Abstract

Pure and Er-doped ([Er]crystal2.4×1020cm3), NaBi(WO4)2 (NBW), NaBi(MoO4)2, and LiBi(MoO4)2 crystals have been grown by the Czochralski method. The three crystal hosts have similar structural and optical properties. The noncentrosymmetric space group I4¯ (No. 82) crystallographic structure has been established through 300K single-crystal x-ray and neutron (for NBW only) diffraction. Er3+ energy levels were determined experimentally and simulated in the S4 symmetry through a crystal-field analysis. With this background, the large spectroscopic bandwidths observed were ascribed to the presence of two 2b and 2d sites for Er3+ and to different short-range Na+ and Bi3+ distributions around both sites. The radiative properties of Er3+ are described by the Judd–Ofelt theory achieving branching ratios and radiative lifetimes for transitions useful as laser channels. The I1324I1524 laser channel (λ1.5μm) shows a peak emission cross-section σEMI (λ1530nm)0.5×1020cm2 and a quantum efficiency η0.68 to 0.74. The laser emission is envisaged to be tunable by Δλ100nm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Tunable laser operation of ytterbium in disordered single crystals of Yb:NaGd(WO4)2," Opt. Express 12, 5362-5367 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, C. Cascales, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R29-R31 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Rivier, M. Rico, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, "Sub-80 fs pulses from a mode-locked Yb:NaGd(WO4)2 laser," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2005 Conference Digest CD-ROM (2005), paper CF4-4-THU.
  4. A. A. Kaminski, Crystalline Lasers (CRC Press, 1996).
  5. D. K. Sardar, C. C. Russell III, R. M. Yow, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Spectroscopic analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in NaBi(WO4)2," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1180-1184 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov, "Yb and Er-doped single crystals of double tungstates NaGd(WO4)2, NaLa(WO4)2, and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for lasers operating in the 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges," Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 601-608 (2002) K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov,[Opt. Spektrosk. 92, 657-664 (2002)].
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Rico, V. Volkov, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Measurement and crystal field analysis of Er3+ energy levels in crystals of NaBi(MoO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2 with local disorder," Chem. Phys. 279, 73-86 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. International Tables for Crystallography (Kynoch, 1974), Vol. 4.
  9. SHELXTL Version 6.10 software package, Siemens Energy and Automation Incorporated Analytical Instrumentation (2000).
  10. V. Volkov, M. Rico, A. Méndez-Blas, and C. Zaldo, "Preparation and properties of disordered NaBi(XO4)2, X=W or Mo, crystals doped with rare earths," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 95-105 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Luomajarvi, E. Rauhala, and M. Hautala, "Oxygen detection by non-Rutherford proton backscattering below 2.5 MeV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 9, 255-258 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Cassagnou, J. M. F. Jeronymo, G. S. Mani, A. Sadeghi, and P. D. Forsyth, "The Li7(p,α) alpha reaction," Nucl. Phys. 33, 449-457 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Heck, "Three-dimensional lithium microanalysis by the Li7(p,α)," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 30, 486-490 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Sagara, K. Kamada, and S. Yamaguchi, "Depth profiling of lithium by use of the nuclear reaction Li7(p,α)He4," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 34, 465-469 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Vizkelethy, "Simulation and evaluation of nuclear reaction spectra," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 45, 1-5 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, and J. H. van der Mass, "Polarized IR and Raman spectra of tetragonal NaBi(WO4)2, NaBi(MoO4)2 and LiBi(MoO4)2 single crystals with scheelite structure," J. Mol. Struct. 348, 349-352 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Hanuza, A. Haznar, M. Maczka, A. Pietraszko, A. Lemiec, J. H. van der Maas, and E. T. G. Lutz, "Structure and vibrational properties of tetragonal scheelite NaBi(MoO4)2," J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 953-963 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Maczka, E. P. Kokanyan, and J. Hanuza, "Vibrational study and lattice dynamics of disordered NaBi(WO4)2," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 33-38 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Waskowska, L. Gerward, J. Staun Olsen, M. Maczka, T. Lis, A. Pietraszko, and W. Morgenroth, "Low-temperature and high-pressure structural behaviour of NaBi(MoO4)2—an X-ray diffraction study," J. Solid State Chem. 178, 2218-2224 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. V. Kletsov, V. A. Vinokurov, and R. F. Klevtsova, "Double molybdates and tungstates of alkali metals with bismuth, M+Bi(TO4)2," Z. Kristallogr. 18, 1192-1197 (1973).
  21. J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Continuous-wave diode-pumped operation of an Yb:NaLa(WO4)2 laser at room temperature," Opt. Laser Technol. (available online December 9, 2005).
  22. B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. Görller-Walrand and K. Binnemans, "Spectral intensities of f-f transitions," in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K.A.Gschneider, Jr. and L.Eyring, eds. (Elsevier Science, 1998), Vol. 25, p. 101.
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. J. Weber, "Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3," Phys. Rev. 157, 262-272 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. E. McCumber, "Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra," Phys. Rev. 136, A954-A957 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Koetke and G. Huber, "Infrared excited-state absorption and stimulated emission cross sections of Er3+ doped crystals," Appl. Phys. B 61, 151-158 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. Porcher, M. Couto dos Santos, and O. Malta, "Relationship between phenomenological crystal field parameters and crystal structure. The simple overlap model," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1, 397-405 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Z. Cheng, Q. Lu, S. Zhang, J. Liu, X. Yi, F. Song, Y. Kong, J. Han, and H. Chen, "Growth and properties of NaEr(WO4)2 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 222, 797-800 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (4)

