Abstract

Spectrally and temporally heterodyned four-wave mixing (FWM) signals in silver thiogallate are reported over a wavelength range of 310μm. We (1) expose the usefulness of the strong nonresonant FWM in optimizing an apparatus for heterodyned 2D infrared experiments and (2) use heterodyning to measure the 2D phase of a frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) signal. We report the phase of the 2D FROG signal, as opposed to the 1D phase of the excitation pulses routinely determined from conventional FROG analysis. The 2D FROG phase complements the 2D FROG magnitude in providing intuitive visual analysis of the spectral and temporal phases of femtosecond pulses.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. Femtosoft Technologies, FROG software version 3.1.2, 2004.
  39. Fit coefficients of retrieved spectral phase at 3, 5, and 8 μm (−9.31×10−11 rad/nm 4+1.11×10−6 rad/nm 3−4.93×10−3 rad/nm 2+9.78 rad/nm −7.27×103; 3×10−9 rad/nm3−5×10−5 rad/nm2+0.237 rad/nm−397.33; −4.01×10−19 rad/nm 6+2.07×10−14 rad/nm 5−4.44×10−10 rad/nm 4+5.06×10−6 rad/nm 3−3.24×10− 2+1.10×102 rad/nm −1.56×105).

2006 (1)

2005 (7)

G. Stibenz and G. Steinmeyer, "Interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Express 13, 2617-2626 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Rubtsov, K. Kumar, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Dual-frequency 2D IR photon echo of a hydrogen bond," Chem. Phys. Lett. 402, 439-439 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zheng, K. Kwak, J. Asbury, X. Chen, I. R. Piletic, and M. D. Fayer, "Physics: ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time," Science 309, 1338-1343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Amat-Roldan, L. G. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, and D. Artigas, "Measurement of electric field by interferometric spectral trace observation," Opt. Lett. 30, 1063-1065 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Fulmer, F. Ding, P. Mukherjee, and M. T. Zanni, "Vibrational dynamics of ions in glass from fifth-order two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 067402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Kim and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Chemical exchange 2D IR of hydrogen-bond making and breaking," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 11185-11190 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Kim, J. P. Wang, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "The 2D IR spectroscopy of the alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 7511-7521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (8)

B. L. McClain, I. J. Finkelstein, and M. D. Fayer, "Vibrational echo experiments on red blood cells: comparison of the dynamics of cytoplasmic and aqueous hemoglobin," Chem. Phys. Lett. 392, 324-329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, "Vibrational coherence transfer characterized with Fourier-transform 2D IR spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 121, 362-373 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Fulmer, P. Mukherjee, A. T. Krummel, and M. T. Zanni, "A pulse sequence for directly measuring the anharmonicities of coupled vibrations: two-quantum two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 8067-8078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, and M. D. Fayer, "Hydrogen bond networks: structure and evolution after hydrogen bond breaking," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6544-6554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, and P. Hamm, "Labeling vibrations by light: ultrafast transient 2D-IR spectroscopy tracks vibrational modes during photoinduced charge transfer," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 990-991 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Edler and P. Hamm, "Spectral response of crystalline acetanilide and N-methylacetamide: vibrational self-trapping in hydrogen-bonded crystals," Phys. Rev. B 69, 214301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Edler, R. Pfister, V. Pouthier, C. Falvo, and P. Hamm, "Direct observation of self-trapped vibrational states in α-helices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 106405 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Mukherjee, T. Amber, E. C. Fulmer, I. Kass, I. T. Arkin, and M. T. Zanni, "Site-specific vibrational dynamics of the CD3zet membrane peptide using heterodyned two-dimensional infrared photon echo spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10215-10224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, C. Stromberg, K. J. Gaffney, I. R. Piletic, A. Goun, and M. D. Fayer, "Ultrafast heterodyne detected infrared multidimensional vibrational stimulated echo studies of hydrogen bond dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 362-371 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, R. Behrendt, C. Renner, L. Moroder, J. Wachtveitl, and P. Hamm, "Transient 2D-IR spectroscopy: snapshots of the nonequilibrium ensemble during the picosecond conformational transition of a small peptide," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8654-8660 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Jonas, "Two-dimensional femtosecond spectroscopy," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 425-425 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, "Coherent 2D IR spectroscopy: molecular structure and dynamics in solution," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 5258-5279(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

