Abstract

The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of single-crystal zinc germanium phosphide (ZGP), ZnGeP2, was increased to 2Jcm2 at 2.05μm and a 10kHz pulse rate frequency (double the previously measured value of 1Jcm2). This increased LIDT was achieved by improving the polishing of ZGP optical parametric oscillator crystals. Two different polishing techniques were evaluated. Surfaces were characterized using scanning white-light interferometry to determine rms surface roughness and sample flatness. The photon backscatter technique was used to determine the degree of surface and subsurface damage in the sample induced through the fabrication process. The effect of subsurface damage in the samples was studied by removing different amounts of material during polishing for otherwise identical samples. Statistical LIDT was measured using a high-average-power, repetitively Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLF 2.05μm pump laser. On average, lower surface roughness and photon backscatter measurements were a good indicator of ZGP samples exhibiting higher LIDT. The removal of more material during polishing significantly improved the LIDT of otherwise identical samples, indicating the importance of subsurface damage defects in the LIDT of ZGP.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. G. Schunemann, K. L. Schepler, and P. A. Budni, "Nonlinear frequency conversion performance of AgGaSe2, ZnGeP2 and CdGeAs2," MRS Bull. 23, 45-49 (1998).
  2. P. G. Schunemann and T. M. Pollak, "Ultralow gradient HGF-grownZnGeP2 and CdGeAs2 and their optical properties," MRS Bull. 23, 23-27 (1998).
  3. G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, and F. G. Storz, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of ZnGeP2 and CdSe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 301-304 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Buehler and J. H. Wernick, "Concerning growth of single crystals of the II-IV-V diamond-like compounds ZnSiP2, CdSiP2, ZnGeP2, and CdSnP2 and standard enthalpies of formation for ZnSiP2 and CdSiP2," J. Cryst. Growth 8, 324-332 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Isomura and K. Masumoto, "Preparation and some optical properties of ZnGeP2 and CdSiP2," Phys. Status Solidi A 13, 223-229 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. D. Peterson, K. L. Schepler, J. L. Brown, and P. G. Schunemann, "Damage properties of ZnGeP2 at 2μm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2142-2146 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. D. Setzler, P. G. Schunemann, L. A. Pomeranz, and T. M. Pollak, "ZnGeP2 laser damage threshold enhancement," presented at the Fourteenth American Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy, Seattle, Wash., 4-9 August 2002.
  8. P. G. Schunemann and T. M. Pollak, "Method for growing crystals," U.S. patent 5,611,856 (18 March 1997).
  9. R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, and A. H. Guenther, "Subsurface structure and laser damage threshold," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 363-364 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. Randi, J. C. Lambropoulos, and S. D. Jacobs, "Subsurface damage in some single crystalline optical materials," Appl. Opt. 44, 2241-2249 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, "Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces," Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 356-364 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, and R. Austin, "Correlation of laser-induced damage with surface structure and preparation techniques of several optical glasses at 1.06μm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A.J.Glass and A.H.Guenther, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 435, 305-320 (1975).
  13. D. Milam, W. L. Smith, M. J. Weber, A. H. Guenther, R. A. House, and J. R. Bettis, "The effects of surface roughness on 1064nm, 150ps laser damage," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1977, A.J.Glass and A.H.Guenther, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 509, 166-173 (1977).
  14. F. D. Orazio, VTI Inc., Dayton, Ohio (personal communication, 2005).
  15. T. J. Magee, C. S. Leung, F. D. Orazio, J. D. Boyer, B. R. Mauro and V. E. Sanders, "The effect of subsurface defects on 'incipient' (below threshold) laser damage nucleation in fused silica optical flats," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1438, 356-364 (1989).

2005

1998

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, "Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces," Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 356-364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Schunemann, K. L. Schepler, and P. A. Budni, "Nonlinear frequency conversion performance of AgGaSe2, ZnGeP2 and CdGeAs2," MRS Bull. 23, 45-49 (1998).

P. G. Schunemann and T. M. Pollak, "Ultralow gradient HGF-grownZnGeP2 and CdGeAs2 and their optical properties," MRS Bull. 23, 23-27 (1998).

1995

1989

T. J. Magee, C. S. Leung, F. D. Orazio, J. D. Boyer, B. R. Mauro and V. E. Sanders, "The effect of subsurface defects on 'incipient' (below threshold) laser damage nucleation in fused silica optical flats," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1438, 356-364 (1989).