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, C. Cascales, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R29-R31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Maczka, E. P. Kokanyan, and J. Hanuza, "Vibrational study and lattice dynamics of disordered NaBi(WO4)2," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 33-38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Waskowska, L. Gerward, J. Staun Olsen, M. Maczka, T. Lis, A. Pietraszko, and W. Morgenroth, "Low-temperature and high-pressure structural behaviour of NaBi(MoO4)2—an X-ray diffraction study," J. Solid State Chem. 178, 2218-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Continuous-wave diode-pumped operation of an Yb:NaLa(WO4)2 laser at room temperature," Opt. Laser Technol. (available online December 9, 2005).

2004 (2)

D. K. Sardar, C. C. Russell III, R. M. Yow, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Spectroscopic analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in NaBi(WO4)2," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1180-1184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Tunable laser operation of ytterbium in disordered single crystals of Yb:NaGd(WO4)2," Opt. Express 12, 5362-5367 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov, "Yb and Er-doped single crystals of double tungstates NaGd(WO4)2, NaLa(WO4)2, and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for lasers operating in the 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges," Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 601-608 (2002) K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov,[Opt. Spektrosk. 92, 657-664 (2002)].
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, V. Volkov, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Measurement and crystal field analysis of Er3+ energy levels in crystals of NaBi(MoO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2 with local disorder," Chem. Phys. 279, 73-86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Volkov, M. Rico, A. Méndez-Blas, and C. Zaldo, "Preparation and properties of disordered NaBi(XO4)2, X=W or Mo, crystals doped with rare earths," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 95-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Z. Cheng, Q. Lu, S. Zhang, J. Liu, X. Yi, F. Song, Y. Kong, J. Han, and H. Chen, "Growth and properties of NaEr(WO4)2 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 222, 797-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Porcher, M. Couto dos Santos, and O. Malta, "Relationship between phenomenological crystal field parameters and crystal structure. The simple overlap model," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1, 397-405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Hanuza, A. Haznar, M. Maczka, A. Pietraszko, A. Lemiec, J. H. van der Maas, and E. T. G. Lutz, "Structure and vibrational properties of tetragonal scheelite NaBi(MoO4)2," J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 953-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, and J. H. van der Mass, "Polarized IR and Raman spectra of tetragonal NaBi(WO4)2, NaBi(MoO4)2 and LiBi(MoO4)2 single crystals with scheelite structure," J. Mol. Struct. 348, 349-352 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Koetke and G. Huber, "Infrared excited-state absorption and stimulated emission cross sections of Er3+ doped crystals," Appl. Phys. B 61, 151-158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. Vizkelethy, "Simulation and evaluation of nuclear reaction spectra," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 45, 1-5 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

D. Heck, "Three-dimensional lithium microanalysis by the Li7(p,α)," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 30, 486-490 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Sagara, K. Kamada, and S. Yamaguchi, "Depth profiling of lithium by use of the nuclear reaction Li7(p,α)He4," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 34, 465-469 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. Luomajarvi, E. Rauhala, and M. Hautala, "Oxygen detection by non-Rutherford proton backscattering below 2.5 MeV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 9, 255-258 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

P. V. Kletsov, V. A. Vinokurov, and R. F. Klevtsova, "Double molybdates and tungstates of alkali metals with bismuth, M+Bi(TO4)2," Z. Kristallogr. 18, 1192-1197 (1973).

1967 (1)

M. J. Weber, "Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3," Phys. Rev. 157, 262-272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, "Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra," Phys. Rev. 136, A954-A957 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (3)

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cassagnou, J. M. F. Jeronymo, G. S. Mani, A. Sadeghi, and P. D. Forsyth, "The Li7(p,α) alpha reaction," Nucl. Phys. 33, 449-457 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Binnemans, K.

C. Görller-Walrand and K. Binnemans, "Spectral intensities of f-f transitions," in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K.A.Gschneider, Jr. and L.Eyring, eds. (Elsevier Science, 1998), Vol. 25, p. 101.
[CrossRef]

Cano-Torres, J. M.

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Continuous-wave diode-pumped operation of an Yb:NaLa(WO4)2 laser at room temperature," Opt. Laser Technol. (available online December 9, 2005).

