Abstract

The orientation relationship between the crystallographic axes and the principal axes of the optical indicatrix for a Li6Gd(BO3)3 single crystal grown by the Czochralski method was determined. The polarized absorption spectra, polarized fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence decay curve of Nd3+:Li6Gd(BO3)3 were measured at room temperature. On the basis of the Judd-Ofelt theory and the Fuchtbauer-Landenburg formula, the spectroscopic parameters of Nd3+:Li6Gd(BO3)3 relevant to laser properties were obtained and compared with other borate laser crystals. A primary laser output of about 130 mW at 1056 nm with the slope efficiency of 13% was obtained under a Ti:sapphire laser pumping.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. G. Sole, Z. D. Luo, and A. D. Jiang, "Continuous-wave laser properties of the self-frequency-doubling YAl3(BO3)4:Nd crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1656-1662 (1998).
  2. F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Vivien, "CW blue laser generation by self-sum frequency mixing in Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) single crystal," Opt. Mater. 13, 293-297 (1999).
  3. C. T. Chen, "Recent advances in deep and vacuum-UV harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Opt. Mater. 26, 425-429 (2004).
  4. Y. Zhang, X. L. Chen, J. K. Liang, and T. Xu, "Phase relations of the system Li2O-Gd2O3-B2O3 and the structure of a new ternary compound," J. Alloys Compd. 348, 314-318 (2003).
  5. A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, E. F. Dolzhenkova, T. I. Korshikova, B. V. Grinyov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Structure and growth of pure and Ce3+-doped Li6Gd(BO3)3 single crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 242, 167-171 (2002).
  6. J.-P. Chaminade, O. Viraphong, and S. Miyazawa, "One possible mechanism of spiral/footing growth of Cz-grown Li6Gd(BO3)3," J. Cryst. Growth 237-239, 864-868 (2002).
  7. W. F. Krupke, "Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth-doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals," Phys. Rev. 145, 325-337 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
  10. B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, "Vibronic interaction of Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925-930 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
  12. D. Jaque, J. Capmany, Z. D. Luo, and J. Garcia Sole, "Optical bands and energy levels of Nd3+ ion in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9715-9729 (1997).
  13. Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Polarized spectral analysis of Nd3+ ions in LaB3O6 biaxial crystal," Chem. Phys. Lett. 397, 282-287 (2004).
  14. Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, "Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements," Opt. Commun. 134, 415-422 (1997).
  15. D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz Garcia, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. Garcia Sole, "Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers," Opt. Mater. 13, 147-157 (1999).
  16. Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103-104 (2005).
  17. J. H. Choi, A. Margaryan, A. Margaryan, and F. G. Shi, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped novel fluorophosphate glass," J. Lumin. 114, 167-177 (2005).
  18. Y. Q. Zou, X. Y. Chen, D. Y. Tang, Z. D. Luo, and W. Q. Yang, "Investigation of the spectroscopic properties of acentric orthorhombic Nd3+:Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 167, 99-104 (1999).
  19. R. F. Belt and R. Uhrin, "Crystal growth and evaluation of rare earth orthogallates for laser hosts," in Growth, Characterization, and Applications of Laser Hosts and Nonlinear Crystals, Proc. SPIE 1104, 209-215 (1989).
  20. D. L. Dexter and J. H. Schulman, "Theory of concentration quenching in inorganic phosphors," J. Chem. Phys. 22, 1063-1070 (1954).
  21. T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, "Phonon sidebands, multiphonon relaxation of excited states, and phonon-assisted energy transfer between ions in solids," Phys. Rev. B 1, 2691-2969 (1970).
  22. S. Tanabe, "Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphates glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620-4625 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Toratani, T. Izumitani, and H. Kuroda, "Compositional dependence of nonradiative decay rate in Nd laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 303-313 (1982).
  24. M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, M. Ferrari, and M. Montagna, "Spectroscopic investigation of zinc borate glasses doped with trivalent europium ions," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 201, 211-221 (1996).
  25. L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized Raman spectra of the oriented NaY(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 single crystals," J. Mol. Struct. 555, 289-297 (2000).
  26. A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, Y. Kuwano, H. Kouta, S. N. Bagaev, T. H. Chyba, J. C. Barnes, G. M. A. Gad, T. Murai, and J. Lu, "Tetragonal vanadates YVO4 and GdVO4—new efficient chi(3)-materials for Raman lasers," Opt. Commun. 194, 201-206 (2001).
  27. E. F. Dolzhenkova, A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, B. V. Grinyov, V. A. Tarasov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Specific morphological features of LaB3O6 single crystals: a new promising material for thin-layer radiation detectors," J. Cryst. Growth 233, 473-476 (2001).

