Abstract

I numerically model broad-bandwidth optical parametric oscillation and amplification to explore the influence of pump bandwidth on conversion efficiency, injection seeding, and generated spectra. I also study narrow-bandwidth pumping of broad-bandwidth signal and idler waves. I show that the relative group velocities of the three waves have a critical effect on device performance in all cases and provide physical explanations for this.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Control of frequency chirp in nanosecond-pulsed laser spectroscopy. 1. Optical-heterodyne chirp analysis techniques," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1577-1585 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Control of frequency chirp in nanosecond-pulsed laser spectroscopy. 2. A long-pulse optical parametric oscillator for narrow optical bandwidth," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1586-1594 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Transition from single-mode to multimode operation of an injection-seeded pulsed optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Express 12, 5655-5660 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Arisholm, G. Rustad, and K. Stenersen, "Importance of pump-beam group velocity for backconversion in optical parametric oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1882-1890 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Arisholm, "Quantum noise initiation and macroscopic fluctuations in optical parametric oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 117-127 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. V. Smith, D. J. Armstrong, M. C. Phillips, R. J. Gehr, and G. Arisholm, "Degenerate type I nanosecond optical parametric oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2319-2328 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. J. Alford, R. J. Gehr, R. L. Schmitt, A. V. Smith, and G. Arisholm, "Beam tilt and angular dispersion in broad-bandwidth, nanosecond optical parametric oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1525-1532 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. J. Alford and A. V. Smith, "Frequency-doubling broadband light in multiple crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 515-523 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. V. Smith, R. J. Gehr, and M. S. Bowers, "Numerical models of broad-bandwidth nanosecond optical parametric oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 609-619 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. The OPO modeling uses SNLO function PW-OPO-BB and the OPA modeling uses SNLO function PW-mix-BB. SNLO is a public domain software available as a free download at http://www.sandia.gov/imrl/X1118/xxtal.htm.
  11. E. S. Cassedy and M. Jain, "A theoretical study of injection tuning of optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1290-1301 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. J. Armstrong and A. V. Smith, "Demonstration of a frequency-modulated, pulsed optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1227-1229 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. J. Armstrong and A. V. Smith, "Tendency of nanosecond optical parametric oscillators to produce purely phase-modulated light," Opt. Lett. 21, 1634-1636 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. He and B. J. Orr, "Tunable single-mode operation of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator pumped by a multimode laser," Appl. Opt. 40, 4836-4848 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Arisholm, E. Lippert, G. Rustad, and K. Stenersen, "Effect of resonator length on doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator pumped by a multilongitudinal-mode beam," Opt. Lett. 25, 1654-1656 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

1999 (3)

1997 (1)

D. J. Armstrong and A. V. Smith, "Demonstration of a frequency-modulated, pulsed optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1227-1229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1979 (1)

E. S. Cassedy and M. Jain, "A theoretical study of injection tuning of optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1290-1301 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Alford, W. J.

Arisholm, G.

Armstrong, D. J.

Baldwin, K. G.

Bowers, M. S.

Cassedy, E. S.

E. S. Cassedy and M. Jain, "A theoretical study of injection tuning of optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1290-1301 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gehr, R. J.

He, Y.

Jain, M.

E. S. Cassedy and M. Jain, "A theoretical study of injection tuning of optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1290-1301 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kono, M.

Lippert, E.

Orr, B. J.

Phillips, M. C.

Rustad, G.

Schmitt, R. L.

Smith, A. V.

Stenersen, K.

White, R. T.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. J. Armstrong and A. V. Smith, "Demonstration of a frequency-modulated, pulsed optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1227-1229 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. S. Cassedy and M. Jain, "A theoretical study of injection tuning of optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1290-1301 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (8)

R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Control of frequency chirp in nanosecond-pulsed laser spectroscopy. 1. Optical-heterodyne chirp analysis techniques," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1577-1585 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Control of frequency chirp in nanosecond-pulsed laser spectroscopy. 2. A long-pulse optical parametric oscillator for narrow optical bandwidth," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1586-1594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Arisholm, G. Rustad, and K. Stenersen, "Importance of pump-beam group velocity for backconversion in optical parametric oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1882-1890 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Arisholm, "Quantum noise initiation and macroscopic fluctuations in optical parametric oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 117-127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Smith, D. J. Armstrong, M. C. Phillips, R. J. Gehr, and G. Arisholm, "Degenerate type I nanosecond optical parametric oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2319-2328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Alford, R. J. Gehr, R. L. Schmitt, A. V. Smith, and G. Arisholm, "Beam tilt and angular dispersion in broad-bandwidth, nanosecond optical parametric oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1525-1532 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Alford and A. V. Smith, "Frequency-doubling broadband light in multiple crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 515-523 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Smith, R. J. Gehr, and M. S. Bowers, "Numerical models of broad-bandwidth nanosecond optical parametric oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 609-619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

