Abstract

The strong blue 476nm cooperative upconversion luminescence of ytterbium Yb3+Yb3+ clusters in Yb3+-doped oxyfluoride glass was studied. The strength of this luminescence was found to be about 100 times greater than that of Yb(3): zirconium, barium, lanthanum, aluminum, and sodium fluoride glass. Such a large enhancement of cooperative upconversion blue luminescence efficiency results from better coupled Yb3+Yb3+ clusters, less cross relaxation, increased concentration of Yb3+ activators, nonsaturation effect, and better upconversion luminescence efficiency. Interestingly, the quadruple–quadruple interaction or exchange interaction seems to exert a stronger action than the dipole–dipole interaction. Meanwhile there apparently exists a large energy transfer from a single Yb3+ ion or a coupled Yb3+Yb3+ cluster to a Ho3+ ion, leading to a dramatic decline in the intensity of the upconversion luminescence of Yb3+Yb3+ clusters in an Yb3+Ho3+ codoped oxyfluoride glass.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Auzel, 'Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,' Chem. Rev. 104, 139-173 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, 'A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,' Science 273, 1185-1187 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, 'Cooperative and stepwise excitation of luminescence: trivalent rare-earth ions in Yb3+-sensitized crystals,' Phys. Rev. B 1, 70-80 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, 'Phonon sidebands, multiphonon relaxation of excited states, and phonon-assisted energy transfer between ions in solids,' Phys. Rev. B 1, 2961-2969 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Biswas, G. S. Maciel, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, 'Upconversion properties of a transparent Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped LaF3-SiO2 glass-ceramics prepared by sol-gel method,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 393-397 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. R. Martin, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, J. J. Romero, and J. Garcia-Sole, 'Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoroindate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions,' Opt. Mater. 22, 327-333 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. B. Chen, Y. X. Nie, and O. Wen, 'Yb3+ ion upconversion luminescence from YbEr:ZBLAN glass excited by 966 nm laser light,' Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 280-282 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. S. Maciel, A. Biswas, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, 'Blue cooperative upconversion in Yb3+ doped multicomponent sol-gel-processed silica glass for three-dimensional display,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1978-1980 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. L. Adam, N. DuhamelHenry, and J. Y. Allain, 'Blue and green upconversion in (Yb3+,Tb3+) co-doped fluorophosphate glasses,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213, 245-250 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. S. Maciel, A. Biswas, and P. N. Prasad, 'Infrared-to-visible Eu3+ energy upconversion due to cooperative energy transfer from an Yb3+ ion pair in a sol-gel processed multi-component silica glass,' Opt. Commun. 178, 65-69 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Goldner, F. Pelle, D. Meichenin, and F. Auzel, 'Cooperative luminescence in ytterbium-doped CsCdBr3,' J. Lumin. 71, 142-150 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. C. Hwang, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+- and Yb3+-Er3+-doped phosphate glasses,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 833-839 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Xie and S. C. Rand, 'Nonlinear dynamics of cooperative upconversion,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 901-912 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Goldner, B. Schaudel, and M. Prassas, 'Dependence of cooperative luminescence intensity on Yb3+ spatial distribution in crystals and glasses,' Phys. Rev. B 65, 054103 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. T. Carnall, R. Fieldd, and K. T. Rajnank, 'Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions,' J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. R. Martin, A. C. Yanes, J. Mendez-Ramos, M. E. Torres, and V. D. Rodriguez, 'Cooperative energy transfer inYb3+-Tb3+ codoped silica sol-gel glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2520-2524 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. L. Zhao, Z. Xu, and X. J. Pei, 'Donor concentration dependence of upconversion luminescence in YLiF4:Er3+Yb3+,' Spectrosc. Spectral Anal. (Beijing) 25, 1933-1937 (2005).
  19. P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeg, 'Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064 μm,' J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772-6776 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, 'Upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 483-485 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. X. Gan, Science and Technology of Modern Glass (Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 1988), in Chinese.
  22. M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, 'Verrs fluores au tetrafluorure de zirconinm proprietes optiques d'un verre dope au Nd3+,' Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 243-246 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. L. Zhao, Z. Xu, and X. J. Pei, 'Donor concentration dependence of upconversion luminescence in YLiF4:Er3+Yb3+,' Spectrosc. Spectral Anal. (Beijing) 25, 1933-1937 (2005).

