Abstract

Z-scan experiments were carried out on micellar isotropic lyotropic mixtures with and without ferrofluid doping. Ferrofluid doping, even in small quantities, strongly modifies the sample absorption properties. A method to reduce the Z-scan data is proposed to calculate the nonlinear refractive index of high- and fast-absorber samples. The usual Z-scan data treatment procedure, with the usual transmittance normalization, gives the correct sign, order of magnitude, and linear behavior of n2 with the ferrofluid grain concentration. However, the difference from the absolute values of n2 calculated here and those obtained using the usual Z-scan data treatment procedure increases with the concentration of ferrofluid grains. The origin of this nonlinear optical response of the samples is assumed to be mainly from a thermal origin, in which the micelles are indirectly heated by contact with the ferrofluid grains.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  2. A. M. Figueiredo Neto and S. R. A. Salinas, The Physics of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals: Phase Transitions and Structural Properties (Oxford U. Press, 2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Y. Galerne, A. M. Levelut, and L. Liébert, "Pseudo-lamellar ordering in uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics--a synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiment," J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 46, L499-L505 (1985).
  5. Y. Galerne, A. M. Figueiredo Neto, and L. Liébert, "Microscopic structure of the uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1851-1855 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, M. Rawiso, L. Liébert, and M. C. Holmes, "Anisotropic aggregates of amphiphilic molecules in lyotropic nematic phase," J. Phys. Chem. 87, 3991-3999 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, and M. Rawiso, "Uniaxial-biaxial phase transition in lyotropic nematic solutions--local biaxiality in the uniaxial phase," Phys. Rev. B 33, 3534-3537 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Cuppo, S. Gomez, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Behavior of the nonlinear refractive indices and birefringence in the neighborhood of first- and second-order phase transitions in lyotropic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 67, 051711 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. L. Gómez, R. F. Turchiello, M. C. Jurado, P. Boschcov, M. Gidlund, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Characterization of native and oxidized human low-density lipoproteins by the Z-scan technique," Chem. Phys. Lipids 132, 185-195 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. S. Alves, A. Bourdon, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Generalization of the thermal lens model formalism to account for thermodiffusion in a single-beam Z-scan experiment: determination of the Soret coefficient," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 713-718 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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  22. S. I. Alves, A. Bourdon, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Investigation of the Soret coefficient in magnetic fluids using the Z-scan technique," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 289C, 285-288 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984).
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  25. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, and M. A. Lee, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid-crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zilio, "Single-beam time-resolved Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2121-2123 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Lenglet, "Generation de second harmonique et diffusion Rayleigh forcee dans les colloïdes magnetiques," These de doctorat (Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Paris, France, 1996).
  29. F. L. S. Cuppo, S. L. Gomez, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Effect of the concentration of magnetic grains on the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped lyotropic mesophases: deviation from the Beer-Lambert law," Eur. Phys. J. E 13, 327-333 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. I. Alves, A. Bourdon, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Investigation of the Soret coefficient in magnetic fluids using the Z-scan technique," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 289C, 285-288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. L. Gómez, R. F. Turchiello, M. C. Jurado, P. Boschcov, M. Gidlund, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Characterization of native and oxidized human low-density lipoproteins by the Z-scan technique," Chem. Phys. Lipids 132, 185-195 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. L. S. Cuppo, S. L. Gomez, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Effect of the concentration of magnetic grains on the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped lyotropic mesophases: deviation from the Beer-Lambert law," Eur. Phys. J. E 13, 327-333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

F. Cuppo, S. Gomez, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Behavior of the nonlinear refractive indices and birefringence in the neighborhood of first- and second-order phase transitions in lyotropic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 67, 051711 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Alves, A. Bourdon, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Generalization of the thermal lens model formalism to account for thermodiffusion in a single-beam Z-scan experiment: determination of the Soret coefficient," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 713-718 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1996 (1)

A. C. Bento, A. J. Palngana, L. R. Evangelista, M. L. Baesso, J. R. D. Pereira, E. C. da Silva, and A. M. Mansanares, "Geometrical anisotropy dependence of thermal diffusivity in lyotropic nematics: mode mismatched thermal lens measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3371-3373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zilio, "Single-beam time-resolved Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2121-2123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, and M. A. Lee, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid-crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, "High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements," Opt. Lett. 14, 955-957 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kroin, A. J. Palangana, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Determination of the bend elastic constant and the anisotropy of diamagnetic susceptibility of lyotropic nematic calamitic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 39, 5373-5377 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

Y. Galerne, A. M. Figueiredo Neto, and L. Liébert, "Microscopic structure of the uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1851-1855 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, and M. Rawiso, "Uniaxial-biaxial phase transition in lyotropic nematic solutions--local biaxiality in the uniaxial phase," Phys. Rev. B 33, 3534-3537 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Y. Galerne, A. M. Levelut, and L. Liébert, "Pseudo-lamellar ordering in uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics--a synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiment," J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 46, L499-L505 (1985).

