. Martins, D. W. Hewak, and W. S. Brocklesby, 'Site-selective spectroscopy in dysprosium-doped chalcogenide glasses for 1.3-μm optical-fiber amplifiers,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1436-1442 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, P. E.-A. Möbert, J. R. Hector, D. W. Hewak, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and G. Huber, 'Optical measurement of narrow band rare-earth 4f levels with energies greater than the band gap of the host,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1537-1540 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. M. Neto, E. Taylor, B. N. Samson, J. Wang, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, E. Tarbox, P. D. Maton, G. M. Roba, B. E. Kinsman, and R. Hanney, 'The application of Ga:La:S based glass for optical amplification at 1.3 microns,' J. Comp. Neurol. 184, 292-296 (1995).

Huber, G.

T. Schweizer, P. E.-A. Möbert, J. R. Hector, D. W. Hewak, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and G. Huber, 'Optical measurement of narrow band rare-earth 4f levels with energies greater than the band gap of the host,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1537-1540 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ikenoue, J.

Jacquier, B.

L. Bigot, A.-M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, and J.-L. Adam, 'Inhomogeneous and homogeneous linewidths in Er3+-doped chalcogenide glasses,' Opt. Mater. 24, 97-102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, 'Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,' J. Comp. Neurol. 256-257, 378-382 (1999).

J. L. Adam, Y. Guimond, A. M. Jurdyc, L. Griscom, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, 'Optical properties of stabilized Dy3+-doped sulfide glasses for 1.3-μm amplification,' Proc. SPIE 3280, 31-39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Jurdyc, V. G. Truong, B. Jacquier, V. Nazabal, J. Leperson, and J. L. Adam, 'Sulphide glasses for optical amplifiers,' in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Photonics and Applications: Advances in Photonics and Applications (IWPA, 2004), pp. 201-208.

Jha, A.

M. Naftaly, A. Jha, and W. G. Jordan, '1.3 μm fluorescence quenching in Pr-doped glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1800-1804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, W. G.

M. Naftaly, A. Jha, and W. G. Jordan, '1.3 μm fluorescence quenching in Pr-doped glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1800-1804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, 'Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,' Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Jurdyc, A. M.

A. M. Jurdyc, G. Rault, W. Meffre, J. Le Person, S. Guy, F. Smektala, and J. L. Adam, 'Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in GeGaSbS glasses,' Proc. SPIE 4645, 79-84 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, 'Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,' J. Comp. Neurol. 256-257, 378-382 (1999).

J. L. Adam, Y. Guimond, A. M. Jurdyc, L. Griscom, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, 'Optical properties of stabilized Dy3+-doped sulfide glasses for 1.3-μm amplification,' Proc. SPIE 3280, 31-39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Jurdyc, V. G. Truong, B. Jacquier, V. Nazabal, J. Leperson, and J. L. Adam, 'Sulphide glasses for optical amplifiers,' in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Photonics and Applications: Advances in Photonics and Applications (IWPA, 2004), pp. 201-208.

Jurdyc, A.-M.

L. Bigot, A.-M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, and J.-L. Adam, 'Inhomogeneous and homogeneous linewidths in Er3+-doped chalcogenide glasses,' Opt. Mater. 24, 97-102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, T.

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, 'Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulphide chalcogenide fiber for 1.3 μm fiber amplifier,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 13-15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, T. Kitagawa, S. Takahashi, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Siegel, 'Pr3+-doped fluoride fiber amplifier operating at 1.3 μm,' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1991), paper PD2.

Kinsman, B. E.

J. A. M. Neto, E. Taylor, B. N. Samson, J. Wang, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, E. Tarbox, P. D. Maton, G. M. Roba, B. E. Kinsman, and R. Hanney, 'The application of Ga:La:S based glass for optical amplification at 1.3 microns,' J. Comp. Neurol. 184, 292-296 (1995).

Kirchhof, J.

M. Scheffler, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and A. Schwuchow, 'Increased rare earth solubility in As-S glasses,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 59-62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kitagawa, T.

Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, T. Kitagawa, S. Takahashi, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Siegel, 'Pr3+-doped fluoride fiber amplifier operating at 1.3 μm,' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1991), paper PD2.

Kobelke, J.