2004 (1)

F. Auzel, 'Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,' Chem. Rev. 104, 139-173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Biswas, G. S. Maciel, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, 'Upconversion properties of a transparent Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped LaF3-SiO2 glass-ceramics prepared by sol-gel method,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 393-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Martin, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, J. J. Romero, and J. Garcia-Sole, 'Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoroindate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions,' Opt. Mater. 22, 327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeg, 'Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064 μm,' J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772-6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Goldner, B. Schaudel, and M. Prassas, 'Dependence of cooperative luminescence intensity on Yb3+ spatial distribution in crystals and glasses,' Phys. Rev. B 65, 054103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

I. R. Martin, A. C. Yanes, J. Mendez-Ramos, M. E. Torres, and V. D. Rodriguez, 'Cooperative energy transfer inYb3+-Tb3+ codoped silica sol-gel glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2520-2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. B. Chen, Y. X. Nie, and O. Wen, 'Yb3+ ion upconversion luminescence from YbEr:ZBLAN glass excited by 966 nm laser light,' Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 280-282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

G. S. Maciel, A. Biswas, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, 'Blue cooperative upconversion in Yb3+ doped multicomponent sol-gel-processed silica glass for three-dimensional display,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1978-1980 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, 'Upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 483-485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Maciel, A. Biswas, and P. N. Prasad, 'Infrared-to-visible Eu3+ energy upconversion due to cooperative energy transfer from an Yb3+ ion pair in a sol-gel processed multi-component silica glass,' Opt. Commun. 178, 65-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Hwang, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+- and Yb3+-Er3+-doped phosphate glasses,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 833-839 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

P. Goldner, F. Pelle, D. Meichenin, and F. Auzel, 'Cooperative luminescence in ytterbium-doped CsCdBr3,' J. Lumin. 71, 142-150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Adam, N. DuhamelHenry, and J. Y. Allain, 'Blue and green upconversion in (Yb3+,Tb3+) co-doped fluorophosphate glasses,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213, 245-250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, 'A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,' Science 273, 1185-1187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1975 (1)

M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, 'Verrs fluores au tetrafluorure de zirconinm proprietes optiques d'un verre dope au Nd3+,' Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 243-246 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, 'Cooperative and stepwise excitation of luminescence: trivalent rare-earth ions in Yb3+-sensitized crystals,' Phys. Rev. B 1, 70-80 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, 'Phonon sidebands, multiphonon relaxation of excited states, and phonon-assisted energy transfer between ions in solids,' Phys. Rev. B 1, 2961-2969 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, R. Fieldd, and K. T. Rajnank, 'Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions,' J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J. L.

J. L. Adam, N. DuhamelHenry, and J. Y. Allain, 'Blue and green upconversion in (Yb3+,Tb3+) co-doped fluorophosphate glasses,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213, 245-250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Allain, J. Y.

J. L. Adam, N. DuhamelHenry, and J. Y. Allain, 'Blue and green upconversion in (Yb3+,Tb3+) co-doped fluorophosphate glasses,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213, 245-250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, 'Upconversion and anti-Stokes processes with f and d ions in solids,' Chem. Rev. 104, 139-173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Goldner, F. Pelle, D. Meichenin, and F. Auzel, 'Cooperative luminescence in ytterbium-doped CsCdBr3,' J. Lumin. 71, 142-150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, A.

A. Biswas, G. S. Maciel, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, 'Upconversion properties of a transparent Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped LaF3-SiO2 glass-ceramics prepared by sol-gel method,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 393-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Maciel, A. Biswas, and P. N. Prasad, 'Infrared-to-visible Eu3+ energy upconversion due to cooperative energy transfer from an Yb3+ ion pair in a sol-gel processed multi-component silica glass,' Opt. Commun. 178, 65-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Maciel, A. Biswas, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, 'Blue cooperative upconversion in Yb3+ doped multicomponent sol-gel-processed silica glass for three-dimensional display,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1978-1980 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brun, P.

M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, 'Verrs fluores au tetrafluorure de zirconinm proprietes optiques d'un verre dope au Nd3+,' Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 243-246 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, R. Fieldd, and K. T. Rajnank, 'Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions,' J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Cassanjes, F. C.

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeg, 'Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064 μm,' J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772-6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. B.

X. B. Chen, Y. X. Nie, and O. Wen, 'Yb3+ ion upconversion luminescence from YbEr:ZBLAN glass excited by 966 nm laser light,' Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 280-282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chung, P. S.