1977

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, and A. H. Guenther, "Subsurface structure and laser damage threshold," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 363-364 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972

S. Isomura and K. Masumoto, "Preparation and some optical properties of ZnGeP2 and CdSiP2," Phys. Status Solidi A 13, 223-229 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, and F. G. Storz, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of ZnGeP2 and CdSe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 301-304 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. Buehler and J. H. Wernick, "Concerning growth of single crystals of the II-IV-V diamond-like compounds ZnSiP2, CdSiP2, ZnGeP2, and CdSnP2 and standard enthalpies of formation for ZnSiP2 and CdSiP2," J. Cryst. Growth 8, 324-332 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R.

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, and R. Austin, "Correlation of laser-induced damage with surface structure and preparation techniques of several optical glasses at 1.06μm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A.J.Glass and A.H.Guenther, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 435, 305-320 (1975).

Bettis, J. R.

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, and A. H. Guenther, "Subsurface structure and laser damage threshold," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 363-364 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, and R. Austin, "Correlation of laser-induced damage with surface structure and preparation techniques of several optical glasses at 1.06μm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A.J.Glass and A.H.Guenther, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 435, 305-320 (1975).

D. Milam, W. L. Smith, M. J. Weber, A. H. Guenther, R. A. House, and J. R. Bettis, "The effects of surface roughness on 1064nm, 150ps laser damage," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1977, A.J.Glass and A.H.Guenther, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 509, 166-173 (1977).

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, and F. G. Storz, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of ZnGeP2 and CdSe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 301-304 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, J. D.

T. J. Magee, C. S. Leung, F. D. Orazio, J. D. Boyer, B. R. Mauro and V. E. Sanders, "The effect of subsurface defects on 'incipient' (below threshold) laser damage nucleation in fused silica optical flats," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1438, 356-364 (1989).

Brown, J. L.

Budni, P. A.

P. G. Schunemann, K. L. Schepler, and P. A. Budni, "Nonlinear frequency conversion performance of AgGaSe2, ZnGeP2 and CdGeAs2," MRS Bull. 23, 45-49 (1998).

Buehler, E.

E. Buehler and J. H. Wernick, "Concerning growth of single crystals of the II-IV-V diamond-like compounds ZnSiP2, CdSiP2, ZnGeP2, and CdSnP2 and standard enthalpies of formation for ZnSiP2 and CdSiP2," J. Cryst. Growth 8, 324-332 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, and F. G. Storz, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of ZnGeP2 and CdSe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 301-304 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Camp, D. W.

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, "Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces," Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 356-364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dovik, M.

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, "Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces," Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 356-364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, A. H.

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, and A. H. Guenther, "Subsurface structure and laser damage threshold," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 363-364 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, and R. Austin, "Correlation of laser-induced damage with surface structure and preparation techniques of several optical glasses at 1.06μm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A.J.Glass and A.H.Guenther, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 435, 305-320 (1975).

D. Milam, W. L. Smith, M. J. Weber, A. H. Guenther, R. A. House, and J. R. Bettis, "The effects of surface roughness on 1064nm, 150ps laser damage," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1977, A.J.Glass and A.H.Guenther, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 509, 166-173 (1977).

House, R. A.

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, and A. H. Guenther, "Subsurface structure and laser damage threshold," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 363-364 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, and R. Austin, "Correlation of laser-induced damage with surface structure and preparation techniques of several optical glasses at 1.06μm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A.J.Glass and A.H.Guenther, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 435, 305-320 (1975).

D. Milam, W. L. Smith, M. J. Weber, A. H. Guenther, R. A. House, and J. R. Bettis, "The effects of surface roughness on 1064nm, 150ps laser damage," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1977, A.J.Glass and A.H.Guenther, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 509, 166-173 (1977).

Isomura, S.

S. Isomura and K. Masumoto, "Preparation and some optical properties of ZnGeP2 and CdSiP2," Phys. Status Solidi A 13, 223-229 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, S. D.

Kozlowski, M. R.

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, "Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces," Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 356-364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lambropoulos, J. C.

Leung, C. S.

T. J. Magee, C. S. Leung, F. D. Orazio, J. D. Boyer, B. R. Mauro and V. E. Sanders, "The effect of subsurface defects on 'incipient' (below threshold) laser damage nucleation in fused silica optical flats," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1438, 356-364 (1989).

Magee, T. J.

T. J. Magee, C. S. Leung, F. D. Orazio, J. D. Boyer, B. R. Mauro and V. E. Sanders, "The effect of subsurface defects on 'incipient' (below threshold) laser damage nucleation in fused silica optical flats," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1438, 356-364 (1989).

Masumoto, K.

S. Isomura and K. Masumoto, "Preparation and some optical properties of ZnGeP2 and CdSiP2," Phys. Status Solidi A 13, 223-229 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Mauro, B. R.

