Abstract

We have shown, for the first time to our knowledge, both theoretically and experimentally that a bright photovoltaic (PV) spatial soliton (SS) can be formed in a photorefractive crystal with large Glass constant and negative refractive index perturbation, provided that the Glass constant of the background beam is larger than that of the self-trapped (signal) beam. The ratio of the effective Glass constants of the self-trapped beam and the background beam is the key parameter that determines whether the PV SS is bright or dark. We have demonstrated experimentally that bright SSs can be formed in LiNbO3 crystals using all four combinations of polarizations of the signal beam and the background beam.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, D. E. Leaird, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, "Observation of spatial optical solitons in a nonlinear glass waveguide," Opt. Lett. 15, 471-473 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state," Ferroelectrics 22, 949-960 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. T. Shi and S. Chi, "Nonlinear photonic switching by using the spatial soliton collision," Opt. Lett. 15, 1123-1125 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Shalaby and A. Barthelemy, "Experimental spatial soliton trapping and switching," Opt. Lett. 16, 1472-1474 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Maufoy, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, and G. Kugel, "Simulation of the temporal behavior of soliton propagation in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. E 59, 6116-6121 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. Aguillar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vyloukh, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, "Two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 324-326 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Segev, M. F. Shih, and G. C. Valley, "Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706-718 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, "Bright, dark, and gray spatial soliton states in photorefractive media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628-1633 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Kos, H. Ming, and G. Salamo, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-4333 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Ryf, M. Wiki, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, and A. A. Zozulya, "Launching one-transverse-dimensional photorefractive solitons in KNbO3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 159, 339-348 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. N. Christodoulides and T. H. Coskun, "Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646-649 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Mitchell and M. Segev, "Self-trapping of incoherent white light," Nature 387, 880-883 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. F. Shih, and M. Segev, "Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490-493 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams," Science 280, 889-892 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. Anastassiou, M. Shih, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, "Optically induced photovoltaic self-defocusing-to-self-focusing transition," Opt. Lett. 23, 924-926 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. M. Glass, D. Von der Linde, and T. Negran, "High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233-235 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  26. The 594nm laser beam from a He-Ne laser was too weak to allow the measurement of the Glass constant. The value of R found by extrapolation is 1.9.
  27. To avoid any residual Delta n induced by the SB during optical alignment processes.
  28. We have also checked the SB size near the output face by scanning a razor blade across the SB at a position ∼0.1mm from the output face and monitored the signal intensity at the far field by a photodiode. The beam size of a SS deduced by this method is consistent with the value shown in Fig.

1999 (3)

J. Maufoy, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, and G. Kugel, "Simulation of the temporal behavior of soliton propagation in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. E 59, 6116-6121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Ryf, M. Wiki, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, and A. A. Zozulya, "Launching one-transverse-dimensional photorefractive solitons in KNbO3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 159, 339-348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams," Science 280, 889-892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Anastassiou, M. Shih, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, "Optically induced photovoltaic self-defocusing-to-self-focusing transition," Opt. Lett. 23, 924-926 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

D. N. Christodoulides and T. H. Coskun, "Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646-649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell and M. Segev, "Self-trapping of incoherent white light," Nature 387, 880-883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

K. Kos, H. Ming, and G. Salamo, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, "Two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 324-326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, M. F. Shih, and G. C. Valley, "Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706-718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. F. Shih, and M. Segev, "Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490-493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, "Bright, dark, and gray spatial soliton states in photorefractive media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628-1633 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. Aguillar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vyloukh, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1990 (2)

1979 (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state," Ferroelectrics 22, 949-960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

A. M. Glass, D. Von der Linde, and T. Negran, "High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233-235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Aguillar, P. A.

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. Aguillar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vyloukh, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Anastassiou, C.

Barthelemy, A.

Bashaw, M.

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashaw, M. C.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carvalho, M. I.

Castillo, M. D. I.

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. Aguillar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vyloukh, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams," Science 280, 889-892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Anastassiou, M. Shih, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, "Optically induced photovoltaic self-defocusing-to-self-focusing transition," Opt. Lett. 23, 924-926 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. F. Shih, and M. Segev, "Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490-493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chi, S.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams," Science 280, 889-892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides and T. H. Coskun, "Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646-649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides and M. I. Carvalho, "Bright, dark, and gray spatial soliton states in photorefractive media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1628-1633 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coskun, T. H.