M. Scheffler, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and A. Schwuchow, 'Increased rare earth solubility in As-S glasses,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 59-62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Komukai, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, '1.47 μm band Tm3+ doped fluoride fibre amplifier using a 1.064 μm up-conversion pumping scheme,' Electron. Lett. 29, 110-112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Korf, L.

J. P. Van der Ziel, L. Korf, and L. G. van Uitert, 'Quenching of Tb3+ luminescence by direct transfer and migration in aluminum garnets,' Phys. Rev. B 6, 615-623 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

J. A. M. Neto, E. Taylor, B. N. Samson, J. Wang, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, E. Tarbox, P. D. Maton, G. M. Roba, B. E. Kinsman, and R. Hanney, 'The application of Ga:La:S based glass for optical amplification at 1.3 microns,' J. Comp. Neurol. 184, 292-296 (1995).

Le Person, J.

A. M. Jurdyc, G. Rault, W. Meffre, J. Le Person, S. Guy, F. Smektala, and J. L. Adam, 'Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in GeGaSbS glasses,' Proc. SPIE 4645, 79-84 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leperson, J.

A. M. Jurdyc, V. G. Truong, B. Jacquier, V. Nazabal, J. Leperson, and J. L. Adam, 'Sulphide glasses for optical amplifiers,' in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Photonics and Applications: Advances in Photonics and Applications (IWPA, 2004), pp. 201-208.

LeSauze, A.

F. Roy, A. LeSauze, P. Baniel, and D. Bayart, '0.8 μm+1.4 μm pumping for gain-shifted TDFA with power conversion efficiency exceeding 50%,' in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, N.E.Jolley, J.D.Minelly, and Y.Nakano, eds. (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper PD4-1-PD4-3.

Lima, S. M.

S. M. Lima, A. S. S. de Camargo, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and D. W. Hewak, 'Fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements of excitation and non-radiative de-excitation processes of rare earth 4f states in chalcogenide glasses,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 589-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, 'Verres fluorés au tetrafluorure de zirconium; propriétés optiques d'un verre dopé au Nd3+,' Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 43 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H. L.

Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, 'Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,' J. Comp. Neurol. 256-257, 378-382 (1999).

Machewirth, D. P.

J. Wenzel, K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., 'Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-S glasses for 1.3 μm optical fiber amplifiers,' J. Comp. Neurol. 182, 257-261 (1995).

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, 'Spectroscopy of Dy3+ in Ge-Ga-S glass and its suitability for 1.3-μm fiber-optical amplifier applications,' Opt. Lett. 19, 904-906 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madigou, V.

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J. L. Adam, and M. J. Suscavage, 'Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,' Phys. Rev. B 39, 80-90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Martins, E.

Maton, P. D.

J. A. M. Neto, E. Taylor, B. N. Samson, J. Wang, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, E. Tarbox, P. D. Maton, G. M. Roba, B. E. Kinsman, and R. Hanney, 'The application of Ga:La:S based glass for optical amplification at 1.3 microns,' J. Comp. Neurol. 184, 292-296 (1995).

Matsinger, B. H.

M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, and B. H. Matsinger, 'Optical intensities of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,' Phys. Rev. B 8, 47-53 (1973).
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, 'Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,' Phys. Rev. 136, A954 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Meffre, W.

A. M. Jurdyc, G. Rault, W. Meffre, J. Le Person, S. Guy, F. Smektala, and J. L. Adam, 'Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in GeGaSbS glasses,' Proc. SPIE 4645, 79-84 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Merzbacher, C. I.

B. B. Harbison, C. I. Merzbacher, and I. D. Aggarwal, 'Preparation and properties of BaS-Ga2S3-GeS2 glasses,' J. Comp. Neurol. 213-214, 16-21 (1997).

Miniscalco, W. J.

Miyajima, Y.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, '1.47 μm band Tm3+ doped fluoride fibre amplifier using a 1.064 μm up-conversion pumping scheme,' Electron. Lett. 29, 110-112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Möbert, P. E.-A.

T. Schweizer, P. E.-A. Möbert, J. R. Hector, D. W. Hewak, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and G. Huber, 'Optical measurement of narrow band rare-earth 4f levels with energies greater than the band gap of the host,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1537-1540 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Montagne, J.

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, 'Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,' Opt. Mater. 24, 563-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mori, A.