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, C. Cascales, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R29-R31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cascales, C.

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, C. Cascales, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R29-R31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Continuous-wave diode-pumped operation of an Yb:NaLa(WO4)2 laser at room temperature," Opt. Laser Technol. (available online December 9, 2005).

M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Tunable laser operation of ytterbium in disordered single crystals of Yb:NaGd(WO4)2," Opt. Express 12, 5362-5367 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rico, V. Volkov, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Measurement and crystal field analysis of Er3+ energy levels in crystals of NaBi(MoO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2 with local disorder," Chem. Phys. 279, 73-86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Rivier, M. Rico, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, "Sub-80 fs pulses from a mode-locked Yb:NaGd(WO4)2 laser," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2005 Conference Digest CD-ROM (2005), paper CF4-4-THU.

Cassagnou, Y.

Y. Cassagnou, J. M. F. Jeronymo, G. S. Mani, A. Sadeghi, and P. D. Forsyth, "The Li7(p,α) alpha reaction," Nucl. Phys. 33, 449-457 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Z. Cheng, Q. Lu, S. Zhang, J. Liu, X. Yi, F. Song, Y. Kong, J. Han, and H. Chen, "Growth and properties of NaEr(WO4)2 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 222, 797-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z.

Z. Cheng, Q. Lu, S. Zhang, J. Liu, X. Yi, F. Song, Y. Kong, J. Han, and H. Chen, "Growth and properties of NaEr(WO4)2 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 222, 797-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Couto dos Santos, M.

P. Porcher, M. Couto dos Santos, and O. Malta, "Relationship between phenomenological crystal field parameters and crystal structure. The simple overlap model," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1, 397-405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Esteban-Betegón, F.

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Continuous-wave diode-pumped operation of an Yb:NaLa(WO4)2 laser at room temperature," Opt. Laser Technol. (available online December 9, 2005).

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, C. Cascales, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R29-R31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Tunable laser operation of ytterbium in disordered single crystals of Yb:NaGd(WO4)2," Opt. Express 12, 5362-5367 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rivier, M. Rico, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, "Sub-80 fs pulses from a mode-locked Yb:NaGd(WO4)2 laser," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2005 Conference Digest CD-ROM (2005), paper CF4-4-THU.

Forsyth, P. D.

Y. Cassagnou, J. M. F. Jeronymo, G. S. Mani, A. Sadeghi, and P. D. Forsyth, "The Li7(p,α) alpha reaction," Nucl. Phys. 33, 449-457 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Gerward, L.

A. Waskowska, L. Gerward, J. Staun Olsen, M. Maczka, T. Lis, A. Pietraszko, and W. Morgenroth, "Low-temperature and high-pressure structural behaviour of NaBi(MoO4)2—an X-ray diffraction study," J. Solid State Chem. 178, 2218-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Görller-Walrand, C.

C. Görller-Walrand and K. Binnemans, "Spectral intensities of f-f transitions," in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K.A.Gschneider, Jr. and L.Eyring, eds. (Elsevier Science, 1998), Vol. 25, p. 101.
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Continuous-wave diode-pumped operation of an Yb:NaLa(WO4)2 laser at room temperature," Opt. Laser Technol. (available online December 9, 2005).

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, C. Cascales, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R29-R31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Tunable laser operation of ytterbium in disordered single crystals of Yb:NaGd(WO4)2," Opt. Express 12, 5362-5367 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rivier, M. Rico, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, "Sub-80 fs pulses from a mode-locked Yb:NaGd(WO4)2 laser," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2005 Conference Digest CD-ROM (2005), paper CF4-4-THU.

Gruber, J. B.

D. K. Sardar, C. C. Russell III, R. M. Yow, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Spectroscopic analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in NaBi(WO4)2," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1180-1184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

Z. Cheng, Q. Lu, S. Zhang, J. Liu, X. Yi, F. Song, Y. Kong, J. Han, and H. Chen, "Growth and properties of NaEr(WO4)2 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 222, 797-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hanuza, J.

M. Maczka, E. P. Kokanyan, and J. Hanuza, "Vibrational study and lattice dynamics of disordered NaBi(WO4)2," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 33-38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanuza, A. Haznar, M. Maczka, A. Pietraszko, A. Lemiec, J. H. van der Maas, and E. T. G. Lutz, "Structure and vibrational properties of tetragonal scheelite NaBi(MoO4)2," J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 953-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, and J. H. van der Mass, "Polarized IR and Raman spectra of tetragonal NaBi(WO4)2, NaBi(MoO4)2 and LiBi(MoO4)2 single crystals with scheelite structure," J. Mol. Struct. 348, 349-352 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hautala, M.

M. Luomajarvi, E. Rauhala, and M. Hautala, "Oxygen detection by non-Rutherford proton backscattering below 2.5 MeV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 9, 255-258 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Haznar, A.