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams," Science 280, 889-892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides and T. H. Coskun, "Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646-649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crosignani, B.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiPorto, P.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G. C.

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fressengeas, N.

J. Maufoy, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, and G. Kugel, "Simulation of the temporal behavior of soliton propagation in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. E 59, 6116-6121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garret, M. H.

Glass, A. M.

A. M. Glass, D. Von der Linde, and T. Negran, "High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233-235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

R. Ryf, M. Wiki, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, and A. A. Zozulya, "Launching one-transverse-dimensional photorefractive solitons in KNbO3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 159, 339-348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

Kos, K.

K. Kos, H. Ming, and G. Salamo, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kugel, G.

J. Maufoy, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, and G. Kugel, "Simulation of the temporal behavior of soliton propagation in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. E 59, 6116-6121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state," Ferroelectrics 22, 949-960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Leach, P.

Leaird, D. E.

Lee, K. K.

W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. K.

W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Markov, V. B.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state," Ferroelectrics 22, 949-960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Maufoy, J.

J. Maufoy, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, and G. Kugel, "Simulation of the temporal behavior of soliton propagation in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. E 59, 6116-6121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ming, H.

K. Kos, H. Ming, and G. Salamo, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M.

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams," Science 280, 889-892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Anastassiou, M. Shih, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, "Optically induced photovoltaic self-defocusing-to-self-focusing transition," Opt. Lett. 23, 924-926 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell and M. Segev, "Self-trapping of incoherent white light," Nature 387, 880-883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. F. Shih, and M. Segev, "Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490-493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montemezzani, G.

R. Ryf, M. Wiki, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, and A. A. Zozulya, "Launching one-transverse-dimensional photorefractive solitons in KNbO3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 159, 339-348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morin, M.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Negran, T.

A. M. Glass, D. Von der Linde, and T. Negran, "High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233-235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Odulov, S. G.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state," Ferroelectrics 22, 949-960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, M. K.

Ryf, R.

R. Ryf, M. Wiki, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, and A. A. Zozulya, "Launching one-transverse-dimensional photorefractive solitons in KNbO3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 159, 339-348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G.

K. Kos, H. Ming, and G. Salamo, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, "Two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 324-326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. Aguillar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vyloukh, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

C. Anastassiou, M. Shih, M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, "Optically induced photovoltaic self-defocusing-to-self-focusing transition," Opt. Lett. 23, 924-926 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams," Science 280, 889-892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mitchell and M. Segev, "Self-trapping of incoherent white light," Nature 387, 880-883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, M. F. Shih, and G. C. Valley, "Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706-718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, "Two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 324-326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. F. Shih, and M. Segev, "Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490-493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaby, M.

Sharp, E.

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

She, W. L.

W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shi, T. T.

Shih, M.

Shih, M. F.

M. Segev, M. F. Shih, and G. C. Valley, "Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706-718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. F. Shih, and M. Segev, "Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490-493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

Smith, P. W. E.

Soskin, M. S.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state," Ferroelectrics 22, 949-960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S.

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. Aguillar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vyloukh, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taya, M.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valley, G. C.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, M. C. Bashaw, M. Taya, and M. M. Fejer, "Photovoltaic spatial solitons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1772-1781 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, M. F. Shih, and G. C. Valley, "Photorefractive screening solitons of high and low intensity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706-718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garret, G. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, "Two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Opt. Lett. 21, 324-326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinetskii, V. L.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state," Ferroelectrics 22, 949-960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, E. M.

Von der Linde, D.

A. M. Glass, D. Von der Linde, and T. Negran, "High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233-235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vyloukh, V.

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. Aguillar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vyloukh, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Wiki, M.

R. Ryf, M. Wiki, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, and A. A. Zozulya, "Launching one-transverse-dimensional photorefractive solitons in KNbO3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 159, 339-348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolfersberger, D.

J. Maufoy, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, and G. Kugel, "Simulation of the temporal behavior of soliton propagation in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. E 59, 6116-6121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zozulya, A. A.