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, 'Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulphide chalcogenide fiber for 1.3 μm fiber amplifier,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 13-15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morigana, K.

K. Abe, H. Takebe, and K. Morigana, 'Preparation and properties of Ge-Ga-S glasses for laser hosts,' J. Comp. Neurol. 212, 143-150 (1997).

Mugnier, J.

Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, 'Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,' J. Comp. Neurol. 256-257, 378-382 (1999).

J. L. Adam, Y. Guimond, A. M. Jurdyc, L. Griscom, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, 'Optical properties of stabilized Dy3+-doped sulfide glasses for 1.3-μm amplification,' Proc. SPIE 3280, 31-39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Naftaly, M.

M. Naftaly, A. Jha, and W. G. Jordan, '1.3 μm fluorescence quenching in Pr-doped glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1800-1804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nazabal, V.

A. M. Jurdyc, V. G. Truong, B. Jacquier, V. Nazabal, J. Leperson, and J. L. Adam, 'Sulphide glasses for optical amplifiers,' in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Photonics and Applications: Advances in Photonics and Applications (IWPA, 2004), pp. 201-208.

Neto, J. A. M.

J. A. M. Neto, E. Taylor, B. N. Samson, J. Wang, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, E. Tarbox, P. D. Maton, G. M. Roba, B. E. Kinsman, and R. Hanney, 'The application of Ga:La:S based glass for optical amplification at 1.3 microns,' J. Comp. Neurol. 184, 292-296 (1995).

Nunes, L. A. O.

S. M. Lima, A. S. S. de Camargo, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and D. W. Hewak, 'Fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements of excitation and non-radiative de-excitation processes of rare earth 4f states in chalcogenide glasses,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 589-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, 'Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth Ions,' J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, 'Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulphide chalcogenide fiber for 1.3 μm fiber amplifier,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 13-15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, T. Kitagawa, S. Takahashi, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Siegel, 'Pr3+-doped fluoride fiber amplifier operating at 1.3 μm,' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1991), paper PD2.

Onodera, H.

Palatella, L.

F. Cornacchia, L. Palatella, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, A. Baraldi, R. Capelletti, E. Cavalli, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, 'Temperature dependence of impurity quenched luminescence in Tm3+:LiLuF4,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 197-202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

T. Schweizer, P. E.-A. Möbert, J. R. Hector, D. W. Hewak, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and G. Huber, 'Optical measurement of narrow band rare-earth 4f levels with energies greater than the band gap of the host,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1537-1540 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. M. Neto, E. Taylor, B. N. Samson, J. Wang, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, E. Tarbox, P. D. Maton, G. M. Roba, B. E. Kinsman, and R. Hanney, 'The application of Ga:La:S based glass for optical amplification at 1.3 microns,' J. Comp. Neurol. 184, 292-296 (1995).

Petrin, R. R.

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J. L. Adam, and M. J. Suscavage, 'Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,' Phys. Rev. B 39, 80-90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Poulain, M.

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, 'Verres fluorés au tetrafluorure de zirconium; propriétés optiques d'un verre dopé au Nd3+,' Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 43 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, 'Verres fluorés au tetrafluorure de zirconium; propriétés optiques d'un verre dopé au Nd3+,' Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 43 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby and B. G. Aitken, 'Multiphonon energy gap law in rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 320, 100-112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Miniscalco and R. S. Quimby, 'General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross section,' Opt. Lett. 16, 258-260 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rault, G.

A. M. Jurdyc, G. Rault, W. Meffre, J. Le Person, S. Guy, F. Smektala, and J. L. Adam, 'Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in GeGaSbS glasses,' Proc. SPIE 4645, 79-84 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reisfeld, R.

R. Reisfeld, 'Chalcogenide glasses doped by rare earths-structure and optical properties,' Ann. Chim. (Paris) 7, 147-160 (1982).

R. Reisfeld, 'Chalcogenide glasses doped by rare earths--structure and optical properties,' Ann. Chim. (Paris) 7, 147-160 (1982).

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, and L. Boehm, 'Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+(4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49-53 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Roba, G. M.

J. A. M. Neto, E. Taylor, B. N. Samson, J. Wang, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, E. Tarbox, P. D. Maton, G. M. Roba, B. E. Kinsman, and R. Hanney, 'The application of Ga:La:S based glass for optical amplification at 1.3 microns,' J. Comp. Neurol. 184, 292-296 (1995).