J. Hanuza, A. Haznar, M. Maczka, A. Pietraszko, A. Lemiec, J. H. van der Maas, and E. T. G. Lutz, "Structure and vibrational properties of tetragonal scheelite NaBi(MoO4)2," J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 953-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heck, D.

D. Heck, "Three-dimensional lithium microanalysis by the Li7(p,α)," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 30, 486-490 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

J. Koetke and G. Huber, "Infrared excited-state absorption and stimulated emission cross sections of Er3+ doped crystals," Appl. Phys. B 61, 151-158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jeronymo, J. M. F.

Y. Cassagnou, J. M. F. Jeronymo, G. S. Mani, A. Sadeghi, and P. D. Forsyth, "The Li7(p,α) alpha reaction," Nucl. Phys. 33, 449-457 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kamada, K.

A. Sagara, K. Kamada, and S. Yamaguchi, "Depth profiling of lithium by use of the nuclear reaction Li7(p,α)He4," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 34, 465-469 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, A. A.

A. A. Kaminski, Crystalline Lasers (CRC Press, 1996).

Kletsov, P. V.

P. V. Kletsov, V. A. Vinokurov, and R. F. Klevtsova, "Double molybdates and tungstates of alkali metals with bismuth, M+Bi(TO4)2," Z. Kristallogr. 18, 1192-1197 (1973).

Klevtsova, R. F.

P. V. Kletsov, V. A. Vinokurov, and R. F. Klevtsova, "Double molybdates and tungstates of alkali metals with bismuth, M+Bi(TO4)2," Z. Kristallogr. 18, 1192-1197 (1973).

Koetke, J.

J. Koetke and G. Huber, "Infrared excited-state absorption and stimulated emission cross sections of Er3+ doped crystals," Appl. Phys. B 61, 151-158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kokanyan, E. P.

M. Maczka, E. P. Kokanyan, and J. Hanuza, "Vibrational study and lattice dynamics of disordered NaBi(WO4)2," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 33-38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sardar, C. C. Russell III, R. M. Yow, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Spectroscopic analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in NaBi(WO4)2," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1180-1184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Y.

Z. Cheng, Q. Lu, S. Zhang, J. Liu, X. Yi, F. Song, Y. Kong, J. Han, and H. Chen, "Growth and properties of NaEr(WO4)2 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 222, 797-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lemiec, A.

J. Hanuza, A. Haznar, M. Maczka, A. Pietraszko, A. Lemiec, J. H. van der Maas, and E. T. G. Lutz, "Structure and vibrational properties of tetragonal scheelite NaBi(MoO4)2," J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 953-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lis, T.

A. Waskowska, L. Gerward, J. Staun Olsen, M. Maczka, T. Lis, A. Pietraszko, and W. Morgenroth, "Low-temperature and high-pressure structural behaviour of NaBi(MoO4)2—an X-ray diffraction study," J. Solid State Chem. 178, 2218-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Continuous-wave diode-pumped operation of an Yb:NaLa(WO4)2 laser at room temperature," Opt. Laser Technol. (available online December 9, 2005).

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, C. Cascales, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R29-R31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Tunable laser operation of ytterbium in disordered single crystals of Yb:NaGd(WO4)2," Opt. Express 12, 5362-5367 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Cheng, Q. Lu, S. Zhang, J. Liu, X. Yi, F. Song, Y. Kong, J. Han, and H. Chen, "Growth and properties of NaEr(WO4)2 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 222, 797-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q.

Z. Cheng, Q. Lu, S. Zhang, J. Liu, X. Yi, F. Song, Y. Kong, J. Han, and H. Chen, "Growth and properties of NaEr(WO4)2 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 222, 797-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luomajarvi, M.

M. Luomajarvi, E. Rauhala, and M. Hautala, "Oxygen detection by non-Rutherford proton backscattering below 2.5 MeV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 9, 255-258 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lutz, E. T. G.

J. Hanuza, A. Haznar, M. Maczka, A. Pietraszko, A. Lemiec, J. H. van der Maas, and E. T. G. Lutz, "Structure and vibrational properties of tetragonal scheelite NaBi(MoO4)2," J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 953-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maczka, M.

M. Maczka, E. P. Kokanyan, and J. Hanuza, "Vibrational study and lattice dynamics of disordered NaBi(WO4)2," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 33-38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Waskowska, L. Gerward, J. Staun Olsen, M. Maczka, T. Lis, A. Pietraszko, and W. Morgenroth, "Low-temperature and high-pressure structural behaviour of NaBi(MoO4)2—an X-ray diffraction study," J. Solid State Chem. 178, 2218-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanuza, A. Haznar, M. Maczka, A. Pietraszko, A. Lemiec, J. H. van der Maas, and E. T. G. Lutz, "Structure and vibrational properties of tetragonal scheelite NaBi(MoO4)2," J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 953-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, and J. H. van der Mass, "Polarized IR and Raman spectra of tetragonal NaBi(WO4)2, NaBi(MoO4)2 and LiBi(MoO4)2 single crystals with scheelite structure," J. Mol. Struct. 348, 349-352 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Malta, O.