J. C. Wright, "Coherent multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 21, 185-255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Ge and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Femtosecond two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: IR-COSY and THIRSTY," PhysChemComm 5, 17-26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Ge, M. T. Zanni, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Effects of vibrational frequency correlations on two-dimensional infrared spectra," J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 962-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Demirdoven, M. Khalil, O. Golonzka, and A. Tokmakoff, "Dispersion compensation with optical materials for compression of intense sub-100-fs mid-infrared pulses," Opt. Lett. 27, 433-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Gruetzmacher and N. F. Scherer, "Few-cycle mid-infrared pulse generation, characterization, and coherent propagation in optically dense media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2227-2236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

S. Woutersen and P. Hamm, "Time-resolved two-dimensional vibrational spectroscopy of a short α-helix in water," J. Chem. Phys. 115, 7737-7743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zanni, M. C. Asplund, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Two-dimensional heterodyned and stimulated infrared photon echoes of N-methylacetamide-D," J. Chem. Phys. 114, 4579-4590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zanni, N. H. Ge, Y. S. Kim, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Two-dimensional IR spectroscopy can be designed to eliminate the diagonal peaks and expose only the crosspeaks needed for structure determination," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 11265-11270 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Merchant, D. E. Thompson, and M. D. Fayer, "Two-dimensional time-frequency ultrafast infrared vibrational echo spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3899-3902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

1999 (1)

C. W. Siders, J. L. W. Siders, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, "Multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 432-440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

Albrecht, A. W.

Amat-Roldan, I.

Amber, T.

P. K. Mukherjee, T. Amber, E. C. Fulmer, I. Kass, I. T. Arkin, and M. T. Zanni, "Site-specific vibrational dynamics of the CD3zet membrane peptide using heterodyned two-dimensional infrared photon echo spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10215-10224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arkin, I. T.

P. K. Mukherjee, T. Amber, E. C. Fulmer, I. Kass, I. T. Arkin, and M. T. Zanni, "Site-specific vibrational dynamics of the CD3zet membrane peptide using heterodyned two-dimensional infrared photon echo spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10215-10224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artigas, D.

Asbury, J.

J. Zheng, K. Kwak, J. Asbury, X. Chen, I. R. Piletic, and M. D. Fayer, "Physics: ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time," Science 309, 1338-1343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asbury, J. B.

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, and M. D. Fayer, "Hydrogen bond networks: structure and evolution after hydrogen bond breaking," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6544-6554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, C. Stromberg, K. J. Gaffney, I. R. Piletic, A. Goun, and M. D. Fayer, "Ultrafast heterodyne detected infrared multidimensional vibrational stimulated echo studies of hydrogen bond dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 362-371 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Asplund, M. C.

M. T. Zanni, M. C. Asplund, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Two-dimensional heterodyned and stimulated infrared photon echoes of N-methylacetamide-D," J. Chem. Phys. 114, 4579-4590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Behrendt, R.

J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, R. Behrendt, C. Renner, L. Moroder, J. Wachtveitl, and P. Hamm, "Transient 2D-IR spectroscopy: snapshots of the nonequilibrium ensemble during the picosecond conformational transition of a small peptide," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8654-8660 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Belabas, N.

Bowie, J. L.

Bredenbeck, J.

J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, and P. Hamm, "Labeling vibrations by light: ultrafast transient 2D-IR spectroscopy tracks vibrational modes during photoinduced charge transfer," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 990-991 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, R. Behrendt, C. Renner, L. Moroder, J. Wachtveitl, and P. Hamm, "Transient 2D-IR spectroscopy: snapshots of the nonequilibrium ensemble during the picosecond conformational transition of a small peptide," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8654-8660 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

J. Zheng, K. Kwak, J. Asbury, X. Chen, I. R. Piletic, and M. D. Fayer, "Physics: ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time," Science 309, 1338-1343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheriaux, G.

Cormack, L. G.

DeGrado, W. F.

P. Hamm, M. Lim, W. F. DeGrado, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Pump/probe self heterodyned 2D spectroscopy of vibrational transitions of a small globular peptide," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 1907-1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbugel, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. A. Walmsley, "Measurement of the intensity and phase of ultraweak, ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 884-884 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demirdoven, N.