Roy, F.

F. Roy, A. LeSauze, P. Baniel, and D. Bayart, '0.8 μm+1.4 μm pumping for gain-shifted TDFA with power conversion efficiency exceeding 50%,' in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, N.E.Jolley, J.D.Minelly, and Y.Nakano, eds. (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper PD4-1-PD4-3.

Sakaguchi, S.

S. Sakaguchi and S. Todoroki, 'Transmission of silica glass,' in Glass and Rare Earth-Doped Glasses for Optical Fibres, D.W.Hewak, ed. (INSPEC, 1997), Chap. 1, p. 3.

Samson, B. N.

J. A. M. Neto, E. Taylor, B. N. Samson, J. Wang, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, E. Tarbox, P. D. Maton, G. M. Roba, B. E. Kinsman, and R. Hanney, 'The application of Ga:La:S based glass for optical amplification at 1.3 microns,' J. Comp. Neurol. 184, 292-296 (1995).

Scheffler, M.

M. Scheffler, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and A. Schwuchow, 'Increased rare earth solubility in As-S glasses,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 59-62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, K.

M. Scheffler, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and A. Schwuchow, 'Increased rare earth solubility in As-S glasses,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 59-62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, T.

T. Schweizer, F. Goutaland, E. Martins, D. W. Hewak, and W. S. Brocklesby, 'Site-selective spectroscopy in dysprosium-doped chalcogenide glasses for 1.3-μm optical-fiber amplifiers,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1436-1442 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, P. E.-A. Möbert, J. R. Hector, D. W. Hewak, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and G. Huber, 'Optical measurement of narrow band rare-earth 4f levels with energies greater than the band gap of the host,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1537-1540 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schwuchow, A.

M. Scheffler, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and A. Schwuchow, 'Increased rare earth solubility in As-S glasses,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 59-62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shimamura, K.

F. Cornacchia, L. Palatella, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, A. Baraldi, R. Capelletti, E. Cavalli, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, 'Temperature dependence of impurity quenched luminescence in Tm3+:LiLuF4,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 197-202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sibley, W. A.

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J. L. Adam, and M. J. Suscavage, 'Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,' Phys. Rev. B 39, 80-90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, G. H.

Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, T. Kitagawa, S. Takahashi, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Siegel, 'Pr3+-doped fluoride fiber amplifier operating at 1.3 μm,' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1991), paper PD2.

Sigel, G. H.

J. Wenzel, K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., 'Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-S glasses for 1.3 μm optical fiber amplifiers,' J. Comp. Neurol. 182, 257-261 (1995).

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, 'Spectroscopy of Dy3+ in Ge-Ga-S glass and its suitability for 1.3-μm fiber-optical amplifier applications,' Opt. Lett. 19, 904-906 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simson, D. R.

D. R. Simson, A. J. Faber, and H. de Waal, 'GeSx glass for Pr3+-doped fiber amplifiers at 1.3 μm,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185, 283-288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

A. M. Jurdyc, G. Rault, W. Meffre, J. Le Person, S. Guy, F. Smektala, and J. L. Adam, 'Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in GeGaSbS glasses,' Proc. SPIE 4645, 79-84 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

J. Wenzel, K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., 'Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-S glasses for 1.3 μm optical fiber amplifiers,' J. Comp. Neurol. 182, 257-261 (1995).

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, 'Spectroscopy of Dy3+ in Ge-Ga-S glass and its suitability for 1.3-μm fiber-optical amplifier applications,' Opt. Lett. 19, 904-906 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, T. Kitagawa, S. Takahashi, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Siegel, 'Pr3+-doped fluoride fiber amplifier operating at 1.3 μm,' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1991), paper PD2.

Spector, N.

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, and L. Boehm, 'Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+(4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49-53 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sudo, S.

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, 'Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulphide chalcogenide fiber for 1.3 μm fiber amplifier,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 13-15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sugawa, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, '1.47 μm band Tm3+ doped fluoride fibre amplifier using a 1.064 μm up-conversion pumping scheme,' Electron. Lett. 29, 110-112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Suscavage, M. J.