P. Porcher, M. Couto dos Santos, and O. Malta, "Relationship between phenomenological crystal field parameters and crystal structure. The simple overlap model," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1, 397-405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mani, G. S.

Y. Cassagnou, J. M. F. Jeronymo, G. S. Mani, A. Sadeghi, and P. D. Forsyth, "The Li7(p,α) alpha reaction," Nucl. Phys. 33, 449-457 (1962).
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, "Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra," Phys. Rev. 136, A954-A957 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Méndez-Blas, A.

V. Volkov, M. Rico, A. Méndez-Blas, and C. Zaldo, "Preparation and properties of disordered NaBi(XO4)2, X=W or Mo, crystals doped with rare earths," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 95-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morgenroth, W.

A. Waskowska, L. Gerward, J. Staun Olsen, M. Maczka, T. Lis, A. Pietraszko, and W. Morgenroth, "Low-temperature and high-pressure structural behaviour of NaBi(MoO4)2—an X-ray diffraction study," J. Solid State Chem. 178, 2218-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, J. Staun

A. Waskowska, L. Gerward, J. Staun Olsen, M. Maczka, T. Lis, A. Pietraszko, and W. Morgenroth, "Low-temperature and high-pressure structural behaviour of NaBi(MoO4)2—an X-ray diffraction study," J. Solid State Chem. 178, 2218-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Continuous-wave diode-pumped operation of an Yb:NaLa(WO4)2 laser at room temperature," Opt. Laser Technol. (available online December 9, 2005).

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, C. Cascales, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R29-R31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Tunable laser operation of ytterbium in disordered single crystals of Yb:NaGd(WO4)2," Opt. Express 12, 5362-5367 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rivier, M. Rico, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, "Sub-80 fs pulses from a mode-locked Yb:NaGd(WO4)2 laser," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2005 Conference Digest CD-ROM (2005), paper CF4-4-THU.

Pietraszko, A.

A. Waskowska, L. Gerward, J. Staun Olsen, M. Maczka, T. Lis, A. Pietraszko, and W. Morgenroth, "Low-temperature and high-pressure structural behaviour of NaBi(MoO4)2—an X-ray diffraction study," J. Solid State Chem. 178, 2218-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Hanuza, A. Haznar, M. Maczka, A. Pietraszko, A. Lemiec, J. H. van der Maas, and E. T. G. Lutz, "Structure and vibrational properties of tetragonal scheelite NaBi(MoO4)2," J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 953-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Porcher, P.

P. Porcher, M. Couto dos Santos, and O. Malta, "Relationship between phenomenological crystal field parameters and crystal structure. The simple overlap model," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1, 397-405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rauhala, E.

M. Luomajarvi, E. Rauhala, and M. Hautala, "Oxygen detection by non-Rutherford proton backscattering below 2.5 MeV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 9, 255-258 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rico, M.

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, C. Cascales, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R29-R31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Continuous-wave diode-pumped operation of an Yb:NaLa(WO4)2 laser at room temperature," Opt. Laser Technol. (available online December 9, 2005).

M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Tunable laser operation of ytterbium in disordered single crystals of Yb:NaGd(WO4)2," Opt. Express 12, 5362-5367 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rico, V. Volkov, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Measurement and crystal field analysis of Er3+ energy levels in crystals of NaBi(MoO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2 with local disorder," Chem. Phys. 279, 73-86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Volkov, M. Rico, A. Méndez-Blas, and C. Zaldo, "Preparation and properties of disordered NaBi(XO4)2, X=W or Mo, crystals doped with rare earths," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 95-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Rivier, M. Rico, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, "Sub-80 fs pulses from a mode-locked Yb:NaGd(WO4)2 laser," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2005 Conference Digest CD-ROM (2005), paper CF4-4-THU.

Rivier, S.

S. Rivier, M. Rico, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, "Sub-80 fs pulses from a mode-locked Yb:NaGd(WO4)2 laser," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2005 Conference Digest CD-ROM (2005), paper CF4-4-THU.

Russell, C. C.

D. K. Sardar, C. C. Russell III, R. M. Yow, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Spectroscopic analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in NaBi(WO4)2," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1180-1184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sadeghi, A.

Y. Cassagnou, J. M. F. Jeronymo, G. S. Mani, A. Sadeghi, and P. D. Forsyth, "The Li7(p,α) alpha reaction," Nucl. Phys. 33, 449-457 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Sagara, A.

A. Sagara, K. Kamada, and S. Yamaguchi, "Depth profiling of lithium by use of the nuclear reaction Li7(p,α)He4," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 34, 465-469 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sardar, D. K.

