Abstract

Competing nonlinear optical effects are involved in the interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with transparent dielectrics: supercontinuum generation and multiphoton-induced bulk damage. We measured the threshold energy for supercontinuum generation and bulk damage in fused silica using numerical apertures (NAs) ranging from 0.01 to 0.65. The threshold for supercontinuum generation exhibits a minimum near 0.05 NA and increases quickly above 0.1 NA. For NAs greater than 0.25, we observe no supercontinuum generation. The extent of the blue broadening of the supercontinuum spectrum decreases significantly as the NA is increased from 0.01 to 0.08, showing that weak focusing is important for generating the broadest supercontinuum spectrum. Using a light-scattering technique to detect the onset of bulk damage, we confirmed bulk damage at all NAs studied. At a high NA, the damage threshold is well below the critical power for self-focusing.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  39. W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a feratosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  40. Z. X. Wu, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, H. C. Guo, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 27, 448-450 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  41. Z. X. Wu, H. B. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "The refocusing behaviour of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102-107 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, "Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441-1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a feratosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Wu, H. B. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "The refocusing behaviour of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102-107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1591-1593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (4)

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "In situ observation of photoinduced refractive-index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 19-21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Junnarkar, "Short pulse propagation in tight focusing conditions," Opt. Commun. 195, 273-292 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Recurrent femtosecond pulse collapse in air due to plasma generation: numerical results," Math. Comput. Simul. 56, 563-570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. L. Gaeta, "Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582-3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, "Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 171, 285-290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637-650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air," Opt. Lett. 23, 382-384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Herrmann, and E. E. B. Cambell, "Application of self-focusing of ps laser pulses for three-dimensional microstructuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442-1444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406-4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, K. Gabel, S. V. Garnov, L. B. Glebov, S. Grantham, M. Richardson, and M. J. Soileau, "Color-center generation in silicate glasses exposed to infrared femtosecond pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 193-199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (8)

W. Kautek, J. Kruger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20fs and 3ps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3146-3148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Schirmer, and A. L. Gaeta, "Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783-3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Du, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Reduction of multi-photon ionization in dielectrics due to collisions," Appl. Phys. B 63, 617-621 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Allan, C. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, and T. P. Seward, "193-nm excimer-laser-induced densification of fused silica," Opt. Lett. 21, 1960-1962 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. von der Linde and H. Schuler, "Breakdown threshold and plasma formation in femtosecond laser-solid interaction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 216-222 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459-468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7ns to 150fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1986 (1)

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasanrao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides--application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647-649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

W. L. Smith, P. Liu, and N. Bloembergen, "Superbroadening in H2O and D2O by self-focused picosecond pulses from a YAlG:Nd laser," Phys. Rev. A 15, 2396-2403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filaments in cystals and glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592-594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

F. Demartini, C. H. Townes, T. K. Gustafso, and P. L. Kelley, "Self-steepening of light pulses," Phys. Rev. 164, 312-323 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Akhmanov, S. A.

S. A. Akhmanov, R. V. Khokhlov, and A. P. Sukhorukov, "Self-focusing, self-defocusing and self-modulation of laser beams," in Laser Handbook, F.T.Arecchi, E.O.Schulz-Dubois, and M.L.Stitch, eds. (North-Holland, American Elsevier, 1972).

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filaments in cystals and glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592-594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

Ashkenasi, D.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Herrmann, and E. E. B. Cambell, "Application of self-focusing of ps laser pulses for three-dimensional microstructuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442-1444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

W. L. Smith, P. Liu, and N. Bloembergen, "Superbroadening in H2O and D2O by self-focused picosecond pulses from a YAlG:Nd laser," Phys. Rev. A 15, 2396-2403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Brakenhoff, G. J.

Brodeur, A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637-650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406-4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Callan, J. P.

Cambell, E. E. B.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Herrmann, and E. E. B. Cambell, "Application of self-focusing of ps laser pulses for three-dimensional microstructuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442-1444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carr, C. W.

Cheng, Z.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1591-1593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a feratosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637-650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, "Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 171, 285-290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406-4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Ilkov, L. S. Ilkova, and S. L. Chin, "Supercontinuum generation versus optical-breakdown in CO2 gas," Opt. Lett. 18, 681-683 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasanrao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Mange, P.

Demartini, F.

F. Demartini, C. H. Townes, T. K. Gustafso, and P. L. Kelley, "Self-steepening of light pulses," Phys. Rev. 164, 312-323 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Demos, S. G.

Du, D.

D. Du, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Reduction of multi-photon ionization in dielectrics due to collisions," Appl. Phys. B 63, 617-621 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7ns to 150fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, O. M.

Feit, M. D.

Feng, Q.

Finlay, R. J.

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides--application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647-649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gabel, K.

Gaeta, A. L.

A. L. Gaeta, "Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582-3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Schirmer, and A. L. Gaeta, "Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783-3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garnov, S. V.

Glebov, L. B.

Glezer, E. N.

Golubtsov, I. S.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a feratosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q. H.

Z. X. Wu, H. B. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "The refocusing behaviour of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102-107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Wu, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, H. C. Guo, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 27, 448-450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grantham, S.