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, M. Rawiso, L. Liébert, and M. C. Holmes, "Anisotropic aggregates of amphiphilic molecules in lyotropic nematic phase," J. Phys. Chem. 87, 3991-3999 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

L. J. Yu and A. Saupe, "Observation of a biaxial nematic phase in potassium laurate-1-decanol-water mixtures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1000-1003 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

F. Brochard and P. G. de Gennes, "Theory of magnetic suspensions in liquid crystals," J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 31, 691-708 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1879 (1)

Ch. Soret, "Sur l'état d'équilibre que prend au point de vue de sa concentration une dissolution saline primitivement homogène dont deux parties sont portées a des températures différentes," Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. 2, 48-61 (1879).

Alves, S.

Alves, S. I.

S. I. Alves, A. Bourdon, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Investigation of the Soret coefficient in magnetic fluids using the Z-scan technique," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 289C, 285-288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baesso, M. L.

A. C. Bento, A. J. Palngana, L. R. Evangelista, M. L. Baesso, J. R. D. Pereira, E. C. da Silva, and A. M. Mansanares, "Geometrical anisotropy dependence of thermal diffusivity in lyotropic nematics: mode mismatched thermal lens measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3371-3373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bento, A. C.

A. C. Bento, A. J. Palngana, L. R. Evangelista, M. L. Baesso, J. R. D. Pereira, E. C. da Silva, and A. M. Mansanares, "Geometrical anisotropy dependence of thermal diffusivity in lyotropic nematics: mode mismatched thermal lens measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3371-3373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, 1975).

Boschcov, P.

S. L. Gómez, R. F. Turchiello, M. C. Jurado, P. Boschcov, M. Gidlund, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Characterization of native and oxidized human low-density lipoproteins by the Z-scan technique," Chem. Phys. Lipids 132, 185-195 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bourdon, A.

S. I. Alves, A. Bourdon, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Investigation of the Soret coefficient in magnetic fluids using the Z-scan technique," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 289C, 285-288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Alves, A. Bourdon, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Generalization of the thermal lens model formalism to account for thermodiffusion in a single-beam Z-scan experiment: determination of the Soret coefficient," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 713-718 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brochard, F.

F. Brochard and P. G. de Gennes, "Theory of magnetic suspensions in liquid crystals," J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 31, 691-708 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Carter, C. A.

Charvolin, J.

Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, and M. Rawiso, "Uniaxial-biaxial phase transition in lyotropic nematic solutions--local biaxiality in the uniaxial phase," Phys. Rev. B 33, 3534-3537 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, M. Rawiso, L. Liébert, and M. C. Holmes, "Anisotropic aggregates of amphiphilic molecules in lyotropic nematic phase," J. Phys. Chem. 87, 3991-3999 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cuppo, F.

F. Cuppo, S. Gomez, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Behavior of the nonlinear refractive indices and birefringence in the neighborhood of first- and second-order phase transitions in lyotropic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 67, 051711 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cuppo, F. L.

F. L. S. Cuppo, S. L. Gomez, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Effect of the concentration of magnetic grains on the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped lyotropic mesophases: deviation from the Beer-Lambert law," Eur. Phys. J. E 13, 327-333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. L. S. Cuppo, A. M. Figueiredo Neto, S. L. Gomez, and P. Palffy-Muhoray, "Thermal-lens model compared with the Sheik-Bahae formalism in interpreting Z-scan experiments on lyotropic liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1342-1348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, E. C.

A. C. Bento, A. J. Palngana, L. R. Evangelista, M. L. Baesso, J. R. D. Pereira, E. C. da Silva, and A. M. Mansanares, "Geometrical anisotropy dependence of thermal diffusivity in lyotropic nematics: mode mismatched thermal lens measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3371-3373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Gennes, P. G.

F. Brochard and P. G. de Gennes, "Theory of magnetic suspensions in liquid crystals," J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 31, 691-708 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, 1993).

Evangelista, L. R.