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, "Vibrational coherence transfer characterized with Fourier-transform 2D IR spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 121, 362-373 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, "Coherent 2D IR spectroscopy: molecular structure and dynamics in solution," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 5258-5279(2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Demirdoven, M. Khalil, O. Golonzka, and A. Tokmakoff, "Dispersion compensation with optical materials for compression of intense sub-100-fs mid-infrared pulses," Opt. Lett. 27, 433-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ding, F.

E. C. Fulmer, F. Ding, P. Mukherjee, and M. T. Zanni, "Vibrational dynamics of ions in glass from fifth-order two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 067402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorrer, C.

Edler, J.

J. Edler and P. Hamm, "Spectral response of crystalline acetanilide and N-methylacetamide: vibrational self-trapping in hydrogen-bonded crystals," Phys. Rev. B 69, 214301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Edler, R. Pfister, V. Pouthier, C. Falvo, and P. Hamm, "Direct observation of self-trapped vibrational states in α-helices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 106405 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falvo, C.

J. Edler, R. Pfister, V. Pouthier, C. Falvo, and P. Hamm, "Direct observation of self-trapped vibrational states in α-helices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 106405 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fayer, M. D.

J. Zheng, K. Kwak, J. Asbury, X. Chen, I. R. Piletic, and M. D. Fayer, "Physics: ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time," Science 309, 1338-1343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, and M. D. Fayer, "Hydrogen bond networks: structure and evolution after hydrogen bond breaking," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6544-6554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. L. McClain, I. J. Finkelstein, and M. D. Fayer, "Vibrational echo experiments on red blood cells: comparison of the dynamics of cytoplasmic and aqueous hemoglobin," Chem. Phys. Lett. 392, 324-329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, C. Stromberg, K. J. Gaffney, I. R. Piletic, A. Goun, and M. D. Fayer, "Ultrafast heterodyne detected infrared multidimensional vibrational stimulated echo studies of hydrogen bond dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 362-371 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Merchant, D. E. Thompson, and M. D. Fayer, "Two-dimensional time-frequency ultrafast infrared vibrational echo spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3899-3902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finkelstein, I. J.

B. L. McClain, I. J. Finkelstein, and M. D. Fayer, "Vibrational echo experiments on red blood cells: comparison of the dynamics of cytoplasmic and aqueous hemoglobin," Chem. Phys. Lett. 392, 324-329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbugel, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. A. Walmsley, "Measurement of the intensity and phase of ultraweak, ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 884-884 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fulmer, E. C.

S.-H. Shim, D. B. Strasfeld, E. C. Fulmer, and M. T. Zanni, "Femtosecond pulse shaping directly in the mid-IR using acousto-optic modulation," Opt. Lett. 31, 838-840 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Fulmer, F. Ding, P. Mukherjee, and M. T. Zanni, "Vibrational dynamics of ions in glass from fifth-order two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 067402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Fulmer, P. Mukherjee, A. T. Krummel, and M. T. Zanni, "A pulse sequence for directly measuring the anharmonicities of coupled vibrations: two-quantum two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 8067-8078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Mukherjee, T. Amber, E. C. Fulmer, I. Kass, I. T. Arkin, and M. T. Zanni, "Site-specific vibrational dynamics of the CD3zet membrane peptide using heterodyned two-dimensional infrared photon echo spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10215-10224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaffney, K. J.

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, C. Stromberg, K. J. Gaffney, I. R. Piletic, A. Goun, and M. D. Fayer, "Ultrafast heterodyne detected infrared multidimensional vibrational stimulated echo studies of hydrogen bond dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 362-371 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, S. M.

Ge, N. H.

N. H. Ge and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Femtosecond two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: IR-COSY and THIRSTY," PhysChemComm 5, 17-26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Ge, M. T. Zanni, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Effects of vibrational frequency correlations on two-dimensional infrared spectra," J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 962-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zanni, N. H. Ge, Y. S. Kim, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Two-dimensional IR spectroscopy can be designed to eliminate the diagonal peaks and expose only the crosspeaks needed for structure determination," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 11265-11270 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golonzka, O.

