Abstract

We report experimental investigations of two-photon and excited-state absorption in D-π-A chromophores and propose a model to explain nonlinear absorption in the nanosecond regime. The key parameter is an effective three-photon absorption coefficient that depends on the two-photon absorption cross section and excited-state photophysical properties. We obtain all these parameters from independent measurements and then compare the model with nanosecond nonlinear transmission measurements. We find good agreement with the data, using no free parameters, for specific values of some published two-photon absorption cross sections. We conclude that excited singlet–singlet and triplet–triplet absorption are the dominant sources of nonlinear transmittance loss and that the chief role of two-photon absorption is to populate these states.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. N. Day, K. A. Nguyen, and R. Pachter, "TDDFT study of one- and two-photon absorption properties: donor-pi-acceptor chromophores," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1803-1814 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, B. Sankaran, R. Kannan, L.-S. Tan, and P. A. Fleitz, "Understanding the one-photon photophysical properties of a two-photon absorbing chromophore," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 5514-5520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kannan, G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Toward highly active two-photon absorbing liquids. Synthesis and characterization of 1,3,5-triazine-based octupolar molecules," Chem. Mater. 16, 185-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, J. Dai, P. N. Prasad, R. Kannan, A. G. Dombroskie, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Degenerate two-photon-absorption spectral studies of highly two-photon active organic chromophores," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5275-5284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, and J. Ding, "Nonlinear-absorbing fiber array for large-dynamic-range optical limiting application against intense short laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1234-1240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various pi-electron acceptors," Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Oulianov, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, and R. M. Rentzepis, "Observations on the measurement of two-photon absorption cross-section," Opt. Commun. 191, 235-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kirkpatrick, R. R. Naik, and M. O. Stone, "Nonlinear saturation and determination of the two-photon absorption cross section of green fluorescent protein," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2867-2873 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, Y. Jiang, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, L.-S. Tan, and R. Kannan, "Two-photon excitation and optical spatial-profile reshaping via a nonlinear absorbing medium," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4805-4810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Brédas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, "Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application," Chem. Mater. 10, 1863-1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Swiatikiewicz, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reinhardt, "Probing two-photon excitation dynamics using ultrafast laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 157, 135-138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

R. L. Sutherland, E. Rea, L. V. Natarajan, T. Pottenger, and P. A. Fleitz, "Two-photon absorption and second hyperpolarizability measurements in diphenylbutadiene by degenerate four-wave mixing," J. Chem. Phys. 98, 2593-2603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, D. M. Brandelik, P. A. Fleitz, and T. Pottenger, "Nonlinear absorption study of a C60-toluene solution," Opt. Lett. 18, 858-860 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1991 (3)

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, M. A. Lee, J. R. DeSalvo, T. H. Wei, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhao, Y. Cui, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, M. R. Unroe, and B. A. Reinhardt, "Influence of two-photon absorption on third-order nonlinear optical processes as studied by degenerate four-wave mixing: the study of soluble didecyloxy substituted polyphenyls," J. Chem. Phys. 95, 3391-4401 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, "Excited state properties of C60," Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 501-504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, and B. Wilhelmi, "Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbene-choloform solution, explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state," Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133-135 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ågren, H.

Albota, M.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aranda, F. J.

Baev, A.

Barlow, S.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Brédas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baur, J. W.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various pi-electron acceptors," Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beljonne, D.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Brédas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatt, J. C.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, "Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application," Chem. Mater. 10, 1863-1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brandelik, D. M.

Brant, M. C.

Brant, M. E.

R. L. Sutherland, M. E. Brant, D. G. McLean, J. E. Rogers, B. Sankaran, S. E. Kirkpatrick, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state absorption in a strongly two-photon absorbing neat organic material," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics , Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CFF6.

Brédas, J.-L.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Brédas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brott, L. L.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, "Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application," Chem. Mater. 10, 1863-1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clarson, S. J.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, "Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application," Chem. Mater. 10, 1863-1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

M. Zhao, Y. Cui, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, M. R. Unroe, and B. A. Reinhardt, "Influence of two-photon absorption on third-order nonlinear optical processes as studied by degenerate four-wave mixing: the study of soluble didecyloxy substituted polyphenyls," J. Chem. Phys. 95, 3391-4401 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, J. Dai, P. N. Prasad, R. Kannan, A. G. Dombroskie, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Degenerate two-photon-absorption spectral studies of highly two-photon active organic chromophores," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5275-5284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, P. N.

P. N. Day, K. A. Nguyen, and R. Pachter, "TDDFT study of one- and two-photon absorption properties: donor-pi-acceptor chromophores," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1803-1814 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DeSalvo, J. R.

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, M. A. Lee, J. R. DeSalvo, T. H. Wei, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, A.

Dillard, A. G.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, "Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application," Chem. Mater. 10, 1863-1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

Dombroskie, A. G.