A. C. Bento, A. J. Palngana, L. R. Evangelista, M. L. Baesso, J. R. D. Pereira, E. C. da Silva, and A. M. Mansanares, "Geometrical anisotropy dependence of thermal diffusivity in lyotropic nematics: mode mismatched thermal lens measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3371-3373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Galerne, Y.

Y. Galerne, A. M. Figueiredo Neto, and L. Liébert, "Microscopic structure of the uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1851-1855 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Y. Galerne, A. M. Levelut, and L. Liébert, "Pseudo-lamellar ordering in uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics--a synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiment," J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 46, L499-L505 (1985).

A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Y. Galerne, A. M. Levelut, and L. Liébert, "Physics of complex and supermolecular fluids," EXXON Monograph Series, S.A.Safran and N.A.Clark, eds. (Wiley, 1987), p. 347.

Gidlund, M.

S. L. Gómez, R. F. Turchiello, M. C. Jurado, P. Boschcov, M. Gidlund, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Characterization of native and oxidized human low-density lipoproteins by the Z-scan technique," Chem. Phys. Lipids 132, 185-195 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomez, S.

F. Cuppo, S. Gomez, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Behavior of the nonlinear refractive indices and birefringence in the neighborhood of first- and second-order phase transitions in lyotropic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 67, 051711 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, S. L.

F. L. S. Cuppo, S. L. Gomez, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Effect of the concentration of magnetic grains on the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped lyotropic mesophases: deviation from the Beer-Lambert law," Eur. Phys. J. E 13, 327-333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. L. S. Cuppo, A. M. Figueiredo Neto, S. L. Gomez, and P. Palffy-Muhoray, "Thermal-lens model compared with the Sheik-Bahae formalism in interpreting Z-scan experiments on lyotropic liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1342-1348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gómez, S. L.

S. L. Gómez, R. F. Turchiello, M. C. Jurado, P. Boschcov, M. Gidlund, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Characterization of native and oxidized human low-density lipoproteins by the Z-scan technique," Chem. Phys. Lipids 132, 185-195 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. M.

Hendrikx, Y.

Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, and M. Rawiso, "Uniaxial-biaxial phase transition in lyotropic nematic solutions--local biaxiality in the uniaxial phase," Phys. Rev. B 33, 3534-3537 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, M. Rawiso, L. Liébert, and M. C. Holmes, "Anisotropic aggregates of amphiphilic molecules in lyotropic nematic phase," J. Phys. Chem. 87, 3991-3999 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, M. C.

Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, M. Rawiso, L. Liébert, and M. C. Holmes, "Anisotropic aggregates of amphiphilic molecules in lyotropic nematic phase," J. Phys. Chem. 87, 3991-3999 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jurado, M. C.

S. L. Gómez, R. F. Turchiello, M. C. Jurado, P. Boschcov, M. Gidlund, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Characterization of native and oxidized human low-density lipoproteins by the Z-scan technique," Chem. Phys. Lipids 132, 185-195 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kroin, T.

T. Kroin, A. J. Palangana, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Determination of the bend elastic constant and the anisotropy of diamagnetic susceptibility of lyotropic nematic calamitic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 39, 5373-5377 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M. A.

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, and M. A. Lee, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid-crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lenglet, J.

J. Lenglet, "Generation de second harmonique et diffusion Rayleigh forcee dans les colloïdes magnetiques," These de doctorat (Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Paris, France, 1996).

Levelut, A. M.

A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Y. Galerne, A. M. Levelut, and L. Liébert, "Pseudo-lamellar ordering in uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics--a synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiment," J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 46, L499-L505 (1985).

A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Y. Galerne, A. M. Levelut, and L. Liébert, "Physics of complex and supermolecular fluids," EXXON Monograph Series, S.A.Safran and N.A.Clark, eds. (Wiley, 1987), p. 347.

Li, L.

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, and M. A. Lee, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid-crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liébert, L.

Y. Galerne, A. M. Figueiredo Neto, and L. Liébert, "Microscopic structure of the uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1851-1855 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Y. Galerne, A. M. Levelut, and L. Liébert, "Pseudo-lamellar ordering in uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics--a synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiment," J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 46, L499-L505 (1985).

Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, M. Rawiso, L. Liébert, and M. C. Holmes, "Anisotropic aggregates of amphiphilic molecules in lyotropic nematic phase," J. Phys. Chem. 87, 3991-3999 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Y. Galerne, A. M. Levelut, and L. Liébert, "Physics of complex and supermolecular fluids," EXXON Monograph Series, S.A.Safran and N.A.Clark, eds. (Wiley, 1987), p. 347.