Guo, H. C.

Gustafso, T. K.

F. Demartini, C. H. Townes, T. K. Gustafso, and P. L. Kelley, "Self-steepening of light pulses," Phys. Rev. 164, 312-323 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Henz, S.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Herrmann, and E. E. B. Cambell, "Application of self-focusing of ps laser pulses for three-dimensional microstructuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442-1444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Her, T. H.

Herman, S.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459-468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Herrmann, and E. E. B. Cambell, "Application of self-focusing of ps laser pulses for three-dimensional microstructuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442-1444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides--application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647-649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

Ilkov, F. A.

Ilkova, L. S.

Itoh, K.

Iwasaki, A.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jamison, A. O.

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, "Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441-1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. B.

Z. X. Wu, H. B. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "The refocusing behaviour of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102-107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Wu, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, H. C. Guo, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 27, 448-450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides--application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647-649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Junnarkar, M. R.

M. R. Junnarkar, "Short pulse propagation in tight focusing conditions," Opt. Commun. 195, 273-292 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a feratosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Kautek, J. Kruger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20fs and 3ps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3146-3148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides--application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647-649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, P. L.

F. Demartini, C. H. Townes, T. K. Gustafso, and P. L. Kelley, "Self-steepening of light pulses," Phys. Rev. 164, 312-323 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Khokhlov, R. V.

S. A. Akhmanov, R. V. Khokhlov, and A. P. Sukhorukov, "Self-focusing, self-defocusing and self-modulation of laser beams," in Laser Handbook, F.T.Arecchi, E.O.Schulz-Dubois, and M.L.Stitch, eds. (North-Holland, American Elsevier, 1972).

Kolesik, M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Recurrent femtosecond pulse collapse in air due to plasma generation: numerical results," Math. Comput. Simul. 56, 563-570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7ns to 150fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a feratosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Kautek, J. Kruger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20fs and 3ps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3146-3148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, J.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Kautek, J. Kruger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20fs and 3ps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3146-3148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kucheyev, S. O.

Lenzner, M.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Kautek, J. Kruger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20fs and 3ps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3146-3148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P.

W. L. Smith, P. Liu, and N. Bloembergen, "Superbroadening in H2O and D2O by self-focused picosecond pulses from a YAlG:Nd laser," Phys. Rev. A 15, 2396-2403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a feratosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1591-1593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

D. Du, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Reduction of multi-photon ionization in dielectrics due to collisions," Appl. Phys. B 63, 617-621 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7ns to 150fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Luo, L.

Marburger, J. H.

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, "Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441-1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milosavljevic, M.

Mlejnek, M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Recurrent femtosecond pulse collapse in air due to plasma generation: numerical results," Math. Comput. Simul. 56, 563-570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air," Opt. Lett. 23, 382-384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

Mourou, G.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Reduction of multi-photon ionization in dielectrics due to collisions," Appl. Phys. B 63, 617-621 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7ns to 150fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Muller, M.

Murnane, M.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Newell, A. C.

Nguyen, N. T.

Nishii, J.

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459-468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Petit, S.

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, "Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 171, 285-290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Radousky, H. B.

Ranka, J. K.

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Schirmer, and A. L. Gaeta, "Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783-3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, M.

Rolland, C.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasanrao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenfeld, A.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Herrmann, and E. E. B. Cambell, "Application of self-focusing of ps laser pulses for three-dimensional microstructuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442-1444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothenberg, J. E.

Rubenchik, A. M.

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, 1991), pp. xviii.

Saliminia, A.

Sartania, S.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Kautek, J. Kruger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20fs and 3ps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3146-3148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, "Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441-1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, R. W.

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Schirmer, and A. L. Gaeta, "Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783-3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuler, H.

Seward, T. P.

Shapiro, S. L.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filaments in cystals and glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592-594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Shirk, M. D.

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459-468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C.

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, P. Liu, and N. Bloembergen, "Superbroadening in H2O and D2O by self-focused picosecond pulses from a YAlG:Nd laser," Phys. Rev. A 15, 2396-2403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

Spielmann, C.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Kautek, J. Kruger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20fs and 3ps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3146-3148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

M. Muller, J. Squier, and G. J. Brakenhoff, "Measurement of femtosecond pulses in the focal point of a high-numerical-aperture lens by two-photon absorption," Opt. Lett. 20, 1038-1040 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7ns to 150fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasanrao, T.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasanrao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459-468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sukhorukov, A. P.

S. A. Akhmanov, R. V. Khokhlov, and A. P. Sukhorukov, "Self-focusing, self-defocusing and self-modulation of laser beams," in Laser Handbook, F.T.Arecchi, E.O.Schulz-Dubois, and M.L.Stitch, eds. (North-Holland, American Elsevier, 1972).

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, "Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 171, 285-290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, Wiley Series in Pure and Applied Optics (Wiley, 1991), pp. xviii.

Tien, A. C.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toma, T.

Townes, C. H.

F. Demartini, C. H. Townes, T. K. Gustafso, and P. L. Kelley, "Self-steepening of light pulses," Phys. Rev. 164, 312-323 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, R.