2005 (2)

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103-104 (2005).

J. H. Choi, A. Margaryan, A. Margaryan, and F. G. Shi, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped novel fluorophosphate glass," J. Lumin. 114, 167-177 (2005).

2004 (2)

Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Polarized spectral analysis of Nd3+ ions in LaB3O6 biaxial crystal," Chem. Phys. Lett. 397, 282-287 (2004).

C. T. Chen, "Recent advances in deep and vacuum-UV harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Opt. Mater. 26, 425-429 (2004).

2003 (1)

Y. Zhang, X. L. Chen, J. K. Liang, and T. Xu, "Phase relations of the system Li2O-Gd2O3-B2O3 and the structure of a new ternary compound," J. Alloys Compd. 348, 314-318 (2003).

2002 (2)

A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, E. F. Dolzhenkova, T. I. Korshikova, B. V. Grinyov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Structure and growth of pure and Ce3+-doped Li6Gd(BO3)3 single crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 242, 167-171 (2002).

J.-P. Chaminade, O. Viraphong, and S. Miyazawa, "One possible mechanism of spiral/footing growth of Cz-grown Li6Gd(BO3)3," J. Cryst. Growth 237-239, 864-868 (2002).

2001 (2)

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, Y. Kuwano, H. Kouta, S. N. Bagaev, T. H. Chyba, J. C. Barnes, G. M. A. Gad, T. Murai, and J. Lu, "Tetragonal vanadates YVO4 and GdVO4—new efficient chi(3)-materials for Raman lasers," Opt. Commun. 194, 201-206 (2001).

E. F. Dolzhenkova, A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, B. V. Grinyov, V. A. Tarasov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Specific morphological features of LaB3O6 single crystals: a new promising material for thin-layer radiation detectors," J. Cryst. Growth 233, 473-476 (2001).

2000 (1)

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized Raman spectra of the oriented NaY(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 single crystals," J. Mol. Struct. 555, 289-297 (2000).

1999 (3)

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Vivien, "CW blue laser generation by self-sum frequency mixing in Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) single crystal," Opt. Mater. 13, 293-297 (1999).

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz Garcia, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. Garcia Sole, "Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers," Opt. Mater. 13, 147-157 (1999).

Y. Q. Zou, X. Y. Chen, D. Y. Tang, Z. D. Luo, and W. Q. Yang, "Investigation of the spectroscopic properties of acentric orthorhombic Nd3+:Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 167, 99-104 (1999).

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, "Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements," Opt. Commun. 134, 415-422 (1997).

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, Z. D. Luo, and J. Garcia Sole, "Optical bands and energy levels of Nd3+ ion in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9715-9729 (1997).

1996 (1)

M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, M. Ferrari, and M. Montagna, "Spectroscopic investigation of zinc borate glasses doped with trivalent europium ions," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 201, 211-221 (1996).

1992 (1)

S. Tanabe, "Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphates glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620-4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

H. Toratani, T. Izumitani, and H. Kuroda, "Compositional dependence of nonradiative decay rate in Nd laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 303-313 (1982).