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J. L. Adam, and M. J. Suscavage, 'Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,' Phys. Rev. B 39, 80-90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, T. Kitagawa, S. Takahashi, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Siegel, 'Pr3+-doped fluoride fiber amplifier operating at 1.3 μm,' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1991), paper PD2.

Takebe, H.

K. Abe, H. Takebe, and K. Morigana, 'Preparation and properties of Ge-Ga-S glasses for laser hosts,' J. Comp. Neurol. 212, 143-150 (1997).

Tarbox, E.

J. A. M. Neto, E. Taylor, B. N. Samson, J. Wang, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, E. Tarbox, P. D. Maton, G. M. Roba, B. E. Kinsman, and R. Hanney, 'The application of Ga:La:S based glass for optical amplification at 1.3 microns,' J. Comp. Neurol. 184, 292-296 (1995).

Taylor, E.

J. A. M. Neto, E. Taylor, B. N. Samson, J. Wang, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, E. Tarbox, P. D. Maton, G. M. Roba, B. E. Kinsman, and R. Hanney, 'The application of Ga:La:S based glass for optical amplification at 1.3 microns,' J. Comp. Neurol. 184, 292-296 (1995).

Todoroki, S.

S. Sakaguchi and S. Todoroki, 'Transmission of silica glass,' in Glass and Rare Earth-Doped Glasses for Optical Fibres, D.W.Hewak, ed. (INSPEC, 1997), Chap. 1, p. 3.

Toncelli, A.

F. Cornacchia, L. Palatella, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, A. Baraldi, R. Capelletti, E. Cavalli, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, 'Temperature dependence of impurity quenched luminescence in Tm3+:LiLuF4,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 197-202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, M.

F. Cornacchia, L. Palatella, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, A. Baraldi, R. Capelletti, E. Cavalli, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, 'Temperature dependence of impurity quenched luminescence in Tm3+:LiLuF4,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 197-202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Truong, V. G.

V. G. Truong, 'Thulium spectroscopy in sulphide glasses for optical amplifier application,' doctoral thesis (Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, 2004).

A. M. Jurdyc, V. G. Truong, B. Jacquier, V. Nazabal, J. Leperson, and J. L. Adam, 'Sulphide glasses for optical amplifiers,' in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Photonics and Applications: Advances in Photonics and Applications (IWPA, 2004), pp. 201-208.

Van der Ziel, J. P.

J. P. Van der Ziel, L. Korf, and L. G. van Uitert, 'Quenching of Tb3+ luminescence by direct transfer and migration in aluminum garnets,' Phys. Rev. B 6, 615-623 (1972).
[CrossRef]

van Uitert, L. G.

J. P. Van der Ziel, L. Korf, and L. G. van Uitert, 'Quenching of Tb3+ luminescence by direct transfer and migration in aluminum garnets,' Phys. Rev. B 6, 615-623 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Varitimos, T. E.

M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, and B. H. Matsinger, 'Optical intensities of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,' Phys. Rev. B 8, 47-53 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. A. M. Neto, E. Taylor, B. N. Samson, J. Wang, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, E. Tarbox, P. D. Maton, G. M. Roba, B. E. Kinsman, and R. Hanney, 'The application of Ga:La:S based glass for optical amplification at 1.3 microns,' J. Comp. Neurol. 184, 292-296 (1995).

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, and B. H. Matsinger, 'Optical intensities of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,' Phys. Rev. B 8, 47-53 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, 'Luminescence decay by energy migration and transfer: observation of diffusion-limited relaxation,' Phys. Rev. B 4, 2932-2939 (1971), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Wei, K.

J. Wenzel, K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., 'Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-S glasses for 1.3 μm optical fiber amplifiers,' J. Comp. Neurol. 182, 257-261 (1995).

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, 'Spectroscopy of Dy3+ in Ge-Ga-S glass and its suitability for 1.3-μm fiber-optical amplifier applications,' Opt. Lett. 19, 904-906 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenzel, J.

J. Wenzel, K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., 'Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-S glasses for 1.3 μm optical fiber amplifiers,' J. Comp. Neurol. 182, 257-261 (1995).

J. Wenzel, K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., 'Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-S glasses for 1.3 μm optical fiber amplifiers,' J. Comp. Neurol. 182, 257-261 (1995).