D. K. Sardar, C. C. Russell III, R. M. Yow, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Spectroscopic analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in NaBi(WO4)2," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1180-1184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Serrano, M. D.

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, C. Cascales, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R29-R31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Continuous-wave diode-pumped operation of an Yb:NaLa(WO4)2 laser at room temperature," Opt. Laser Technol. (available online December 9, 2005).

M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Tunable laser operation of ytterbium in disordered single crystals of Yb:NaGd(WO4)2," Opt. Express 12, 5362-5367 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rivier, M. Rico, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, "Sub-80 fs pulses from a mode-locked Yb:NaGd(WO4)2 laser," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2005 Conference Digest CD-ROM (2005), paper CF4-4-THU.

Smirnov, V. A.

K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov, "Yb and Er-doped single crystals of double tungstates NaGd(WO4)2, NaLa(WO4)2, and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for lasers operating in the 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges," Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 601-608 (2002) K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov,[Opt. Spektrosk. 92, 657-664 (2002)].
[CrossRef]

Song, F.

Z. Cheng, Q. Lu, S. Zhang, J. Liu, X. Yi, F. Song, Y. Kong, J. Han, and H. Chen, "Growth and properties of NaEr(WO4)2 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 222, 797-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Subbotin, K. A.

K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov, "Yb and Er-doped single crystals of double tungstates NaGd(WO4)2, NaLa(WO4)2, and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for lasers operating in the 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges," Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 601-608 (2002) K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov,[Opt. Spektrosk. 92, 657-664 (2002)].
[CrossRef]

van der Maas, J. H.

J. Hanuza, A. Haznar, M. Maczka, A. Pietraszko, A. Lemiec, J. H. van der Maas, and E. T. G. Lutz, "Structure and vibrational properties of tetragonal scheelite NaBi(MoO4)2," J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 953-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van der Mass, J. H.

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, and J. H. van der Mass, "Polarized IR and Raman spectra of tetragonal NaBi(WO4)2, NaBi(MoO4)2 and LiBi(MoO4)2 single crystals with scheelite structure," J. Mol. Struct. 348, 349-352 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vinokurov, V. A.

P. V. Kletsov, V. A. Vinokurov, and R. F. Klevtsova, "Double molybdates and tungstates of alkali metals with bismuth, M+Bi(TO4)2," Z. Kristallogr. 18, 1192-1197 (1973).

Vizkelethy, G.

G. Vizkelethy, "Simulation and evaluation of nuclear reaction spectra," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 45, 1-5 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V.

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, C. Cascales, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R29-R31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rico, V. Volkov, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Measurement and crystal field analysis of Er3+ energy levels in crystals of NaBi(MoO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2 with local disorder," Chem. Phys. 279, 73-86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Volkov, M. Rico, A. Méndez-Blas, and C. Zaldo, "Preparation and properties of disordered NaBi(XO4)2, X=W or Mo, crystals doped with rare earths," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 95-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Waskowska, A.

A. Waskowska, L. Gerward, J. Staun Olsen, M. Maczka, T. Lis, A. Pietraszko, and W. Morgenroth, "Low-temperature and high-pressure structural behaviour of NaBi(MoO4)2—an X-ray diffraction study," J. Solid State Chem. 178, 2218-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, "Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3," Phys. Rev. 157, 262-272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Weyers, M.

S. Rivier, M. Rico, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, "Sub-80 fs pulses from a mode-locked Yb:NaGd(WO4)2 laser," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2005 Conference Digest CD-ROM (2005), paper CF4-4-THU.

Yamaguchi, S.

A. Sagara, K. Kamada, and S. Yamaguchi, "Depth profiling of lithium by use of the nuclear reaction Li7(p,α)He4," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 34, 465-469 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yi, X.

Z. Cheng, Q. Lu, S. Zhang, J. Liu, X. Yi, F. Song, Y. Kong, J. Han, and H. Chen, "Growth and properties of NaEr(WO4)2 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 222, 797-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yow, R. M.

D. K. Sardar, C. C. Russell III, R. M. Yow, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Spectroscopic analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in NaBi(WO4)2," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1180-1184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zaldo, C.

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, C. Cascales, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R29-R31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Continuous-wave diode-pumped operation of an Yb:NaLa(WO4)2 laser at room temperature," Opt. Laser Technol. (available online December 9, 2005).

M. Rico, J. Liu, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Tunable laser operation of ytterbium in disordered single crystals of Yb:NaGd(WO4)2," Opt. Express 12, 5362-5367 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rico, V. Volkov, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Measurement and crystal field analysis of Er3+ energy levels in crystals of NaBi(MoO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2 with local disorder," Chem. Phys. 279, 73-86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Volkov, M. Rico, A. Méndez-Blas, and C. Zaldo, "Preparation and properties of disordered NaBi(XO4)2, X=W or Mo, crystals doped with rare earths," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 95-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Rivier, M. Rico, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, "Sub-80 fs pulses from a mode-locked Yb:NaGd(WO4)2 laser," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2005 Conference Digest CD-ROM (2005), paper CF4-4-THU.