Goun, A.

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, C. Stromberg, K. J. Gaffney, I. R. Piletic, A. Goun, and M. D. Fayer, "Ultrafast heterodyne detected infrared multidimensional vibrational stimulated echo studies of hydrogen bond dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 362-371 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gruetzmacher, J. A.

J. A. Gruetzmacher and N. F. Scherer, "Few-cycle mid-infrared pulse generation, characterization, and coherent propagation in optically dense media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2227-2236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hamm, P.

J. Edler, R. Pfister, V. Pouthier, C. Falvo, and P. Hamm, "Direct observation of self-trapped vibrational states in α-helices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 106405 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Edler and P. Hamm, "Spectral response of crystalline acetanilide and N-methylacetamide: vibrational self-trapping in hydrogen-bonded crystals," Phys. Rev. B 69, 214301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, and P. Hamm, "Labeling vibrations by light: ultrafast transient 2D-IR spectroscopy tracks vibrational modes during photoinduced charge transfer," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 990-991 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, R. Behrendt, C. Renner, L. Moroder, J. Wachtveitl, and P. Hamm, "Transient 2D-IR spectroscopy: snapshots of the nonequilibrium ensemble during the picosecond conformational transition of a small peptide," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8654-8660 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Woutersen and P. Hamm, "Time-resolved two-dimensional vibrational spectroscopy of a short α-helix in water," J. Chem. Phys. 115, 7737-7743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Hamm, M. Lim, W. F. DeGrado, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Pump/probe self heterodyned 2D spectroscopy of vibrational transitions of a small globular peptide," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 1907-1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Hamm, R. A. Kaindl, and J. Stenger, "Noise suppression in femtosecond mid-infrared light sources," Opt. Lett. 25, 1798-1800 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, J.

J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, and P. Hamm, "Labeling vibrations by light: ultrafast transient 2D-IR spectroscopy tracks vibrational modes during photoinduced charge transfer," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 990-991 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, R. Behrendt, C. Renner, L. Moroder, J. Wachtveitl, and P. Hamm, "Transient 2D-IR spectroscopy: snapshots of the nonequilibrium ensemble during the picosecond conformational transition of a small peptide," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8654-8660 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

I. V. Rubtsov, K. Kumar, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Dual-frequency 2D IR photon echo of a hydrogen bond," Chem. Phys. Lett. 402, 439-439 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Kim, J. P. Wang, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "The 2D IR spectroscopy of the alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 7511-7521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Kim and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Chemical exchange 2D IR of hydrogen-bond making and breaking," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 11185-11190 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Ge, M. T. Zanni, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Effects of vibrational frequency correlations on two-dimensional infrared spectra," J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 962-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Ge and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Femtosecond two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: IR-COSY and THIRSTY," PhysChemComm 5, 17-26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zanni, M. C. Asplund, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Two-dimensional heterodyned and stimulated infrared photon echoes of N-methylacetamide-D," J. Chem. Phys. 114, 4579-4590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zanni, N. H. Ge, Y. S. Kim, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Two-dimensional IR spectroscopy can be designed to eliminate the diagonal peaks and expose only the crosspeaks needed for structure determination," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 11265-11270 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hamm, M. Lim, W. F. DeGrado, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Pump/probe self heterodyned 2D spectroscopy of vibrational transitions of a small globular peptide," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 1907-1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hybl, T. D.

Jennings, R. T.

Joffre, M.

Jonas, D. M.

Kaindl, R. A.

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kass, I.

P. K. Mukherjee, T. Amber, E. C. Fulmer, I. Kass, I. T. Arkin, and M. T. Zanni, "Site-specific vibrational dynamics of the CD3zet membrane peptide using heterodyned two-dimensional infrared photon echo spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10215-10224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khalil, M.