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, 'Spectroscopy of Dy3+ in Ge-Ga-S glass and its suitability for 1.3-μm fiber-optical amplifier applications,' Opt. Lett. 19, 904-906 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, '1.47 μm band Tm3+ doped fluoride fibre amplifier using a 1.064 μm up-conversion pumping scheme,' Electron. Lett. 29, 110-112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D. C.

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J. L. Adam, and M. J. Suscavage, 'Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,' Phys. Rev. B 39, 80-90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Chim. (Paris) (2)

R. Reisfeld, 'Chalcogenide glasses doped by rare earths-structure and optical properties,' Ann. Chim. (Paris) 7, 147-160 (1982).

R. Reisfeld, 'Chalcogenide glasses doped by rare earths--structure and optical properties,' Ann. Chim. (Paris) 7, 147-160 (1982).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, 'Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulphide chalcogenide fiber for 1.3 μm fiber amplifier,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 13-15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Lima, A. S. S. de Camargo, L. A. O. Nunes, T. Catunda, and D. W. Hewak, 'Fluorescence quantum efficiency measurements of excitation and non-radiative de-excitation processes of rare earth 4f states in chalcogenide glasses,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 589-591 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, and L. Boehm, 'Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+(4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49-53 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, '1.47 μm band Tm3+ doped fluoride fibre amplifier using a 1.064 μm up-conversion pumping scheme,' Electron. Lett. 29, 110-112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Naftaly, A. Jha, and W. G. Jordan, '1.3 μm fluorescence quenching in Pr-doped glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1800-1804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. S. Ofelt, 'Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth Ions,' J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Comp. Neurol. (5)

Y. Guimond, J. L. Adam, A. M. Jurdyc, H. L. Ma, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, 'Optical properties of antimony-stabilised sulphide glasses doped with Dy3+ and Er3+ ions,' J. Comp. Neurol. 256-257, 378-382 (1999).

J. Wenzel, K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, Jr., 'Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-S glasses for 1.3 μm optical fiber amplifiers,' J. Comp. Neurol. 182, 257-261 (1995).

J. A. M. Neto, E. Taylor, B. N. Samson, J. Wang, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, E. Tarbox, P. D. Maton, G. M. Roba, B. E. Kinsman, and R. Hanney, 'The application of Ga:La:S based glass for optical amplification at 1.3 microns,' J. Comp. Neurol. 184, 292-296 (1995).

B. B. Harbison, C. I. Merzbacher, and I. D. Aggarwal, 'Preparation and properties of BaS-Ga2S3-GeS2 glasses,' J. Comp. Neurol. 213-214, 16-21 (1997).

K. Abe, H. Takebe, and K. Morigana, 'Preparation and properties of Ge-Ga-S glasses for laser hosts,' J. Comp. Neurol. 212, 143-150 (1997).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

D. R. Simson, A. J. Faber, and H. de Waal, 'GeSx glass for Pr3+-doped fiber amplifiers at 1.3 μm,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185, 283-288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheffler, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, and A. Schwuchow, 'Increased rare earth solubility in As-S glasses,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 59-62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby and B. G. Aitken, 'Multiphonon energy gap law in rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 320, 100-112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

F. Cornacchia, L. Palatella, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, A. Baraldi, R. Capelletti, E. Cavalli, K. Shimamura, and T. Fukuda, 'Temperature dependence of impurity quenched luminescence in Tm3+:LiLuF4,' J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 197-202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

M. Poulain, M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, 'Verres fluorés au tetrafluorure de zirconium; propriétés optiques d'un verre dopé au Nd3+,' Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 43 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (2)

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, 'Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,' Opt. Mater. 24, 563-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Bigot, A.-M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, and J.-L. Adam, 'Inhomogeneous and homogeneous linewidths in Er3+-doped chalcogenide glasses,' Opt. Mater. 24, 97-102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

B. R. Judd, 'Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,' Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