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, 'Upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 483-485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, M. T.

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeg, 'Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064 μm,' J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772-6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. L.

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, 'Phonon sidebands, multiphonon relaxation of excited states, and phonon-assisted energy transfer between ions in solids,' Phys. Rev. B 1, 2961-2969 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, 'Cooperative and stepwise excitation of luminescence: trivalent rare-earth ions in Yb3+-sensitized crystals,' Phys. Rev. B 1, 70-80 (1970).
[CrossRef]

dos Santos, P. V.

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeg, 'Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064 μm,' J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772-6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, 'A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,' Science 273, 1185-1187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DuhamelHenry, N.

J. L. Adam, N. DuhamelHenry, and J. Y. Allain, 'Blue and green upconversion in (Yb3+,Tb3+) co-doped fluorophosphate glasses,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213, 245-250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fieldd, R.

W. T. Carnall, R. Fieldd, and K. T. Rajnank, 'Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions,' J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Friend, C. S.

A. Biswas, G. S. Maciel, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, 'Upconversion properties of a transparent Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped LaF3-SiO2 glass-ceramics prepared by sol-gel method,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 393-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gan, F. X.

F. X. Gan, Science and Technology of Modern Glass (Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 1988), in Chinese.

Garcia-Sole, J.

I. R. Martin, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, J. J. Romero, and J. Garcia-Sole, 'Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoroindate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions,' Opt. Mater. 22, 327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goldner, P.

P. Goldner, B. Schaudel, and M. Prassas, 'Dependence of cooperative luminescence intensity on Yb3+ spatial distribution in crystals and glasses,' Phys. Rev. B 65, 054103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Goldner, F. Pelle, D. Meichenin, and F. Auzel, 'Cooperative luminescence in ytterbium-doped CsCdBr3,' J. Lumin. 71, 142-150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia, E. A.

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeg, 'Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064 μm,' J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772-6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeg, 'Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064 μm,' J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772-6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, 'A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,' Science 273, 1185-1187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, B. C.

Jiang, S. B.

Kapoor, R.

G. S. Maciel, A. Biswas, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, 'Blue cooperative upconversion in Yb3+ doped multicomponent sol-gel-processed silica glass for three-dimensional display,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1978-1980 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, 'Verrs fluores au tetrafluorure de zirconinm proprietes optiques d'un verre dope au Nd3+,' Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 243-246 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T.

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, 'A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,' Science 273, 1185-1187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maciel, G. S.

A. Biswas, G. S. Maciel, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, 'Upconversion properties of a transparent Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped LaF3-SiO2 glass-ceramics prepared by sol-gel method,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 393-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Maciel, A. Biswas, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, 'Blue cooperative upconversion in Yb3+ doped multicomponent sol-gel-processed silica glass for three-dimensional display,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1978-1980 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Maciel, A. Biswas, and P. N. Prasad, 'Infrared-to-visible Eu3+ energy upconversion due to cooperative energy transfer from an Yb3+ ion pair in a sol-gel processed multi-component silica glass,' Opt. Commun. 178, 65-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Man, S. Q.

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, 'Upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 483-485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martin, I. R.

I. R. Martin, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, J. J. Romero, and J. Garcia-Sole, 'Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoroindate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions,' Opt. Mater. 22, 327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Martin, A. C. Yanes, J. Mendez-Ramos, M. E. Torres, and V. D. Rodriguez, 'Cooperative energy transfer inYb3+-Tb3+ codoped silica sol-gel glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2520-2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meichenin, D.

P. Goldner, F. Pelle, D. Meichenin, and F. Auzel, 'Cooperative luminescence in ytterbium-doped CsCdBr3,' J. Lumin. 71, 142-150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mendez-Ramos, J.

I. R. Martin, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, J. J. Romero, and J. Garcia-Sole, 'Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoroindate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions,' Opt. Mater. 22, 327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Martin, A. C. Yanes, J. Mendez-Ramos, M. E. Torres, and V. D. Rodriguez, 'Cooperative energy transfer inYb3+-Tb3+ codoped silica sol-gel glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2520-2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeg, Y.

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeg, 'Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064 μm,' J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772-6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miyakawa, T.

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, 'Cooperative and stepwise excitation of luminescence: trivalent rare-earth ions in Yb3+-sensitized crystals,' Phys. Rev. B 1, 70-80 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, 'Phonon sidebands, multiphonon relaxation of excited states, and phonon-assisted energy transfer between ions in solids,' Phys. Rev. B 1, 2961-2969 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Nie, Y. X.