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, "Vibrational coherence transfer characterized with Fourier-transform 2D IR spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 121, 362-373 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, "Coherent 2D IR spectroscopy: molecular structure and dynamics in solution," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 5258-5279(2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Demirdoven, M. Khalil, O. Golonzka, and A. Tokmakoff, "Dispersion compensation with optical materials for compression of intense sub-100-fs mid-infrared pulses," Opt. Lett. 27, 433-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

Y. S. Kim and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Chemical exchange 2D IR of hydrogen-bond making and breaking," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 11185-11190 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Kim, J. P. Wang, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "The 2D IR spectroscopy of the alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 7511-7521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zanni, N. H. Ge, Y. S. Kim, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Two-dimensional IR spectroscopy can be designed to eliminate the diagonal peaks and expose only the crosspeaks needed for structure determination," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 11265-11270 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krumbugel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbugel, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. A. Walmsley, "Measurement of the intensity and phase of ultraweak, ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 884-884 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krummel, A. T.

E. C. Fulmer, P. Mukherjee, A. T. Krummel, and M. T. Zanni, "A pulse sequence for directly measuring the anharmonicities of coupled vibrations: two-quantum two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 8067-8078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, K.

I. V. Rubtsov, K. Kumar, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Dual-frequency 2D IR photon echo of a hydrogen bond," Chem. Phys. Lett. 402, 439-439 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, K.

J. Zheng, K. Kwak, J. Asbury, X. Chen, I. R. Piletic, and M. D. Fayer, "Physics: ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time," Science 309, 1338-1343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landin, B. L.

Lepetit, L.

Likforman, J. P.

Lim, M.

P. Hamm, M. Lim, W. F. DeGrado, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Pump/probe self heterodyned 2D spectroscopy of vibrational transitions of a small globular peptide," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 1907-1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

McClain, B. L.

B. L. McClain, I. J. Finkelstein, and M. D. Fayer, "Vibrational echo experiments on red blood cells: comparison of the dynamics of cytoplasmic and aqueous hemoglobin," Chem. Phys. Lett. 392, 324-329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Merchant, K. A.

K. A. Merchant, D. E. Thompson, and M. D. Fayer, "Two-dimensional time-frequency ultrafast infrared vibrational echo spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3899-3902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moroder, L.

J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, R. Behrendt, C. Renner, L. Moroder, J. Wachtveitl, and P. Hamm, "Transient 2D-IR spectroscopy: snapshots of the nonequilibrium ensemble during the picosecond conformational transition of a small peptide," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8654-8660 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, P.

E. C. Fulmer, F. Ding, P. Mukherjee, and M. T. Zanni, "Vibrational dynamics of ions in glass from fifth-order two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 067402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Fulmer, P. Mukherjee, A. T. Krummel, and M. T. Zanni, "A pulse sequence for directly measuring the anharmonicities of coupled vibrations: two-quantum two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 8067-8078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukherjee, P. K.

P. K. Mukherjee, T. Amber, E. C. Fulmer, I. Kass, I. T. Arkin, and M. T. Zanni, "Site-specific vibrational dynamics of the CD3zet membrane peptide using heterodyned two-dimensional infrared photon echo spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10215-10224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omenetto, F. G.

C. W. Siders, J. L. W. Siders, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, "Multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 432-440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pfister, R.

J. Edler, R. Pfister, V. Pouthier, C. Falvo, and P. Hamm, "Direct observation of self-trapped vibrational states in α-helices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 106405 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piletic, I. R.

J. Zheng, K. Kwak, J. Asbury, X. Chen, I. R. Piletic, and M. D. Fayer, "Physics: ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time," Science 309, 1338-1343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, C. Stromberg, K. J. Gaffney, I. R. Piletic, A. Goun, and M. D. Fayer, "Ultrafast heterodyne detected infrared multidimensional vibrational stimulated echo studies of hydrogen bond dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 362-371 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pouthier, V.

J. Edler, R. Pfister, V. Pouthier, C. Falvo, and P. Hamm, "Direct observation of self-trapped vibrational states in α-helices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 106405 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajaram, B.

Renner, C.

J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, R. Behrendt, C. Renner, L. Moroder, J. Wachtveitl, and P. Hamm, "Transient 2D-IR spectroscopy: snapshots of the nonequilibrium ensemble during the picosecond conformational transition of a small peptide," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8654-8660 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rubtsov, I. V.

I. V. Rubtsov, K. Kumar, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Dual-frequency 2D IR photon echo of a hydrogen bond," Chem. Phys. Lett. 402, 439-439 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, N. F.