Zandi, B.

D. K. Sardar, C. C. Russell III, R. M. Yow, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Spectroscopic analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in NaBi(WO4)2," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1180-1184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

Z. Cheng, Q. Lu, S. Zhang, J. Liu, X. Yi, F. Song, Y. Kong, J. Han, and H. Chen, "Growth and properties of NaEr(WO4)2 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 222, 797-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zharikov, E. V.

K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov, "Yb and Er-doped single crystals of double tungstates NaGd(WO4)2, NaLa(WO4)2, and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for lasers operating in the 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges," Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 601-608 (2002) K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov,[Opt. Spektrosk. 92, 657-664 (2002)].
[CrossRef]

Zorn, M.

S. Rivier, M. Rico, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, "Sub-80 fs pulses from a mode-locked Yb:NaGd(WO4)2 laser," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2005 Conference Digest CD-ROM (2005), paper CF4-4-THU.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Koetke and G. Huber, "Infrared excited-state absorption and stimulated emission cross sections of Er3+ doped crystals," Appl. Phys. B 61, 151-158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Rico, V. Volkov, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, "Measurement and crystal field analysis of Er3+ energy levels in crystals of NaBi(MoO4)2 and NaBi(WO4)2 with local disorder," Chem. Phys. 279, 73-86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. K. Sardar, C. C. Russell III, R. M. Yow, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, and E. P. Kokanyan, "Spectroscopic analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in NaBi(WO4)2," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1180-1184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Z. Cheng, Q. Lu, S. Zhang, J. Liu, X. Yi, F. Song, Y. Kong, J. Han, and H. Chen, "Growth and properties of NaEr(WO4)2 crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 222, 797-800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

J. Hanuza, M. Maczka, and J. H. van der Mass, "Polarized IR and Raman spectra of tetragonal NaBi(WO4)2, NaBi(MoO4)2 and LiBi(MoO4)2 single crystals with scheelite structure," J. Mol. Struct. 348, 349-352 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

V. Volkov, M. Rico, A. Méndez-Blas, and C. Zaldo, "Preparation and properties of disordered NaBi(XO4)2, X=W or Mo, crystals doped with rare earths," J. Phys. Chem. Solids 63, 95-105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (2)

J. Hanuza, A. Haznar, M. Maczka, A. Pietraszko, A. Lemiec, J. H. van der Maas, and E. T. G. Lutz, "Structure and vibrational properties of tetragonal scheelite NaBi(MoO4)2," J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 953-963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Maczka, E. P. Kokanyan, and J. Hanuza, "Vibrational study and lattice dynamics of disordered NaBi(WO4)2," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 33-38 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

A. Waskowska, L. Gerward, J. Staun Olsen, M. Maczka, T. Lis, A. Pietraszko, and W. Morgenroth, "Low-temperature and high-pressure structural behaviour of NaBi(MoO4)2—an X-ray diffraction study," J. Solid State Chem. 178, 2218-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (4)

M. Luomajarvi, E. Rauhala, and M. Hautala, "Oxygen detection by non-Rutherford proton backscattering below 2.5 MeV," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 9, 255-258 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. Heck, "Three-dimensional lithium microanalysis by the Li7(p,α)," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 30, 486-490 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Sagara, K. Kamada, and S. Yamaguchi, "Depth profiling of lithium by use of the nuclear reaction Li7(p,α)He4," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 34, 465-469 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Vizkelethy, "Simulation and evaluation of nuclear reaction spectra," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 45, 1-5 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Phys. (1)

Y. Cassagnou, J. M. F. Jeronymo, G. S. Mani, A. Sadeghi, and P. D. Forsyth, "The Li7(p,α) alpha reaction," Nucl. Phys. 33, 449-457 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Continuous-wave diode-pumped operation of an Yb:NaLa(WO4)2 laser at room temperature," Opt. Laser Technol. (available online December 9, 2005).

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov, "Yb and Er-doped single crystals of double tungstates NaGd(WO4)2, NaLa(WO4)2, and NaBi(WO4)2 as active media for lasers operating in the 1.0 and 1.5 μm ranges," Opt. Spectrosc. 92, 601-608 (2002) K. A. Subbotin, E. V. Zharikov, and V. A. Smirnov,[Opt. Spektrosk. 92, 657-664 (2002)].
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

P. Porcher, M. Couto dos Santos, and O. Malta, "Relationship between phenomenological crystal field parameters and crystal structure. The simple overlap model," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1, 397-405 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (3)

M. J. Weber, "Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3," Phys. Rev. 157, 262-272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. E. McCumber, "Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra," Phys. Rev. 136, A954-A957 (1964).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

J. Liu, J. M. Cano-Torres, C. Cascales, F. Esteban-Betegón, M. D. Serrano, V. Volkov, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, "Growth and continuous-wave laser operation of disordered crystals of Yb3+:NaLa(WO4)2 and Yb3+:NaLa(MoO4)2," Phys. Status Solidi A 202, R29-R31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kristallogr. (1)

P. V. Kletsov, V. A. Vinokurov, and R. F. Klevtsova, "Double molybdates and tungstates of alkali metals with bismuth, M+Bi(TO4)2," Z. Kristallogr. 18, 1192-1197 (1973).