T. J. Magee, C. S. Leung, F. D. Orazio, J. D. Boyer, B. R. Mauro and V. E. Sanders, "The effect of subsurface defects on 'incipient' (below threshold) laser damage nucleation in fused silica optical flats," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1438, 356-364 (1989).

Milam, D.

D. Milam, W. L. Smith, M. J. Weber, A. H. Guenther, R. A. House, and J. R. Bettis, "The effects of surface roughness on 1064nm, 150ps laser damage," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1977, A.J.Glass and A.H.Guenther, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 509, 166-173 (1977).

Nichols, M.

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, "Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces," Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 356-364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Orazio, F. D.

T. J. Magee, C. S. Leung, F. D. Orazio, J. D. Boyer, B. R. Mauro and V. E. Sanders, "The effect of subsurface defects on 'incipient' (below threshold) laser damage nucleation in fused silica optical flats," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1438, 356-364 (1989).

F. D. Orazio, VTI Inc., Dayton, Ohio (personal communication, 2005).

Peterson, R. D.

Pollak, T. M.

P. G. Schunemann and T. M. Pollak, "Ultralow gradient HGF-grownZnGeP2 and CdGeAs2 and their optical properties," MRS Bull. 23, 23-27 (1998).

S. D. Setzler, P. G. Schunemann, L. A. Pomeranz, and T. M. Pollak, "ZnGeP2 laser damage threshold enhancement," presented at the Fourteenth American Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy, Seattle, Wash., 4-9 August 2002.

P. G. Schunemann and T. M. Pollak, "Method for growing crystals," U.S. patent 5,611,856 (18 March 1997).

Pomeranz, L. A.

S. D. Setzler, P. G. Schunemann, L. A. Pomeranz, and T. M. Pollak, "ZnGeP2 laser damage threshold enhancement," presented at the Fourteenth American Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy, Seattle, Wash., 4-9 August 2002.

Raether, R.

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, "Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces," Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 356-364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Randi, J. A.

Sanders, V. E.

T. J. Magee, C. S. Leung, F. D. Orazio, J. D. Boyer, B. R. Mauro and V. E. Sanders, "The effect of subsurface defects on 'incipient' (below threshold) laser damage nucleation in fused silica optical flats," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1438, 356-364 (1989).

Schepler, K. L.

P. G. Schunemann, K. L. Schepler, and P. A. Budni, "Nonlinear frequency conversion performance of AgGaSe2, ZnGeP2 and CdGeAs2," MRS Bull. 23, 45-49 (1998).

R. D. Peterson, K. L. Schepler, J. L. Brown, and P. G. Schunemann, "Damage properties of ZnGeP2 at 2μm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2142-2146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schunemann, P. G.

P. G. Schunemann and T. M. Pollak, "Ultralow gradient HGF-grownZnGeP2 and CdGeAs2 and their optical properties," MRS Bull. 23, 23-27 (1998).

P. G. Schunemann, K. L. Schepler, and P. A. Budni, "Nonlinear frequency conversion performance of AgGaSe2, ZnGeP2 and CdGeAs2," MRS Bull. 23, 45-49 (1998).

R. D. Peterson, K. L. Schepler, J. L. Brown, and P. G. Schunemann, "Damage properties of ZnGeP2 at 2μm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2142-2146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Setzler, P. G. Schunemann, L. A. Pomeranz, and T. M. Pollak, "ZnGeP2 laser damage threshold enhancement," presented at the Fourteenth American Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy, Seattle, Wash., 4-9 August 2002.

P. G. Schunemann and T. M. Pollak, "Method for growing crystals," U.S. patent 5,611,856 (18 March 1997).

Setzler, S. D.

S. D. Setzler, P. G. Schunemann, L. A. Pomeranz, and T. M. Pollak, "ZnGeP2 laser damage threshold enhancement," presented at the Fourteenth American Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy, Seattle, Wash., 4-9 August 2002.

Sheehan, L. M.

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, "Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces," Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 356-364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

D. Milam, W. L. Smith, M. J. Weber, A. H. Guenther, R. A. House, and J. R. Bettis, "The effects of surface roughness on 1064nm, 150ps laser damage," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1977, A.J.Glass and A.H.Guenther, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 509, 166-173 (1977).

Storz, F. G.

G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, and F. G. Storz, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of ZnGeP2 and CdSe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 301-304 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, I.

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, "Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces," Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 356-364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

D. Milam, W. L. Smith, M. J. Weber, A. H. Guenther, R. A. House, and J. R. Bettis, "The effects of surface roughness on 1064nm, 150ps laser damage," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1977, A.J.Glass and A.H.Guenther, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 509, 166-173 (1977).

Wernick, J. H.