J. A. Gruetzmacher and N. F. Scherer, "Few-cycle mid-infrared pulse generation, characterization, and coherent propagation in optically dense media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2227-2236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shim, S.-H.

Siders, C. W.

C. W. Siders, J. L. W. Siders, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, "Multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 432-440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Siders, J. L. W.

C. W. Siders, J. L. W. Siders, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, "Multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 432-440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steinel, T.

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, and M. D. Fayer, "Hydrogen bond networks: structure and evolution after hydrogen bond breaking," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6544-6554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, C. Stromberg, K. J. Gaffney, I. R. Piletic, A. Goun, and M. D. Fayer, "Ultrafast heterodyne detected infrared multidimensional vibrational stimulated echo studies of hydrogen bond dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 362-371 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

Stenger, J.

Stibenz, G.

Strasfeld, D. B.

Stromberg, C.

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, C. Stromberg, K. J. Gaffney, I. R. Piletic, A. Goun, and M. D. Fayer, "Ultrafast heterodyne detected infrared multidimensional vibrational stimulated echo studies of hydrogen bond dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 362-371 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbugel, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. A. Walmsley, "Measurement of the intensity and phase of ultraweak, ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 884-884 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

C. W. Siders, J. L. W. Siders, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, "Multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 432-440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D. E.

K. A. Merchant, D. E. Thompson, and M. D. Fayer, "Two-dimensional time-frequency ultrafast infrared vibrational echo spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3899-3902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tokmakoff, A.

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, "Vibrational coherence transfer characterized with Fourier-transform 2D IR spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 121, 362-373 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, "Coherent 2D IR spectroscopy: molecular structure and dynamics in solution," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 5258-5279(2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Demirdoven, M. Khalil, O. Golonzka, and A. Tokmakoff, "Dispersion compensation with optical materials for compression of intense sub-100-fs mid-infrared pulses," Opt. Lett. 27, 433-435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. L. Bowie, J. N. Sweetser, R. T. Jennings, M. A. Krumbugel, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. A. Walmsley, "Measurement of the intensity and phase of ultraweak, ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 884-884 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wachtveitl, J.

J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, R. Behrendt, C. Renner, L. Moroder, J. Wachtveitl, and P. Hamm, "Transient 2D-IR spectroscopy: snapshots of the nonequilibrium ensemble during the picosecond conformational transition of a small peptide," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8654-8660 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Wang, J. P.

Y. S. Kim, J. P. Wang, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "The 2D IR spectroscopy of the alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 7511-7521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Woutersen, S.

S. Woutersen and P. Hamm, "Time-resolved two-dimensional vibrational spectroscopy of a short α-helix in water," J. Chem. Phys. 115, 7737-7743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wright, J. C.

J. C. Wright, "Coherent multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 21, 185-255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zanni, M. T.

S.-H. Shim, D. B. Strasfeld, E. C. Fulmer, and M. T. Zanni, "Femtosecond pulse shaping directly in the mid-IR using acousto-optic modulation," Opt. Lett. 31, 838-840 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Fulmer, F. Ding, P. Mukherjee, and M. T. Zanni, "Vibrational dynamics of ions in glass from fifth-order two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 067402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Fulmer, P. Mukherjee, A. T. Krummel, and M. T. Zanni, "A pulse sequence for directly measuring the anharmonicities of coupled vibrations: two-quantum two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 8067-8078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Mukherjee, T. Amber, E. C. Fulmer, I. Kass, I. T. Arkin, and M. T. Zanni, "Site-specific vibrational dynamics of the CD3zet membrane peptide using heterodyned two-dimensional infrared photon echo spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10215-10224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Ge, M. T. Zanni, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Effects of vibrational frequency correlations on two-dimensional infrared spectra," J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 962-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zanni, M. C. Asplund, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Two-dimensional heterodyned and stimulated infrared photon echoes of N-methylacetamide-D," J. Chem. Phys. 114, 4579-4590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zanni, N. H. Ge, Y. S. Kim, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Two-dimensional IR spectroscopy can be designed to eliminate the diagonal peaks and expose only the crosspeaks needed for structure determination," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 11265-11270 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, K. Kwak, J. Asbury, X. Chen, I. R. Piletic, and M. D. Fayer, "Physics: ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time," Science 309, 1338-1343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