Mansanares, A. M.

A. C. Bento, A. J. Palngana, L. R. Evangelista, M. L. Baesso, J. R. D. Pereira, E. C. da Silva, and A. M. Mansanares, "Geometrical anisotropy dependence of thermal diffusivity in lyotropic nematics: mode mismatched thermal lens measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3371-3373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neto, A. M.

S. I. Alves, A. Bourdon, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Investigation of the Soret coefficient in magnetic fluids using the Z-scan technique," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 289C, 285-288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Gómez, R. F. Turchiello, M. C. Jurado, P. Boschcov, M. Gidlund, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Characterization of native and oxidized human low-density lipoproteins by the Z-scan technique," Chem. Phys. Lipids 132, 185-195 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. L. S. Cuppo, S. L. Gomez, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Effect of the concentration of magnetic grains on the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped lyotropic mesophases: deviation from the Beer-Lambert law," Eur. Phys. J. E 13, 327-333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alves, A. Bourdon, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Generalization of the thermal lens model formalism to account for thermodiffusion in a single-beam Z-scan experiment: determination of the Soret coefficient," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 713-718 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Cuppo, S. Gomez, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Behavior of the nonlinear refractive indices and birefringence in the neighborhood of first- and second-order phase transitions in lyotropic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 67, 051711 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. L. S. Cuppo, A. M. Figueiredo Neto, S. L. Gomez, and P. Palffy-Muhoray, "Thermal-lens model compared with the Sheik-Bahae formalism in interpreting Z-scan experiments on lyotropic liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1342-1348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kroin, A. J. Palangana, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Determination of the bend elastic constant and the anisotropy of diamagnetic susceptibility of lyotropic nematic calamitic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 39, 5373-5377 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Galerne, A. M. Figueiredo Neto, and L. Liébert, "Microscopic structure of the uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1851-1855 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Y. Galerne, A. M. Levelut, and L. Liébert, "Pseudo-lamellar ordering in uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics--a synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiment," J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 46, L499-L505 (1985).

A. M. Figueiredo Neto and S. R. A. Salinas, The Physics of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals: Phase Transitions and Structural Properties (Oxford U. Press, 2005).

A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Structure of lyotropic nematic complex fluids," in Phase Transitions in Complex Fluids, P.Tolédano and A.M.FigueiredoNeto, eds. (World Scientific, 1998).

A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Y. Galerne, A. M. Levelut, and L. Liébert, "Physics of complex and supermolecular fluids," EXXON Monograph Series, S.A.Safran and N.A.Clark, eds. (Wiley, 1987), p. 347.

Oliveira, L. C.

L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zilio, "Single-beam time-resolved Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2121-2123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Palangana, A. J.

T. Kroin, A. J. Palangana, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Determination of the bend elastic constant and the anisotropy of diamagnetic susceptibility of lyotropic nematic calamitic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 39, 5373-5377 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

F. L. S. Cuppo, A. M. Figueiredo Neto, S. L. Gomez, and P. Palffy-Muhoray, "Thermal-lens model compared with the Sheik-Bahae formalism in interpreting Z-scan experiments on lyotropic liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1342-1348 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, and M. A. Lee, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid-crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Palngana, A. J.

A. C. Bento, A. J. Palngana, L. R. Evangelista, M. L. Baesso, J. R. D. Pereira, E. C. da Silva, and A. M. Mansanares, "Geometrical anisotropy dependence of thermal diffusivity in lyotropic nematics: mode mismatched thermal lens measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3371-3373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, J. R.

A. C. Bento, A. J. Palngana, L. R. Evangelista, M. L. Baesso, J. R. D. Pereira, E. C. da Silva, and A. M. Mansanares, "Geometrical anisotropy dependence of thermal diffusivity in lyotropic nematics: mode mismatched thermal lens measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3371-3373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prost, J.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, 1993).

Rawiso, M.

Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, and M. Rawiso, "Uniaxial-biaxial phase transition in lyotropic nematic solutions--local biaxiality in the uniaxial phase," Phys. Rev. B 33, 3534-3537 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, M. Rawiso, L. Liébert, and M. C. Holmes, "Anisotropic aggregates of amphiphilic molecules in lyotropic nematic phase," J. Phys. Chem. 87, 3991-3999 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rosensweig, R. E.

R. E. Rosensweig, Ferrohydrodynamics (Cambridge U. Press, 1985).

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, "High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements," Opt. Lett. 14, 955-957 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salinas, S. R.