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, "Vibronic interaction of Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925-930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, "Phonon sidebands, multiphonon relaxation of excited states, and phonon-assisted energy transfer between ions in solids," Phys. Rev. B 1, 2691-2969 (1970).

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).

1966 (1)

W. F. Krupke, "Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth-doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals," Phys. Rev. 145, 325-337 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).

1954 (1)

D. L. Dexter and J. H. Schulman, "Theory of concentration quenching in inorganic phosphors," J. Chem. Phys. 22, 1063-1070 (1954).

Aka, G.

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Vivien, "CW blue laser generation by self-sum frequency mixing in Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) single crystal," Opt. Mater. 13, 293-297 (1999).

Aull, B. F.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, "Vibronic interaction of Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925-930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bagaev, S. N.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, Y. Kuwano, H. Kouta, S. N. Bagaev, T. H. Chyba, J. C. Barnes, G. M. A. Gad, T. Murai, and J. Lu, "Tetragonal vanadates YVO4 and GdVO4—new efficient chi(3)-materials for Raman lasers," Opt. Commun. 194, 201-206 (2001).

Barnes, J. C.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, Y. Kuwano, H. Kouta, S. N. Bagaev, T. H. Chyba, J. C. Barnes, G. M. A. Gad, T. Murai, and J. Lu, "Tetragonal vanadates YVO4 and GdVO4—new efficient chi(3)-materials for Raman lasers," Opt. Commun. 194, 201-206 (2001).

Baumer, V. N.

A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, E. F. Dolzhenkova, T. I. Korshikova, B. V. Grinyov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Structure and growth of pure and Ce3+-doped Li6Gd(BO3)3 single crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 242, 167-171 (2002).

E. F. Dolzhenkova, A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, B. V. Grinyov, V. A. Tarasov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Specific morphological features of LaB3O6 single crystals: a new promising material for thin-layer radiation detectors," J. Cryst. Growth 233, 473-476 (2001).

Belt, R. F.

R. F. Belt and R. Uhrin, "Crystal growth and evaluation of rare earth orthogallates for laser hosts," in Growth, Characterization, and Applications of Laser Hosts and Nonlinear Crystals, Proc. SPIE 1104, 209-215 (1989).

Bettinelli, M.

M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, M. Ferrari, and M. Montagna, "Spectroscopic investigation of zinc borate glasses doped with trivalent europium ions," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 201, 211-221 (1996).

Boulon, G.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz Garcia, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. Garcia Sole, "Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers," Opt. Mater. 13, 147-157 (1999).

Brenier, A.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz Garcia, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. Garcia Sole, "Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers," Opt. Mater. 13, 147-157 (1999).

Capmany, J.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz Garcia, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. Garcia Sole, "Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers," Opt. Mater. 13, 147-157 (1999).

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. G. Sole, Z. D. Luo, and A. D. Jiang, "Continuous-wave laser properties of the self-frequency-doubling YAl3(BO3)4:Nd crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1656-1662 (1998).

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, Z. D. Luo, and J. Garcia Sole, "Optical bands and energy levels of Nd3+ ion in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9715-9729 (1997).

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).

Chaminade, J.-P.

J.-P. Chaminade, O. Viraphong, and S. Miyazawa, "One possible mechanism of spiral/footing growth of Cz-grown Li6Gd(BO3)3," J. Cryst. Growth 237-239, 864-868 (2002).

Chen, C. T.

C. T. Chen, "Recent advances in deep and vacuum-UV harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Opt. Mater. 26, 425-429 (2004).

Chen, X.

Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, "Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements," Opt. Commun. 134, 415-422 (1997).

Chen, X. L.

Y. Zhang, X. L. Chen, J. K. Liang, and T. Xu, "Phase relations of the system Li2O-Gd2O3-B2O3 and the structure of a new ternary compound," J. Alloys Compd. 348, 314-318 (2003).

Chen, X. Y.