D. E. McCumber, 'Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,' Phys. Rev. 136, A954 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, and B. H. Matsinger, 'Optical intensities of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,' Phys. Rev. B 8, 47-53 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Yeh, R. R. Petrin, W. A. Sibley, V. Madigou, J. L. Adam, and M. J. Suscavage, 'Energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in a barium fluoride-thorium fluoride glass,' Phys. Rev. B 39, 80-90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, 'Luminescence decay by energy migration and transfer: observation of diffusion-limited relaxation,' Phys. Rev. B 4, 2932-2939 (1971), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. P. Van der Ziel, L. Korf, and L. G. van Uitert, 'Quenching of Tb3+ luminescence by direct transfer and migration in aluminum garnets,' Phys. Rev. B 6, 615-623 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Schweizer, P. E.-A. Möbert, J. R. Hector, D. W. Hewak, W. S. Brocklesby, D. N. Payne, and G. Huber, 'Optical measurement of narrow band rare-earth 4f levels with energies greater than the band gap of the host,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1537-1540 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. L. Adam, Y. Guimond, A. M. Jurdyc, L. Griscom, J. Mugnier, and B. Jacquier, 'Optical properties of stabilized Dy3+-doped sulfide glasses for 1.3-μm amplification,' Proc. SPIE 3280, 31-39 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Jurdyc, G. Rault, W. Meffre, J. Le Person, S. Guy, F. Smektala, and J. L. Adam, 'Optical properties of Tm3+ ions in GeGaSbS glasses,' Proc. SPIE 4645, 79-84 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, T. Kitagawa, S. Takahashi, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Siegel, 'Pr3+-doped fluoride fiber amplifier operating at 1.3 μm,' in Optical Fiber and Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1991), paper PD2.

F. Roy, A. LeSauze, P. Baniel, and D. Bayart, '0.8 μm+1.4 μm pumping for gain-shifted TDFA with power conversion efficiency exceeding 50%,' in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, N.E.Jolley, J.D.Minelly, and Y.Nakano, eds. (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper PD4-1-PD4-3.

S. Sakaguchi and S. Todoroki, 'Transmission of silica glass,' in Glass and Rare Earth-Doped Glasses for Optical Fibres, D.W.Hewak, ed. (INSPEC, 1997), Chap. 1, p. 3.

V. G. Truong, 'Thulium spectroscopy in sulphide glasses for optical amplifier application,' doctoral thesis (Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, 2004).

A. M. Jurdyc, V. G. Truong, B. Jacquier, V. Nazabal, J. Leperson, and J. L. Adam, 'Sulphide glasses for optical amplifiers,' in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Photonics and Applications: Advances in Photonics and Applications (IWPA, 2004), pp. 201-208.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Raman spectrum of GeGaSbS sulphide glass. The thick curve represents the expanded scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption cross section of Tm 3 + in GeGaSbS compared to ZBLAN.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Tm 3 + : F 4 3 energy transfer diagram using the diffusion-limited relaxation process.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

0.05 at. % Tm 3 + : H 5 3 lifetimes versus temperature and its fitting curve.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

0.05 at. % Tm 3 + : F 4 3 lifetimes versus temperature and its fitting curve.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption and emission cross section of the optical H 4 3 F 4 3 transition.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption and emission cross section of the optical F 4 3 H 6 3 transition.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured and Calculated Oscillator Strengths of Tm + 3 in GeGaSbS Glass

Tables Icon

Table 2 Energy Difference between Two Manifolds (in cm 1 ), Calculated Radiative Transition Rates (A), Radiative Lifetimes ( τ R ) , and Branching Ratios ( β ) of Tm + 3 in GeGaSbS Glass

Tables Icon

Table 3 Calculated and Measured Lifetimes of the Excited Levels of Thulium Ions in GeGaSbS a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Judd–Ofelt Calculated Oscillator Strengths Using Absorption or Emission Cross-Section Method

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 τ = 1 τ R + 1 τ D ,
D 1 + B e E 1 k B T 1 + g 1 g 0 e E 1 k B T ,
τ = [ ( A 1 + B e E 1 k B T 1 + g 1 g 0 e E 1 k B T ) 3 4 + 1 τ R ] 1 ,
σ ECS ( h υ ) = σ A B S ( h υ ) e ( ϵ h υ ) k T ,
σ ECS ( λ ) = λ 4 β 8 π n 2 c τ R ϕ ( λ ) band ϕ ( λ ) d λ ,
W R - J O = J A ( J , J ) + A other ,
W R - Sul = J A ( J , J ) ,
W M E S = W R - Sul + W m p + W other .

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