Other (5)

S. Rivier, M. Rico, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. D. Serrano, F. Esteban-Betegón, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, "Sub-80 fs pulses from a mode-locked Yb:NaGd(WO4)2 laser," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe, CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2005 Conference Digest CD-ROM (2005), paper CF4-4-THU.

A. A. Kaminski, Crystalline Lasers (CRC Press, 1996).

International Tables for Crystallography (Kynoch, 1974), Vol. 4.

SHELXTL Version 6.10 software package, Siemens Energy and Automation Incorporated Analytical Instrumentation (2000).

C. Görller-Walrand and K. Binnemans, "Spectral intensities of f-f transitions," in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K.A.Gschneider, Jr. and L.Eyring, eds. (Elsevier Science, 1998), Vol. 25, p. 101.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) As-grown Er-doped LBM crystal boule. (b) Polished NBW plate grown by the CZ method. (c) a c view of the X Bi O 8 - Y O 4 coordinations containing dimeric ( X Bi ) 2 O 14 units along the c axis (vertical direction).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) RBS spectrum and (b) NRA spectrum of an undoped LBM single-crystal. Points are the experimental results and the curves are the fits using the SENRAS simulation code.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index dispersion of uniaxial LBM single crystal measured at 300 K . The points are the experimental results and the curves the Sellmeier fits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PL and OA at 10 K of Er 3 + in LBM crystal. [ Er ] = 0.07 × 10 20 cm 3 . π-OA and σ-PL spectra appear arbitrary displaced vertically.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Er 3 + PL in NBM.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between the experimental PL spectral distribution ( σ EXP , line) and calculated I 13 2 4 I 15 2 4 emission cross section ( σ emi , points) of Er 3 + in NBW single crystal. (a) σ-polarized spectra. (b) π-polarized spectra.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral dependence of the effective emission cross section of Er in NBW.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the low-temperature OA of Er 3 + in “ordered” (α-KGW) and “disordered” DT and DM. (a) Bandwidths for a S 3 2 4 Stark level. (b) CF splitting of F 5 2 4 multiplet.

Tables (8)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Er Concentration [Er] and Segregation Coefficient S of the Crystals Used in This Work

Tables Icon

Table 2 Assessment of the I 4 1 / a I 4 ¯ Distortion from Individual Scan Intensity Measurements I h k l versus Background Intensity EB

Tables Icon

Table 3 Crystal Data at 296(2) K and Structure Refinement details of X Bi ( Y O 4 ) 2 , X = Li , Na Y Mo , W, and Er-doped NBW ( [ Er ] crystal = 2.4 × 10 20 cm 3 )

Tables Icon

Table 4 Selected Bond Lengths (Å) for Pure NBW, NBM, and LBM and Er-Doped NBW Crystals a

Tables Icon

Table 5 Observed ( E 0 ) at 10 K and Calculated for an Average S 4 Site ( E c ) Energy Levels ( cm 1 ) of Er 3 + in LBM Single Crystal a

Tables Icon

Table 6 Phenomenological FI and CF Parameters ( cm 1 ) for Er 3 + in LBM Single Crystal a

Tables Icon

Table 7 Average Wavelength λ ¯ , Integrated OA Cross Section Γ / [ Er ] , Averaged Experimental ED Oscillator Strength f ¯ ED , exp , and Calculated ED Oscillator Strength f ¯ ED , cal , for L J 2 S + 1 , Multiplets of Er 3 + in NBW, NBM, and LBM. a

Tables Icon

Table 8 ED and MD Transition Probabilities, A ED and A MD ; Branching Ratios, β; Radiative, τ r , and Experimental, τ exp , Lifetimes of Er 3 + in NBM Calculated from the Ω 2 = 7.37 , Ω 4 = 0.64 , Ω 6 = 0.78 Set a

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n 2 = A + B 1 ( C λ ) 2 D λ 2 .
f exp = 4 ε 0 m c 2 e 2 λ ¯ 2 Γ J J [ Er ] .
f ED , cal = χ 8 π 2 m c 3 h λ ¯ ( 2 J + 1 ) S J J ,
S J J = k = 2 , 4 , 6 Ω k 4 f n [ L , S ] J U k 4 f n [ L , S ] J 2 ,
σ EMI = σ GSA Z l Z u e ( E z l h ν ) k B T ,
σ EFF = β σ EMI ( 1 β ) σ GSA ,

Metrics