X. B. Chen, Y. X. Nie, and O. Wen, 'Yb3+ ion upconversion luminescence from YbEr:ZBLAN glass excited by 966 nm laser light,' Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 280-282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pei, X. J.

S. L. Zhao, Z. Xu, and X. J. Pei, 'Donor concentration dependence of upconversion luminescence in YLiF4:Er3+Yb3+,' Spectrosc. Spectral Anal. (Beijing) 25, 1933-1937 (2005).

Pelle, F.

P. Goldner, F. Pelle, D. Meichenin, and F. Auzel, 'Cooperative luminescence in ytterbium-doped CsCdBr3,' J. Lumin. 71, 142-150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Poulain, M.

M. Poulain, J. Lucas, and P. Brun, 'Verrs fluores au tetrafluorure de zirconinm proprietes optiques d'un verre dope au Nd3+,' Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 243-246 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

A. Biswas, G. S. Maciel, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, 'Upconversion properties of a transparent Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped LaF3-SiO2 glass-ceramics prepared by sol-gel method,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 393-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Maciel, A. Biswas, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, 'Blue cooperative upconversion in Yb3+ doped multicomponent sol-gel-processed silica glass for three-dimensional display,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1978-1980 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Maciel, A. Biswas, and P. N. Prasad, 'Infrared-to-visible Eu3+ energy upconversion due to cooperative energy transfer from an Yb3+ ion pair in a sol-gel processed multi-component silica glass,' Opt. Commun. 178, 65-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prassas, M.

P. Goldner, B. Schaudel, and M. Prassas, 'Dependence of cooperative luminescence intensity on Yb3+ spatial distribution in crystals and glasses,' Phys. Rev. B 65, 054103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E. Y. B.

S. Q. Man, E. Y. B. Pun, and P. S. Chung, 'Upconversion luminescence of Er3+ in alkali bismuth gallate glasses,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 483-485 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rajnank, K. T.

W. T. Carnall, R. Fieldd, and K. T. Rajnank, 'Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions,' J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, J.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, 'A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,' Science 273, 1185-1187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rand, S. C.

Reisfeld, R.

R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeg, 'Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064 μm,' J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772-6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, V. D.

I. R. Martin, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, J. J. Romero, and J. Garcia-Sole, 'Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoroindate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions,' Opt. Mater. 22, 327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Martin, A. C. Yanes, J. Mendez-Ramos, M. E. Torres, and V. D. Rodriguez, 'Cooperative energy transfer inYb3+-Tb3+ codoped silica sol-gel glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2520-2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Romero, J. J.

I. R. Martin, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, J. J. Romero, and J. Garcia-Sole, 'Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoroindate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions,' Opt. Mater. 22, 327-333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schaudel, B.

P. Goldner, B. Schaudel, and M. Prassas, 'Dependence of cooperative luminescence intensity on Yb3+ spatial distribution in crystals and glasses,' Phys. Rev. B 65, 054103 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sorbello, G.

Torres, M. E.

I. R. Martin, A. C. Yanes, J. Mendez-Ramos, M. E. Torres, and V. D. Rodriguez, 'Cooperative energy transfer inYb3+-Tb3+ codoped silica sol-gel glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2520-2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vermelho, M. V. D.

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeg, 'Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064 μm,' J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772-6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J.

Wen, O.

X. B. Chen, Y. X. Nie, and O. Wen, 'Yb3+ ion upconversion luminescence from YbEr:ZBLAN glass excited by 966 nm laser light,' Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 280-282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Xu, Z.

S. L. Zhao, Z. Xu, and X. J. Pei, 'Donor concentration dependence of upconversion luminescence in YLiF4:Er3+Yb3+,' Spectrosc. Spectral Anal. (Beijing) 25, 1933-1937 (2005).

Yanes, A. C.

I. R. Martin, A. C. Yanes, J. Mendez-Ramos, M. E. Torres, and V. D. Rodriguez, 'Cooperative energy transfer inYb3+-Tb3+ codoped silica sol-gel glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2520-2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S. L.