A. M. Figueiredo Neto and S. R. A. Salinas, The Physics of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals: Phase Transitions and Structural Properties (Oxford U. Press, 2005).

Saupe, A.

L. J. Yu and A. Saupe, "Observation of a biaxial nematic phase in potassium laurate-1-decanol-water mixtures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1000-1003 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, "High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements," Opt. Lett. 14, 955-957 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984).

Soret, Ch.

Ch. Soret, "Sur l'état d'équilibre que prend au point de vue de sa concentration une dissolution saline primitivement homogène dont deux parties sont portées a des températures différentes," Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. 2, 48-61 (1879).

Turchiello, R. F.

S. L. Gómez, R. F. Turchiello, M. C. Jurado, P. Boschcov, M. Gidlund, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Characterization of native and oxidized human low-density lipoproteins by the Z-scan technique," Chem. Phys. Lipids 132, 185-195 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, "High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements," Opt. Lett. 14, 955-957 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, 1975).

Yu, L. J.

L. J. Yu and A. Saupe, "Observation of a biaxial nematic phase in potassium laurate-1-decanol-water mixtures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1000-1003 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H. J.

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, and M. A. Lee, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid-crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zilio, S. C.

L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zilio, "Single-beam time-resolved Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2121-2123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. C. Bento, A. J. Palngana, L. R. Evangelista, M. L. Baesso, J. R. D. Pereira, E. C. da Silva, and A. M. Mansanares, "Geometrical anisotropy dependence of thermal diffusivity in lyotropic nematics: mode mismatched thermal lens measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3371-3373 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Oliveira and S. C. Zilio, "Single-beam time-resolved Z-scan measurements of slow absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2121-2123 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. (1)

Ch. Soret, "Sur l'état d'équilibre que prend au point de vue de sa concentration une dissolution saline primitivement homogène dont deux parties sont portées a des températures différentes," Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. 2, 48-61 (1879).

Chem. Phys. Lipids (1)

S. L. Gómez, R. F. Turchiello, M. C. Jurado, P. Boschcov, M. Gidlund, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Characterization of native and oxidized human low-density lipoproteins by the Z-scan technique," Chem. Phys. Lipids 132, 185-195 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

F. L. S. Cuppo, S. L. Gomez, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Effect of the concentration of magnetic grains on the linear-optical-absorption coefficient of ferrofluid-doped lyotropic mesophases: deviation from the Beer-Lambert law," Eur. Phys. J. E 13, 327-333 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

Y. Galerne, A. M. Figueiredo Neto, and L. Liébert, "Microscopic structure of the uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 1851-1855 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater. (1)

S. I. Alves, A. Bourdon, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Investigation of the Soret coefficient in magnetic fluids using the Z-scan technique," J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 289C, 285-288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. (2)

F. Brochard and P. G. de Gennes, "Theory of magnetic suspensions in liquid crystals," J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 31, 691-708 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Y. Galerne, A. M. Levelut, and L. Liébert, "Pseudo-lamellar ordering in uniaxial and biaxial lyotropic nematics--a synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiment," J. Phys. (Paris) Lett. 46, L499-L505 (1985).

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, M. Rawiso, L. Liébert, and M. C. Holmes, "Anisotropic aggregates of amphiphilic molecules in lyotropic nematic phase," J. Phys. Chem. 87, 3991-3999 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, and M. A. Lee, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid-crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. Kroin, A. J. Palangana, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Determination of the bend elastic constant and the anisotropy of diamagnetic susceptibility of lyotropic nematic calamitic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 39, 5373-5377 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. Hendrikx, J. Charvolin, and M. Rawiso, "Uniaxial-biaxial phase transition in lyotropic nematic solutions--local biaxiality in the uniaxial phase," Phys. Rev. B 33, 3534-3537 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

F. Cuppo, S. Gomez, and A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Behavior of the nonlinear refractive indices and birefringence in the neighborhood of first- and second-order phase transitions in lyotropic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 67, 051711 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. J. Yu and A. Saupe, "Observation of a biaxial nematic phase in potassium laurate-1-decanol-water mixtures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1000-1003 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd ed. (Clarendon, 1993).

A. M. Figueiredo Neto and S. R. A. Salinas, The Physics of Lyotropic Liquid Crystals: Phase Transitions and Structural Properties (Oxford U. Press, 2005).

A. M. Figueiredo Neto, "Structure of lyotropic nematic complex fluids," in Phase Transitions in Complex Fluids, P.Tolédano and A.M.FigueiredoNeto, eds. (World Scientific, 1998).