Y. Q. Zou, X. Y. Chen, D. Y. Tang, Z. D. Luo, and W. Q. Yang, "Investigation of the spectroscopic properties of acentric orthorhombic Nd3+:Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 167, 99-104 (1999).

Chen, Y. J.

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103-104 (2005).

Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Polarized spectral analysis of Nd3+ ions in LaB3O6 biaxial crystal," Chem. Phys. Lett. 397, 282-287 (2004).

Choi, J. H.

J. H. Choi, A. Margaryan, A. Margaryan, and F. G. Shi, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped novel fluorophosphate glass," J. Lumin. 114, 167-177 (2005).

Chyba, T. H.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, Y. Kuwano, H. Kouta, S. N. Bagaev, T. H. Chyba, J. C. Barnes, G. M. A. Gad, T. Murai, and J. Lu, "Tetragonal vanadates YVO4 and GdVO4—new efficient chi(3)-materials for Raman lasers," Opt. Commun. 194, 201-206 (2001).

Dexter, D. L.

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, "Phonon sidebands, multiphonon relaxation of excited states, and phonon-assisted energy transfer between ions in solids," Phys. Rev. B 1, 2691-2969 (1970).

D. L. Dexter and J. H. Schulman, "Theory of concentration quenching in inorganic phosphors," J. Chem. Phys. 22, 1063-1070 (1954).

Dolzhenkova, E. F.

A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, E. F. Dolzhenkova, T. I. Korshikova, B. V. Grinyov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Structure and growth of pure and Ce3+-doped Li6Gd(BO3)3 single crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 242, 167-171 (2002).

E. F. Dolzhenkova, A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, B. V. Grinyov, V. A. Tarasov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Specific morphological features of LaB3O6 single crystals: a new promising material for thin-layer radiation detectors," J. Cryst. Growth 233, 473-476 (2001).

Dubovik, M. F.

A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, E. F. Dolzhenkova, T. I. Korshikova, B. V. Grinyov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Structure and growth of pure and Ce3+-doped Li6Gd(BO3)3 single crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 242, 167-171 (2002).

E. F. Dolzhenkova, A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, B. V. Grinyov, V. A. Tarasov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Specific morphological features of LaB3O6 single crystals: a new promising material for thin-layer radiation detectors," J. Cryst. Growth 233, 473-476 (2001).

Eichler, H. J.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, Y. Kuwano, H. Kouta, S. N. Bagaev, T. H. Chyba, J. C. Barnes, G. M. A. Gad, T. Murai, and J. Lu, "Tetragonal vanadates YVO4 and GdVO4—new efficient chi(3)-materials for Raman lasers," Opt. Commun. 194, 201-206 (2001).

Ferrari, M.

M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, M. Ferrari, and M. Montagna, "Spectroscopic investigation of zinc borate glasses doped with trivalent europium ions," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 201, 211-221 (1996).

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).

Gad, G. M. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, Y. Kuwano, H. Kouta, S. N. Bagaev, T. H. Chyba, J. C. Barnes, G. M. A. Gad, T. Murai, and J. Lu, "Tetragonal vanadates YVO4 and GdVO4—new efficient chi(3)-materials for Raman lasers," Opt. Commun. 194, 201-206 (2001).

Garcia Sole, J.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz Garcia, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. Garcia Sole, "Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers," Opt. Mater. 13, 147-157 (1999).

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, Z. D. Luo, and J. Garcia Sole, "Optical bands and energy levels of Nd3+ ion in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9715-9729 (1997).

Gong, X. H.

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103-104 (2005).

Grinyov, B. V.

A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, E. F. Dolzhenkova, T. I. Korshikova, B. V. Grinyov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Structure and growth of pure and Ce3+-doped Li6Gd(BO3)3 single crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 242, 167-171 (2002).

E. F. Dolzhenkova, A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, B. V. Grinyov, V. A. Tarasov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Specific morphological features of LaB3O6 single crystals: a new promising material for thin-layer radiation detectors," J. Cryst. Growth 233, 473-476 (2001).