The OPO modeling uses SNLO function PW-OPO-BB and the OPA modeling uses SNLO function PW-mix-BB. SNLO is a public domain software available as a free download at http://www.sandia.gov/imrl/X1118/xxtal.htm.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Signal (solid curve) and transmitted pump (dotted curve) for a singly resonant OPO pumped by a single-mode laser (a) near threshold and (b) approximately five times threshold. The vertical scales in (a) and (b) are different.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal fluence versus input pump fluence for the standard, seeded, singly resonant OPO pumped by a single-mode pump.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Signal fluence versus pump fluence for the standard OPO with fixed signal and idler GVs ( n g , s = 1.95 and n g , i = 2.05 ) but with varying values of the pump GV index n g , p . (a) Seeded operation, (b) unseeded operation. Curves only for n g , p > 2 are shown because those for n g , p < 2 by the same amount are nearly identical.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signal (solid curve) and idler (dotted curve) irradiance near the pulse center for ( n g , s = 1.95 , n g , i = 2.05 , n g , p = 2.5 ) illustrating the pulsed nature of the signal and idler. The pump fluence is approximately 0.9 J cm 2 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pump fluence at threshold of seeding failure, expressed in units of the seeded threshold, versus Δ p .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Signal fluence versus pump fluence for seeded and unseeded operation in simulations of the OPO of White et al. The dotted curve is the reference of Fig. 2 for forced monochromatic operation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Simulation of White’s seeded OPO at a pump fluence of 0.088 J cm 2 (approximately five times threshold). Only the pump and signal traces are shown, and they have been smoothed to improve the display. The actual signal trace shows 100% modulation shortly after the breakdown of seeding as shown in (b) that displays a short time segment of the signal (upper solid curve), idler (dotted curve), and pump (lower solid curve) pulses without smoothing, near 10.4 ns. The vertical scales are identical in (a) and (b).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Signal and idler irradiance near the center of the pump pulse for an unseeded OPO with a pump fluence of 0.9 J cm 2 (approximately ten times threshold) with n g , p = ( a ) 2.5 and (b) 2.0.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Pump depletion for OPA with monochromatic pump and broad-bandwidth signal seed. The Reference curve is for all monochromatic waves. The lower curve is for n g , s = 1.9 , n g , i = 2.1 , and n g , p = 2.0 and the upper curve is for n g , s = 1.9 , n g , i = 2.1 , and n g , p = 2.5 .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

OPA pump depletion versus the normalized temporal walk-off of the pump for a pump fluence of 13 J cm 2 . The pump is monochromatic; the signal and idler are broadband.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Signal fluence versus pump fluence for (a) 0.3 cm 1 bandwidth pump and (b) a 3.0 cm 1 bandwidth pump. A signal seed is applied in all cases, but seeding is only partially successful.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Signal efficiency versus pump walk-off for a singly resonant OPO pumped near threshold by a pump with a linewidth of 3 cm 1 . The solid curve is for n g , s = 1.95 , n g , i = 2.05 ; the dotted curve is for n g , s = 1.9 , n g , i = 2.1 . Δ ̃ p = ( τ ¯ τ coh ) .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Signal fluence versus pump fluence for singly resonant OPO pumped by light with different bandwidths. (a) Signal seed, (b) unseeded. The dotted curve is the reference curve for seeded operation with monochromatic pumping; the solid curves are for pump bandwidths of 0, 1, 2, and 3 cm 1 . The GVs are indicated in the figure.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Pump depletion versus pump fluence for optical parametric amplification with a multimode pump pulse and single-mode signal seed. The curve labeled reference is for a single-mode pump; the curve labeled AM is for a multimode pump with all the GVs equal; the curves labeled signal, idler, and pump are for GV walk-off of one of the indicated waves relative to the other two. The temporal walk-off is 17 ps and the pump coherence time is 8.3 ps.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Pump depletion in parametric amplification by a multimode pump versus the signal–idler walk-off ( τ si ) normalized to the characteristic time of the pump variations τ coh = 8.3 ps . The pump fluence is 8.8 J cm 2 .

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Standard OPO Model Input Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 Standard OPA Model Input Parameters

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Table 3 White’s OPO Model Parameters

Equations (10)

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Δ k L 2 π ,
Δ k = ( d k s d ω s d k i d ω i ) Δ ω i .
Δ k = ( n g , s c n g , i c ) Δ ω i = 2 π L ,
Δ ω si = 2 π c L ( n g , s n g , i ) .
Δ ν si = Δ ω si 2 π = 1 τ si .
Δ ν pi = 1 τ pi ,
Δ ν ps = 1 τ ps .
n ¯ g = ( n g , s + n g , i ) 2 ,
τ ¯ = L ( n g , p n ¯ g ) c ,
Δ p = τ ¯ τ si = n g , p n ¯ g n g , i n g , s .

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