S. L. Zhao, Z. Xu, and X. J. Pei, 'Donor concentration dependence of upconversion luminescence in YLiF4:Er3+Yb3+,' Spectrosc. Spectral Anal. (Beijing) 25, 1933-1937 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. S. Maciel, A. Biswas, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, 'Blue cooperative upconversion in Yb3+ doped multicomponent sol-gel-processed silica glass for three-dimensional display,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1978-1980 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. B. Chen, Y. X. Nie, and O. Wen, 'Yb3+ ion upconversion luminescence from YbEr:ZBLAN glass excited by 966 nm laser light,' Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 280-282 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. R. Martin, A. C. Yanes, J. Mendez-Ramos, M. E. Torres, and V. D. Rodriguez, 'Cooperative energy transfer inYb3+-Tb3+ codoped silica sol-gel glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2520-2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

P. V. dos Santos, M. V. D. Vermelho, E. A. Gouveia, M. T. de Araújo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, F. C. Cassanjes, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messaddeg, 'Blue cooperative luminescence in Yb3+-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1.064 μm,' J. Chem. Phys. 116, 6772-6776 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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P. Goldner, F. Pelle, D. Meichenin, and F. Auzel, 'Cooperative luminescence in ytterbium-doped CsCdBr3,' J. Lumin. 71, 142-150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

A. Biswas, G. S. Maciel, C. S. Friend, and P. N. Prasad, 'Upconversion properties of a transparent Er3+-Yb3+ co-doped LaF3-SiO2 glass-ceramics prepared by sol-gel method,' J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 393-397 (2003).
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G. S. Maciel, A. Biswas, and P. N. Prasad, 'Infrared-to-visible Eu3+ energy upconversion due to cooperative energy transfer from an Yb3+ ion pair in a sol-gel processed multi-component silica glass,' Opt. Commun. 178, 65-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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I. R. Martin, J. Mendez-Ramos, V. D. Rodriguez, J. J. Romero, and J. Garcia-Sole, 'Increase of the 800 nm excited Tm3+ blue upconversion emission in fluoroindate glasses by codoping with Yb3+ ions,' Opt. Mater. 22, 327-333 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

Spectrosc. Spectral Anal. (Beijing) (1)

S. L. Zhao, Z. Xu, and X. J. Pei, 'Donor concentration dependence of upconversion luminescence in YLiF4:Er3+Yb3+,' Spectrosc. Spectral Anal. (Beijing) 25, 1933-1937 (2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of Yb(0.5):FOG. Sample thickness is about 3.7 m .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the upconversion process and energy level structure of Yb 3 + and Ho 3 + ions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cooperative upconversion luminescence spectra of five Yb:FOG and YbHo:FOG samples induced by a 960 nm laser. The data for sample a are reduced by a factor of 14.34 in the display.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Integrated cooperative upconversion luminescence intensity as a function of the 960 nm laser power for samples Yb(5):FOG and Yb(0.5):FOG. Curves a and b represent the results of sample a, Yb(5):FOG, and sample b, Yb(0.5):FOG, and the slopes of curve a and b are 2.07 ± 0.01 and 2.02 ± 0.03 , respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cooperative upconversion luminescence spectra of sample a, Yb(5):FOG, and sample f, Yb(3):ZBLAN induced by a 960 nm laser. The data for Yb(3):ZBLAN are multiplied by a factor of 50.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Peak Positions and Relative Peak Intensities of the Cooperative Upconversion Luminescence of Yb 3 + -Doped or Yb 3 + Ho 3 + -Codoped FOG or Fluoride Glass (ZBLAN) a

Equations (3)

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W ET ( d d ) = 2 3 1 g i g k π 2 e 4 h 2 c χ R 6 t = 2 , 4 , 6 Ω t Ψ i U ( t ) Ψ j 2 × t = 2 , 4 , 6 Ω t Ψ k U ( t ) Ψ e 2 S R 6 ρ 2 ,
W ET ( d q ) = 11.4 1 g i g k π 2 e 4 h 2 c χ R 8 t = 2 , 4 , 6 Ω t Ψ i U ( t ) Ψ j 2 × 4 9 [ 4 f C ( 2 ) 4 f r Ψ k U ( 2 ) Ψ e ] 2 S R 8 ρ 8 3 ,
W ET ( q q ) = 48.7 1 g i g k π 2 e 4 h 2 c χ R 10 4 9 [ 4 f C ( 2 ) 4 f r Ψ i U ( 2 ) Ψ j ] 2 4 9 [ 4 f C ( 2 ) 4 f r Ψ k U ( 2 ) Ψ e ] 2 S R 10 ρ 10 3 ,

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