Hanuza, J.

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized Raman spectra of the oriented NaY(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 single crystals," J. Mol. Struct. 555, 289-297 (2000).

Huang, Y. D.

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103-104 (2005).

Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Polarized spectral analysis of Nd3+ ions in LaB3O6 biaxial crystal," Chem. Phys. Lett. 397, 282-287 (2004).

Izumitani, T.

H. Toratani, T. Izumitani, and H. Kuroda, "Compositional dependence of nonradiative decay rate in Nd laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 303-313 (1982).

Jaque, D.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz Garcia, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. Garcia Sole, "Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers," Opt. Mater. 13, 147-157 (1999).

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. G. Sole, Z. D. Luo, and A. D. Jiang, "Continuous-wave laser properties of the self-frequency-doubling YAl3(BO3)4:Nd crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1656-1662 (1998).

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, Z. D. Luo, and J. Garcia Sole, "Optical bands and energy levels of Nd3+ ion in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9715-9729 (1997).

Jenssen, H. P.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, "Vibronic interaction of Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925-930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, A. D.

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kahn-Harari, A.

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Vivien, "CW blue laser generation by self-sum frequency mixing in Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) single crystal," Opt. Mater. 13, 293-297 (1999).

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, Y. Kuwano, H. Kouta, S. N. Bagaev, T. H. Chyba, J. C. Barnes, G. M. A. Gad, T. Murai, and J. Lu, "Tetragonal vanadates YVO4 and GdVO4—new efficient chi(3)-materials for Raman lasers," Opt. Commun. 194, 201-206 (2001).

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized Raman spectra of the oriented NaY(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 single crystals," J. Mol. Struct. 555, 289-297 (2000).

Korshikova, T. I.

A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, E. F. Dolzhenkova, T. I. Korshikova, B. V. Grinyov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Structure and growth of pure and Ce3+-doped Li6Gd(BO3)3 single crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 242, 167-171 (2002).

Kouta, H.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, Y. Kuwano, H. Kouta, S. N. Bagaev, T. H. Chyba, J. C. Barnes, G. M. A. Gad, T. Murai, and J. Lu, "Tetragonal vanadates YVO4 and GdVO4—new efficient chi(3)-materials for Raman lasers," Opt. Commun. 194, 201-206 (2001).

Krupke, W. F.

W. F. Krupke, "Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth-doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals," Phys. Rev. 145, 325-337 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

H. Toratani, T. Izumitani, and H. Kuroda, "Compositional dependence of nonradiative decay rate in Nd laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 303-313 (1982).

Kuwano, Y.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, Y. Kuwano, H. Kouta, S. N. Bagaev, T. H. Chyba, J. C. Barnes, G. M. A. Gad, T. Murai, and J. Lu, "Tetragonal vanadates YVO4 and GdVO4—new efficient chi(3)-materials for Raman lasers," Opt. Commun. 194, 201-206 (2001).

Liang, J. K.

Y. Zhang, X. L. Chen, J. K. Liang, and T. Xu, "Phase relations of the system Li2O-Gd2O3-B2O3 and the structure of a new ternary compound," J. Alloys Compd. 348, 314-318 (2003).

Lin, X. Q.

Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Polarized spectral analysis of Nd3+ ions in LaB3O6 biaxial crystal," Chem. Phys. Lett. 397, 282-287 (2004).

Lin, Y. F.

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103-104 (2005).

Lu, J.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, Y. Kuwano, H. Kouta, S. N. Bagaev, T. H. Chyba, J. C. Barnes, G. M. A. Gad, T. Murai, and J. Lu, "Tetragonal vanadates YVO4 and GdVO4—new efficient chi(3)-materials for Raman lasers," Opt. Commun. 194, 201-206 (2001).

Luo, Z.

Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, "Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements," Opt. Commun. 134, 415-422 (1997).

Luo, Z. D.

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103-104 (2005).

Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Polarized spectral analysis of Nd3+ ions in LaB3O6 biaxial crystal," Chem. Phys. Lett. 397, 282-287 (2004).

Y. Q. Zou, X. Y. Chen, D. Y. Tang, Z. D. Luo, and W. Q. Yang, "Investigation of the spectroscopic properties of acentric orthorhombic Nd3+:Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 167, 99-104 (1999).

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. G. Sole, Z. D. Luo, and A. D. Jiang, "Continuous-wave laser properties of the self-frequency-doubling YAl3(BO3)4:Nd crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1656-1662 (1998).

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, Z. D. Luo, and J. Garcia Sole, "Optical bands and energy levels of Nd3+ ion in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9715-9729 (1997).

Macalik, L.

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized Raman spectra of the oriented NaY(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 single crystals," J. Mol. Struct. 555, 289-297 (2000).

Margaryan, A.

J. H. Choi, A. Margaryan, A. Margaryan, and F. G. Shi, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped novel fluorophosphate glass," J. Lumin. 114, 167-177 (2005).

J. H. Choi, A. Margaryan, A. Margaryan, and F. G. Shi, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped novel fluorophosphate glass," J. Lumin. 114, 167-177 (2005).

Miyakawa, T.

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, "Phonon sidebands, multiphonon relaxation of excited states, and phonon-assisted energy transfer between ions in solids," Phys. Rev. B 1, 2691-2969 (1970).

Miyazawa, S.

J.-P. Chaminade, O. Viraphong, and S. Miyazawa, "One possible mechanism of spiral/footing growth of Cz-grown Li6Gd(BO3)3," J. Cryst. Growth 237-239, 864-868 (2002).

Montagna, M.

M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, M. Ferrari, and M. Montagna, "Spectroscopic investigation of zinc borate glasses doped with trivalent europium ions," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 201, 211-221 (1996).

Mougel, F.

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Vivien, "CW blue laser generation by self-sum frequency mixing in Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) single crystal," Opt. Mater. 13, 293-297 (1999).

Murai, T.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, Y. Kuwano, H. Kouta, S. N. Bagaev, T. H. Chyba, J. C. Barnes, G. M. A. Gad, T. Murai, and J. Lu, "Tetragonal vanadates YVO4 and GdVO4—new efficient chi(3)-materials for Raman lasers," Opt. Commun. 194, 201-206 (2001).

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).

Sanz Garcia, J. A.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz Garcia, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. Garcia Sole, "Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers," Opt. Mater. 13, 147-157 (1999).

Schulman, J. H.

D. L. Dexter and J. H. Schulman, "Theory of concentration quenching in inorganic phosphors," J. Chem. Phys. 22, 1063-1070 (1954).

Shekhovtsov, A. N.

A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, E. F. Dolzhenkova, T. I. Korshikova, B. V. Grinyov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Structure and growth of pure and Ce3+-doped Li6Gd(BO3)3 single crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 242, 167-171 (2002).

E. F. Dolzhenkova, A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, B. V. Grinyov, V. A. Tarasov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Specific morphological features of LaB3O6 single crystals: a new promising material for thin-layer radiation detectors," J. Cryst. Growth 233, 473-476 (2001).

Shi, F. G.

J. H. Choi, A. Margaryan, A. Margaryan, and F. G. Shi, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped novel fluorophosphate glass," J. Lumin. 114, 167-177 (2005).

Sole, J. G.

Speghini, A.

M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, M. Ferrari, and M. Montagna, "Spectroscopic investigation of zinc borate glasses doped with trivalent europium ions," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 201, 211-221 (1996).

Tan, Q. G.

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103-104 (2005).

Tanabe, S.

S. Tanabe, "Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphates glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620-4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

Y. Q. Zou, X. Y. Chen, D. Y. Tang, Z. D. Luo, and W. Q. Yang, "Investigation of the spectroscopic properties of acentric orthorhombic Nd3+:Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 167, 99-104 (1999).