B.Berkovski and V.Bashtovoy, eds., Magnetic Fluids and Applications Handbook (Begell House, 1996).

R. E. Rosensweig, Ferrohydrodynamics (Cambridge U. Press, 1985).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, 1975).

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984).

A. M. Figueiredo Neto, Y. Galerne, A. M. Levelut, and L. Liébert, "Physics of complex and supermolecular fluids," EXXON Monograph Series, S.A.Safran and N.A.Clark, eds. (Wiley, 1987), p. 347.

J. Lenglet, "Generation de second harmonique et diffusion Rayleigh forcee dans les colloïdes magnetiques," These de doctorat (Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Paris, France, 1996).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear optical absorption (at λ = 532 nm ) of the samples described in Table 1. The solid line is the linear fit α = ( 0.0489 × 10 11 ) c .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Refractive index n o and (b) thermo-optic coefficient d n d T of the lyotropic samples as a function of the ferrofluid grain concentration c. Solid curves are guides for the eyes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized transmitted intensity Γ N ( z , t 0 + ) = Γ ( z , t 0 + ) Γ ( z z o , t 0 + ) of the (a) doped (A2) and (b) undoped samples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results of the time dependence of the sample transmitted light intensity during an incident square light pulse of time width Δ t . (a) Sample at z z o . Γ represents the transmitted intensity at any time t < Δ t (each pulse starts at t = 0 ). (b) Actual situation of the time-dependent transmitted intensity in the case of a fast absorber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

ZS curves of the lyotropic samples: (a) samples A1 (encircled crosses), A2 (open circles), and A3 (filled circles); (b) samples A0 (filled squares) and A4 (open squares).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Master curve of sample A2: C N as a function of Δ Γ pv theo .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Parameter n 2 as a function of the ferrofluid concentration. The solid line is a linear fit n 2 = 4.92 × 10 14 + ( 8.16 + 10 25 ) c .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Nonlinear refractive index n 2 as a function of the ferro - fluid concentration. The solid line is a linear fit n 2 = 2.70 × 10 7 + ( 3.45 × 10 18 ) c .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Label of the Investigated Lyotropic Samples, Their Ferrofluid Grain Concentration, Incident Laser Power Used in the ZS Experiments, C T , C N , and δ T

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ n ( r , t ) = n T δ T ( r , t ) + n φ δ φ ( r , t ) + n I I ( r , t ) .
l ( r , t ) = b [ n o + n T δ T ( r , t ) + n φ δ φ ( r , t ) + n I I ( r , t ) ] ,
1 f ( t ) = d 2 l ( r , t ) d r 2 r = 0 .
z o f T ( t ) = z o b n T d 2 d r 2 δ T ( r , t ) r = 0 = C T 1 1 + γ 2 t t + t c ,
z o f S = z o b n φ d 2 d r 2 δ φ ( r , t ) r = 0 = C S ( 1 + s + s γ 2 ) ( 1 + γ 2 ) ,
z o f N = C N ( 1 + γ 2 ) 2 ,
C T = b z o α P π ω o 2 κ n T ,
C S = b z o S T α P 2 π κ ω o 2 n φ ,
C N = 8 b z o P π ω o 4 n I ,
ω 2 ( z ) = ω o 2 [ 1 + ( z z o ) 2 ] ,
δ n ( r , t ) = n T δ T ( r , t ) + n I I ( r , t ) .
Γ ( z , t ) = Γ 1 2 γ [ C N ( 1 + γ 2 ) 2 + C T 1 + γ 2 t t + 2 t c ] + ( 1 + γ 2 ) ( C N 1 + γ 2 + C T 1 + γ 2 t t + 2 t c ) 2 ,
C N = 8 P b z o n 2 π ω o 4 ,
Γ N ( z , t = t s ) = Γ ( z , t = t s ) Γ = Γ N ( z ) ,
Δ Γ pv theo = Γ N ( z = z p ) Γ N ( z = z v ) ,
n = n o + n 2 I .
δ n = ( 1 I n T δ T ) I + n 2 I = ( 1 I n T δ T + n 2 ) I n n o ,
n 2 = ( 1 I n T δ T + n 2 ) .
Γ N TLM ( z ) = Γ ( z , t 0 + ) Γ ( z , t = t s ) Γ ( z , t = t s ) = Δ Γ ( z ) Γ ( z , t = t s ) ,
δ T = T ( t = 10 ms ) T ( t = 0 ) = P α δ t e ρ π ω o 2 C p ,

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