D. M. Jonas, "Two-dimensional femtosecond spectroscopy," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 54, 425-425 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, C. Stromberg, K. J. Gaffney, I. R. Piletic, A. Goun, and M. D. Fayer, "Ultrafast heterodyne detected infrared multidimensional vibrational stimulated echo studies of hydrogen bond dynamics," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 362-371 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Rubtsov, K. Kumar, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Dual-frequency 2D IR photon echo of a hydrogen bond," Chem. Phys. Lett. 402, 439-439 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. L. McClain, I. J. Finkelstein, and M. D. Fayer, "Vibrational echo experiments on red blood cells: comparison of the dynamics of cytoplasmic and aqueous hemoglobin," Chem. Phys. Lett. 392, 324-329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. W. Siders, J. L. W. Siders, F. G. Omenetto, and A. J. Taylor, "Multipulse interferometric frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 432-440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. C. Wright, "Coherent multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 21, 185-255 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, and P. Hamm, "Labeling vibrations by light: ultrafast transient 2D-IR spectroscopy tracks vibrational modes during photoinduced charge transfer," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 990-991 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (6)

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, "Vibrational coherence transfer characterized with Fourier-transform 2D IR spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 121, 362-373 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Fulmer, P. Mukherjee, A. T. Krummel, and M. T. Zanni, "A pulse sequence for directly measuring the anharmonicities of coupled vibrations: two-quantum two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 8067-8078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hamm, M. Lim, W. F. DeGrado, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Pump/probe self heterodyned 2D spectroscopy of vibrational transitions of a small globular peptide," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 1907-1916 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Woutersen and P. Hamm, "Time-resolved two-dimensional vibrational spectroscopy of a short α-helix in water," J. Chem. Phys. 115, 7737-7743 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zanni, M. C. Asplund, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Two-dimensional heterodyned and stimulated infrared photon echoes of N-methylacetamide-D," J. Chem. Phys. 114, 4579-4590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Mukherjee, T. Amber, E. C. Fulmer, I. Kass, I. T. Arkin, and M. T. Zanni, "Site-specific vibrational dynamics of the CD3zet membrane peptide using heterodyned two-dimensional infrared photon echo spectroscopy," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 10215-10224 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. Chem. A (2)

N. H. Ge, M. T. Zanni, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Effects of vibrational frequency correlations on two-dimensional infrared spectra," J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 962-972 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Khalil, N. Demirdoven, and A. Tokmakoff, "Coherent 2D IR spectroscopy: molecular structure and dynamics in solution," J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 5258-5279(2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (3)

J. B. Asbury, T. Steinel, and M. D. Fayer, "Hydrogen bond networks: structure and evolution after hydrogen bond breaking," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6544-6554 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, R. Behrendt, C. Renner, L. Moroder, J. Wachtveitl, and P. Hamm, "Transient 2D-IR spectroscopy: snapshots of the nonequilibrium ensemble during the picosecond conformational transition of a small peptide," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8654-8660 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Kim, J. P. Wang, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "The 2D IR spectroscopy of the alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 7511-7521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Edler and P. Hamm, "Spectral response of crystalline acetanilide and N-methylacetamide: vibrational self-trapping in hydrogen-bonded crystals," Phys. Rev. B 69, 214301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. Edler, R. Pfister, V. Pouthier, C. Falvo, and P. Hamm, "Direct observation of self-trapped vibrational states in α-helices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 106405 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Fulmer, F. Ding, P. Mukherjee, and M. T. Zanni, "Vibrational dynamics of ions in glass from fifth-order two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 067402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Merchant, D. E. Thompson, and M. D. Fayer, "Two-dimensional time-frequency ultrafast infrared vibrational echo spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3899-3902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PhysChemComm (1)

N. H. Ge and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Femtosecond two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: IR-COSY and THIRSTY," PhysChemComm 5, 17-26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

Y. S. Kim and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Chemical exchange 2D IR of hydrogen-bond making and breaking," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 11185-11190 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Zanni, N. H. Ge, Y. S. Kim, and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Two-dimensional IR spectroscopy can be designed to eliminate the diagonal peaks and expose only the crosspeaks needed for structure determination," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98, 11265-11270 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbugel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Gruetzmacher and N. F. Scherer, "Few-cycle mid-infrared pulse generation, characterization, and coherent propagation in optically dense media," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2227-2236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Zheng, K. Kwak, J. Asbury, X. Chen, I. R. Piletic, and M. D. Fayer, "Physics: ultrafast dynamics of solute-solvent complexation observed at thermal equilibrium in real time," Science 309, 1338-1343 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Femtosoft Technologies, FROG software version 3.1.2, 2004.