Tarasov, V. A.

E. F. Dolzhenkova, A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, B. V. Grinyov, V. A. Tarasov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Specific morphological features of LaB3O6 single crystals: a new promising material for thin-layer radiation detectors," J. Cryst. Growth 233, 473-476 (2001).

Tolmachev, A. V.

A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, E. F. Dolzhenkova, T. I. Korshikova, B. V. Grinyov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Structure and growth of pure and Ce3+-doped Li6Gd(BO3)3 single crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 242, 167-171 (2002).

E. F. Dolzhenkova, A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, B. V. Grinyov, V. A. Tarasov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Specific morphological features of LaB3O6 single crystals: a new promising material for thin-layer radiation detectors," J. Cryst. Growth 233, 473-476 (2001).

Toratani, H.

H. Toratani, T. Izumitani, and H. Kuroda, "Compositional dependence of nonradiative decay rate in Nd laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 303-313 (1982).

Ueda, K.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, Y. Kuwano, H. Kouta, S. N. Bagaev, T. H. Chyba, J. C. Barnes, G. M. A. Gad, T. Murai, and J. Lu, "Tetragonal vanadates YVO4 and GdVO4—new efficient chi(3)-materials for Raman lasers," Opt. Commun. 194, 201-206 (2001).

Uhrin, R.

R. F. Belt and R. Uhrin, "Crystal growth and evaluation of rare earth orthogallates for laser hosts," in Growth, Characterization, and Applications of Laser Hosts and Nonlinear Crystals, Proc. SPIE 1104, 209-215 (1989).

Viraphong, O.

J.-P. Chaminade, O. Viraphong, and S. Miyazawa, "One possible mechanism of spiral/footing growth of Cz-grown Li6Gd(BO3)3," J. Cryst. Growth 237-239, 864-868 (2002).

Vivien, D.

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Vivien, "CW blue laser generation by self-sum frequency mixing in Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) single crystal," Opt. Mater. 13, 293-297 (1999).

Xu, T.

Y. Zhang, X. L. Chen, J. K. Liang, and T. Xu, "Phase relations of the system Li2O-Gd2O3-B2O3 and the structure of a new ternary compound," J. Alloys Compd. 348, 314-318 (2003).

Yang, W. Q.

Y. Q. Zou, X. Y. Chen, D. Y. Tang, Z. D. Luo, and W. Q. Yang, "Investigation of the spectroscopic properties of acentric orthorhombic Nd3+:Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 167, 99-104 (1999).

Zelenskaya, O. V.

A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, E. F. Dolzhenkova, T. I. Korshikova, B. V. Grinyov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Structure and growth of pure and Ce3+-doped Li6Gd(BO3)3 single crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 242, 167-171 (2002).

E. F. Dolzhenkova, A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, B. V. Grinyov, V. A. Tarasov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Specific morphological features of LaB3O6 single crystals: a new promising material for thin-layer radiation detectors," J. Cryst. Growth 233, 473-476 (2001).

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, X. L. Chen, J. K. Liang, and T. Xu, "Phase relations of the system Li2O-Gd2O3-B2O3 and the structure of a new ternary compound," J. Alloys Compd. 348, 314-318 (2003).

Zhao, T.

Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, "Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements," Opt. Commun. 134, 415-422 (1997).

Zou, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Zou, X. Y. Chen, D. Y. Tang, Z. D. Luo, and W. Q. Yang, "Investigation of the spectroscopic properties of acentric orthorhombic Nd3+:Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 167, 99-104 (1999).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. J. Chen, X. Q. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, "Polarized spectral analysis of Nd3+ ions in LaB3O6 biaxial crystal," Chem. Phys. Lett. 397, 282-287 (2004).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, "Vibronic interaction of Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925-930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

Y. Zhang, X. L. Chen, J. K. Liang, and T. Xu, "Phase relations of the system Li2O-Gd2O3-B2O3 and the structure of a new ternary compound," J. Alloys Compd. 348, 314-318 (2003).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, "Highly efficient Nd3+:LaB3O6 cleavage microchip laser," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103-104 (2005).