E. Buehler and J. H. Wernick, "Concerning growth of single crystals of the II-IV-V diamond-like compounds ZnSiP2, CdSiP2, ZnGeP2, and CdSnP2 and standard enthalpies of formation for ZnSiP2 and CdSiP2," J. Cryst. Growth 8, 324-332 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. D. Boyd, E. Buehler, and F. G. Storz, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of ZnGeP2 and CdSe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 301-304 (1971).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, and A. H. Guenther, "Subsurface structure and laser damage threshold," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 363-364 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

E. Buehler and J. H. Wernick, "Concerning growth of single crystals of the II-IV-V diamond-like compounds ZnSiP2, CdSiP2, ZnGeP2, and CdSnP2 and standard enthalpies of formation for ZnSiP2 and CdSiP2," J. Cryst. Growth 8, 324-332 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

MRS Bull.

P. G. Schunemann, K. L. Schepler, and P. A. Budni, "Nonlinear frequency conversion performance of AgGaSe2, ZnGeP2 and CdGeAs2," MRS Bull. 23, 45-49 (1998).

P. G. Schunemann and T. M. Pollak, "Ultralow gradient HGF-grownZnGeP2 and CdGeAs2 and their optical properties," MRS Bull. 23, 23-27 (1998).

Phys. Status Solidi A

S. Isomura and K. Masumoto, "Preparation and some optical properties of ZnGeP2 and CdSiP2," Phys. Status Solidi A 13, 223-229 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

D. W. Camp, M. R. Kozlowski, L. M. Sheehan, M. Nichols, M. Dovik, R. Raether, and I. Thomas, "Subsurface damage and polishing compound affect the 355-nm laser damage threshold of fused silica surfaces," Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1997, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 3244, 356-364 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Magee, C. S. Leung, F. D. Orazio, J. D. Boyer, B. R. Mauro and V. E. Sanders, "The effect of subsurface defects on 'incipient' (below threshold) laser damage nucleation in fused silica optical flats," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1989, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, and M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE 1438, 356-364 (1989).

Other

R. A. House, J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, and R. Austin, "Correlation of laser-induced damage with surface structure and preparation techniques of several optical glasses at 1.06μm," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A.J.Glass and A.H.Guenther, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 435, 305-320 (1975).

D. Milam, W. L. Smith, M. J. Weber, A. H. Guenther, R. A. House, and J. R. Bettis, "The effects of surface roughness on 1064nm, 150ps laser damage," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1977, A.J.Glass and A.H.Guenther, eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 509, 166-173 (1977).

F. D. Orazio, VTI Inc., Dayton, Ohio (personal communication, 2005).

S. D. Setzler, P. G. Schunemann, L. A. Pomeranz, and T. M. Pollak, "ZnGeP2 laser damage threshold enhancement," presented at the Fourteenth American Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy, Seattle, Wash., 4-9 August 2002.

P. G. Schunemann and T. M. Pollak, "Method for growing crystals," U.S. patent 5,611,856 (18 March 1997).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of ZGP single-crystalline boule and OPO samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the laser damage test setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of test site matrix distributed on a 6 mm × 6 mm ZGP test surface. Each number represents a series of sites tested at the same fluence level. (b) Photograph of a typical 6 mm × 6 mm ZGP test surface postdamage testing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photographs showing the morphology of damage sites. (a), (b), and (c) show morphologies of entrance face damage sites. At fluences neat the LIDT, minor entrance face damage could sometimes be observed as shown in (a). Craters as shown in (b) and (c) were much more typical entrance face damage morphologies, with craters increasing in size as the fluence was increased. (d) Typical exit face damage, consisting of a bulge rather than a crater.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Damage frequency plot of typical results from both AR-coated and uncoated ZGP samples prepared by both polish 1 and polish 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Plot comparing the LIDT with the RMS surface roughness for ZGP samples. (b) Plot comparing the LIDT with the PBS measurements for ZGP samples.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plots showing the effect of changing parameters in the initial fabrication steps on the LIDT of ZGP. Parameters were changed in the preparation of the entrance faces of the samples that were left uncoated. Each of the samples had identically prepared, AR-coated exit faces. In plots a) and c) the first fabrication step was a single-pass saw cut on the face, and in plots b) and d) the first fabrication step was a multiple-pass machine grind with only a small amount of material removed per pass. The second fabrication step involved removing 200 μ m of material with a 5 μ m grit in plots a) and b), and the second fabrication step involved removing 500 μ m of material with a 5 μ m grit in plots c) and d).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Average Surface Characterization Results for ZGP Parts

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Table 2 Average Laser Damage Threshold Results for ZGP Parts at 2.05 μ m

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