Varel, H.

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Herrmann, and E. E. B. Cambell, "Application of self-focusing of ps laser pulses for three-dimensional microstructuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442-1444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

Watanabe, W.

Wright, E. M.

Wu, Z. X.

Z. X. Wu, H. B. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "The refocusing behaviour of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102-107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Wu, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, H. C. Guo, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 27, 448-450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Yang, H.

Z. X. Wu, H. B. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "The refocusing behaviour of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102-107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Wu, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, H. C. Guo, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 27, 448-450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, "Reduction of multi-photon ionization in dielectrics due to collisions," Appl. Phys. B 63, 617-621 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

W. Kautek, J. Kruger, M. Lenzner, S. Sartania, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Laser ablation of dielectrics with pulse durations between 20fs and 3ps," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3146-3148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, "Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441-1443 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, H. Varel, A. Rosenfeld, S. Henz, J. Herrmann, and E. E. B. Cambell, "Application of self-focusing of ps laser pulses for three-dimensional microstructuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1442-1444 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7ns to 150fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides--application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647-649 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

Z. X. Wu, H. B. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "The refocusing behaviour of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102-107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Math. Comput. Simul. (1)

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Recurrent femtosecond pulse collapse in air due to plasma generation: numerical results," Math. Comput. Simul. 56, 563-570 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

M. R. Junnarkar, "Short pulse propagation in tight focusing conditions," Opt. Commun. 195, 273-292 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, "Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 171, 285-290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a feratosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (11)

M. Muller, J. Squier, and G. J. Brakenhoff, "Measurement of femtosecond pulses in the focal point of a high-numerical-aperture lens by two-photon absorption," Opt. Lett. 20, 1038-1040 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Feng, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, and E. M. Wright, "Laser-induced breakdown versus self-focusing for focused picosecond pulses in water," Opt. Lett. 20, 1958-1960 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air," Opt. Lett. 23, 382-384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Allan, C. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, and T. P. Seward, "193-nm excimer-laser-induced densification of fused silica," Opt. Lett. 21, 1960-1962 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "In situ observation of photoinduced refractive-index changes in filaments formed in glasses by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 19-21 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. X. Wu, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, H. C. Guo, H. Yang, and Q. H. Gong, "Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 27, 448-450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1591-1593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, P. De Mange, S. O. Kucheyev, M. D. Shirk, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Radiation produced by femtosecond laser-plasma interaction during dielectric breakdown," Opt. Lett. 30, 661-663 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Rothenberg, "Space-time focusing: breakdown of the slowly varying envelope approximation in the self-focusing of femtosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 17, 1340-1342 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Ilkov, L. S. Ilkova, and S. L. Chin, "Supercontinuum generation versus optical-breakdown in CO2 gas," Opt. Lett. 18, 681-683 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. (1)

F. Demartini, C. H. Townes, T. K. Gustafso, and P. L. Kelley, "Self-steepening of light pulses," Phys. Rev. 164, 312-323 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

W. L. Smith, P. Liu, and N. Bloembergen, "Superbroadening in H2O and D2O by self-focused picosecond pulses from a YAlG:Nd laser," Phys. Rev. A 15, 2396-2403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filaments in cystals and glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592-594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406-4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Gaeta, "Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582-3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the setup used for damage and supercontinuum experiments. I1, I2, I3, iris; F1, F2, F3, neutral density filter wheels; WP, waveplate; P, polarizer; L1, L2, 3 × telescope; L3, 0.2 m focal lens; L4, sample focusing lens–objective (varied throughout experiment); PD, photodiode. All collection optics are UV-grade fused silica transparent down to 300 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical supercontinuum spectrum produced by a 60 fs , 480 nJ 800 nm laser pulse (1.6 times the supercontinuum threshold) focused at 0.025 NA . The value at the 800 nm peak is attenuated due to the spectrometer’s limited dynamic range (typically, the pedestal is down by 100 to 500 times). The blue-broadening width is measured from the laser’s center wavelength ( 800 nm ) to the wavelength where the intensity of the supercontinuum spectrum is reduced to 10% of its plateau value.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

NA dependence of the blue broadening at two different pulse energies.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy thresholds for damage (filled circles) and supercontinuum generation (open circles) versus NA. The black curve is a constant peak intensity fit of Eq. (1) to the damage data obtained for NAs above 0.1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the He Ne laser scattering signal on pulse energy and NA. For each data point the scattering intensity was determined after accumulating 5000 pulses on a single spot in the sample.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contrast-enhanced microscopy images of bulk damage in fused silica at low NA. The laser pulse is incident from the right. Vertically offset lines represent multiple repetitions of the experiment. The images are for an exposure of 10,000 pulses with (a) 0.055 NA at two times the damage threshold ( 2 E th D ) , (b) 0.033 NA at 3 E th D , (c) 0.019 NA at 2 E th D , and (d) 0.020 NA at 3 E th D .

Equations (1)

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E = I τ λ 2 0.9 [ 2 π NA 2 1 NA 2 + I λ 2 P crit ] 1 .

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