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

D. L. Dexter and J. H. Schulman, "Theory of concentration quenching in inorganic phosphors," J. Chem. Phys. 22, 1063-1070 (1954).

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).

J. Cryst. Growth (3)

E. F. Dolzhenkova, A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, B. V. Grinyov, V. A. Tarasov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Specific morphological features of LaB3O6 single crystals: a new promising material for thin-layer radiation detectors," J. Cryst. Growth 233, 473-476 (2001).

A. N. Shekhovtsov, A. V. Tolmachev, M. F. Dubovik, E. F. Dolzhenkova, T. I. Korshikova, B. V. Grinyov, V. N. Baumer, and O. V. Zelenskaya, "Structure and growth of pure and Ce3+-doped Li6Gd(BO3)3 single crystals," J. Cryst. Growth 242, 167-171 (2002).

J.-P. Chaminade, O. Viraphong, and S. Miyazawa, "One possible mechanism of spiral/footing growth of Cz-grown Li6Gd(BO3)3," J. Cryst. Growth 237-239, 864-868 (2002).

J. Lumin. (1)

J. H. Choi, A. Margaryan, A. Margaryan, and F. G. Shi, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped novel fluorophosphate glass," J. Lumin. 114, 167-177 (2005).

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized Raman spectra of the oriented NaY(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 single crystals," J. Mol. Struct. 555, 289-297 (2000).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

H. Toratani, T. Izumitani, and H. Kuroda, "Compositional dependence of nonradiative decay rate in Nd laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52, 303-313 (1982).

M. Bettinelli, A. Speghini, M. Ferrari, and M. Montagna, "Spectroscopic investigation of zinc borate glasses doped with trivalent europium ions," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 201, 211-221 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, Z. D. Luo, and J. Garcia Sole, "Optical bands and energy levels of Nd3+ ion in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 9, 9715-9729 (1997).

Opt. Commun. (3)

Y. Q. Zou, X. Y. Chen, D. Y. Tang, Z. D. Luo, and W. Q. Yang, "Investigation of the spectroscopic properties of acentric orthorhombic Nd3+:Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals," Opt. Commun. 167, 99-104 (1999).

Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, "Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements," Opt. Commun. 134, 415-422 (1997).

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Ueda, H. J. Eichler, Y. Kuwano, H. Kouta, S. N. Bagaev, T. H. Chyba, J. C. Barnes, G. M. A. Gad, T. Murai, and J. Lu, "Tetragonal vanadates YVO4 and GdVO4—new efficient chi(3)-materials for Raman lasers," Opt. Commun. 194, 201-206 (2001).

Opt. Mater. (3)

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, J. A. Sanz Garcia, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, and J. Garcia Sole, "Nd3+ ion based self frequency doubling solid state lasers," Opt. Mater. 13, 147-157 (1999).

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Vivien, "CW blue laser generation by self-sum frequency mixing in Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) single crystal," Opt. Mater. 13, 293-297 (1999).

C. T. Chen, "Recent advances in deep and vacuum-UV harmonic generation with KBBF crystal," Opt. Mater. 26, 425-429 (2004).

Phys. Rev. (2)

W. F. Krupke, "Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth-doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals," Phys. Rev. 145, 325-337 (1966).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, "Phonon sidebands, multiphonon relaxation of excited states, and phonon-assisted energy transfer between ions in solids," Phys. Rev. B 1, 2691-2969 (1970).

S. Tanabe, "Upconversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphates glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620-4625 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. F. Belt and R. Uhrin, "Crystal growth and evaluation of rare earth orthogallates for laser hosts," in Growth, Characterization, and Applications of Laser Hosts and Nonlinear Crystals, Proc. SPIE 1104, 209-215 (1989).

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