R. Ryf, M. Wiki, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, and A. A. Zozulya, "Launching one-transverse-dimensional photorefractive solitons in KNbO3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 159, 339-348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. D. I. Castillo, P. A. Aguillar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vyloukh, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408-410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Glass, D. Von der Linde, and T. Negran, "High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233-235 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, "Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state," Ferroelectrics 22, 949-960 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Nature (1)

M. Mitchell and M. Segev, "Self-trapping of incoherent white light," Nature 387, 880-883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Ryf, M. Wiki, G. Montemezzani, P. Günter, and A. A. Zozulya, "Launching one-transverse-dimensional photorefractive solitons in KNbO3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 159, 339-348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, "Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457-R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, "Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095-3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

J. Maufoy, N. Fressengeas, D. Wolfersberger, and G. Kugel, "Simulation of the temporal behavior of soliton propagation in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. E 59, 6116-6121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kos, H. Ming, and G. Salamo, "One-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons," Phys. Rev. E 53, R4330-4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, "Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211-3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. F. Shih, and M. Segev, "Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490-493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, "Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1978-1981 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Duree, G. Salamo, M. Segev, A. Yariv, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and E. Sharp, "Observation of self-trapping of an optical beam due to the photorefractive effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 533-536 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fisher, "Spatial solitons in photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 923-926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. She, K. K. Lee, and W. K. Lee, "Observation of two-dimensional bright photovoltaic spatial solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3182-3185 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides and T. H. Coskun, "Theory of incoherent self-focusing in biased photorefractive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 646-649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams," Science 280, 889-892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

The 594nm laser beam from a He-Ne laser was too weak to allow the measurement of the Glass constant. The value of R found by extrapolation is 1.9.

To avoid any residual Delta n induced by the SB during optical alignment processes.

We have also checked the SB size near the output face by scanning a razor blade across the SB at a position ∼0.1mm from the output face and monitored the signal intensity at the far field by a photodiode. The beam size of a SS deduced by this method is consistent with the value shown in Fig.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Δ n as functions of I s I b for various R values. Curves from top, R = 0 , 0.5 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , and 6.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup: Ar + , argon-ion laser; He Ne , He Ne laser; PRT1 and PRT2, polarization rotators; BS, beam splitter; M, mirror; L1, L2, lenses; CCD, camera; S, screen. The c axis of the crystal is indicated by the arrow. The CCD depicted is for recording a side view of the scattering column.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(g) Far-field patterns of a 632.8 nm SB and a 514.5 nm BB. Without BB: (a) before defocusing and self-scattering; (b) defocused after 10 min illumination. With BB: (c)–(g) recorded at t = 0 , 15 , 37 , 80 , and 243 s , respectively. The field of view of (b) is three times those of (a), (c)–(h). (h) BB alone: strong defocusing and self-scattering after 5 min illumination. Frame size of each panel: 20 cm × 20 cm , except for (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top view of scattering columns (with CCD camera above the crystal) of the 632.8 nm SB: (a) normal diffracted beam, (b) self-defocused beam, and (c) SS formation. The SB is propagating downward, which is the horizontal direction. Below each panel is the intensity distribution of the corresponding scattering columns.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Far-field pattern of a 488 nm SB with the white screen located 1.6 m from the crystal: (a) before defocusing without the BB; (b) 4 min after unblocking the BB.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

ζ versus r obtained by using (a) e e and (b) o e polarization combinations.

Equations (9)

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Δ n = 1 2 n b 3 r eff E sc ,
( S s I s + S b I b ) ( N d N d i ) γ n c N d i = 0 ,
J = [ q μ n c E sc + k B T μ n c + ( S s K s p I s + S b K b p I b ) ( N d N d i ) ] = 0 ,
E sc = q ε 0 ε r ( n c + N A N d i ) .
q μ n c E sc S b I b K b p ( N d N d i ) = J S b I b K b p ( N d N d i ) [ S s K s p I s ( x ) S b K b p I b + 1 ] .
q μ n c E sc S b I b K b p ( N d N d i ) = [ S s K b p I s ( x ) S b K b p I b + 1 ] .
( N d N d i ) = γ n c N d i S s I s ( x ) + S b I b .
E sc ( x ) = R + I s ( x ) I b 1 + I s ( x ) I b E p ,
Δ n ( x ) = C R + I s ( x ) I b 1 + I s ( x ) I b ,

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