Fit coefficients of retrieved spectral phase at 3, 5, and 8 μm (−9.31×10−11 rad/nm 4+1.11×10−6 rad/nm 3−4.93×10−3 rad/nm 2+9.78 rad/nm −7.27×103; 3×10−9 rad/nm3−5×10−5 rad/nm2+0.237 rad/nm−397.33; −4.01×10−19 rad/nm 6+2.07×10−14 rad/nm 5−4.44×10−10 rad/nm 4+5.06×10−6 rad/nm 3−3.24×10− 2+1.10×102 rad/nm −1.56×105).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated heterodyned SD FROG retrieved magnitude and phase maps calculated from Eqs. (1, 4), A, C, E, G, and I are SD FROG field magnitude maps created by excitation pulses that have zero phase, quadratic spectral phase, cubic spectral phase, quadratic spectral phase, and cubic temporal phase, respectively. B, D, F, H, and I are the corresponding SD FROG phase maps.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated PG FROG signals for various interference conditions. A is the PG FROG with no interfering fields [Eq. (3), t 1 scanned]. B is the PG FROG interfering with an equal magnitude LO at t 4 = 0.5 ps [Eq. (4), t 1 scanned]. C is the same as B with a 10% scattered light field that is not scanned in time [Eq. (6)]. D is the same as B with a 10% scattered field that is scanned in time [Eq. (7)]. Interference fringes seen in D at 500 fs may be superposed on signals that heterodyne LO with scattered excitation light, even if a LO pulse is not present.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Heterodyned SD FROG signals at 3, 5, and 8 μ m central wavelengths (A, D, and G), retrieved magnitudes with contours every 20% (B, E, and H), and retrieved phase maps (C, F, and I). The phase is wrapped at + π and π in C, F, and I.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporally heterodyned FWM signal at 5 μ m ( 60 THz ) central wavelength. The vertical axis is the scan of the FWM excitation pulse time delay relative to the other two excitation pulses. The horizontal axis is the scan of the local oscillator delay relative to the two fixed pulses. A is the measured signal, B is the retrieved magnitude with contours every 20%, C is the retrieved phase, and D is the phase after subtracting out the phase accumulation associated with the delays (see text). In D, contours are drawn every 0.5 rad with a total range plotted from 3 to 3 rad .

Equations (7)

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E sig ( ω ) FT { f ( t ) FT 1 [ E HFROG ( ω ) 2 ] } e i ω τ E ref * ( ω ) ,
E sig ( t ) FT [ f ( ω ) FT 1 [ E THFROG ( t ) 2 ] ]
E FROG ( ω , t scanned = 1 or 2 ) = FT [ E 1 ( t t 1 ) E 2 * ( t t 2 ) E 3 ( t t 3 ) ] ,
E HFROG ( ω , t scanned = 1 or 2 ) = FT [ E 1 ( t t 1 ) E 2 * ( t t 2 ) E 3 ( t t 3 ) + E 4 ( t t 4 ) ] .
E THFROG ( t 4 , t scanned = 1 or 2 ) = d t [ E 1 ( t t 1 ) E 2 * ( t t 2 ) E 3 ( t t 3 ) + E 4 ( t t 4 ) ] .
E HFROG non scanned scatter ( ω , t 1 ) = FT [ E 1 ( t t 1 ) E 2 * ( t t 2 ) E 3 ( t t 3 ) + E 4 ( t t 4 ) + 0.1 E 2 ( t t 2 ) ] .
E HFROG scanned scatter ( ω , t 1 ) = FT [ E 1 ( t t 1 ) E 2 * ( t t 2 ) E 3 ( t t 3 ) + E 4 ( t t 4 ) + 0.1 E 1 ( t t 1 ) ] .

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