G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, J. Dai, P. N. Prasad, R. Kannan, A. G. Dombroskie, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Degenerate two-photon-absorption spectral studies of highly two-photon active organic chromophores," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5275-5284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various pi-electron acceptors," Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dvornikov, A. S.

D. A. Oulianov, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, and R. M. Rentzepis, "Observations on the measurement of two-photon absorption cross-section," Opt. Commun. 191, 235-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, "Excited state properties of C60," Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 501-504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, J. E.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Brédas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Ehrlich, X.-L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Röckel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes," Opt. Lett. 22, 1843-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fleitz, P. A.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, B. Sankaran, R. Kannan, L.-S. Tan, and P. A. Fleitz, "Understanding the one-photon photophysical properties of a two-photon absorbing chromophore," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 5514-5520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, E. Rea, L. V. Natarajan, T. Pottenger, and P. A. Fleitz, "Two-photon absorption and second hyperpolarizability measurements in diphenylbutadiene by degenerate four-wave mixing," J. Chem. Phys. 98, 2593-2603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, D. M. Brandelik, P. A. Fleitz, and T. Pottenger, "Nonlinear absorption study of a C60-toluene solution," Opt. Lett. 18, 858-860 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, M. E. Brant, D. G. McLean, J. E. Rogers, B. Sankaran, S. E. Kirkpatrick, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state absorption in a strongly two-photon absorbing neat organic material," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics , Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CFF6.

Fu, J.-Y.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gel'mukhanov, F.

Guha, S.

Hagan, D. J.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electron and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, M. A. Lee, J. R. DeSalvo, T. H. Wei, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Toward highly active two-photon absorbing liquids. Synthesis and characterization of 1,3,5-triazine-based octupolar molecules," Chem. Mater. 16, 185-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, J. Dai, P. N. Prasad, R. Kannan, A. G. Dombroskie, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Degenerate two-photon-absorption spectral studies of highly two-photon active organic chromophores," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5275-5284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various pi-electron acceptors," Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, Y. Jiang, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, L.-S. Tan, and R. Kannan, "Two-photon excitation and optical spatial-profile reshaping via a nonlinear absorbing medium," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4805-4810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, "Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application," Chem. Mater. 10, 1863-1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heikal, A. A.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Brédas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, S. E.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, Z.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Brédas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z.-Y.

Jiang, Y.

G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, Y. Jiang, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, L.-S. Tan, and R. Kannan, "Two-photon excitation and optical spatial-profile reshaping via a nonlinear absorbing medium," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4805-4810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kang, K.

Kannan, R.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Toward highly active two-photon absorbing liquids. Synthesis and characterization of 1,3,5-triazine-based octupolar molecules," Chem. Mater. 16, 185-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, J. Dai, P. N. Prasad, R. Kannan, A. G. Dombroskie, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Degenerate two-photon-absorption spectral studies of highly two-photon active organic chromophores," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5275-5284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, B. Sankaran, R. Kannan, L.-S. Tan, and P. A. Fleitz, "Understanding the one-photon photophysical properties of a two-photon absorbing chromophore," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 5514-5520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various pi-electron acceptors," Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, Y. Jiang, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, L.-S. Tan, and R. Kannan, "Two-photon excitation and optical spatial-profile reshaping via a nonlinear absorbing medium," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4805-4810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, "Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application," Chem. Mater. 10, 1863-1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

Kirkpatrick, S. E.

R. L. Sutherland, M. E. Brant, D. G. McLean, J. E. Rogers, B. Sankaran, S. E. Kirkpatrick, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state absorption in a strongly two-photon absorbing neat organic material," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics , Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CFF6.

Kirkpatrick, S. M.

S. M. Kirkpatrick, R. R. Naik, and M. O. Stone, "Nonlinear saturation and determination of the two-photon absorption cross section of green fluorescent protein," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2867-2873 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kleinschmidt, J.

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, and B. Wilhelmi, "Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbene-choloform solution, explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state," Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133-135 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kogej, T.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroshima, S.

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, "Excited state properties of C60," Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 501-504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I.-Y. S.

Lee, M. A.

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, M. A. Lee, J. R. DeSalvo, T. H. Wei, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Levin, M. D.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, M. A. Lee, J. R. DeSalvo, T. H. Wei, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.-C.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Toward highly active two-photon absorbing liquids. Synthesis and characterization of 1,3,5-triazine-based octupolar molecules," Chem. Mater. 16, 185-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, J. Dai, P. N. Prasad, R. Kannan, A. G. Dombroskie, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Degenerate two-photon-absorption spectral studies of highly two-photon active organic chromophores," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5275-5284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

Macák, P.

Marder, S. R.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Brédas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Ehrlich, X.-L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Röckel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes," Opt. Lett. 22, 1843-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McCord-Maughon, D.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Brédas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLean, D. G.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, B. Sankaran, R. Kannan, L.-S. Tan, and P. A. Fleitz, "Understanding the one-photon photophysical properties of a two-photon absorbing chromophore," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 5514-5520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, D. M. Brandelik, P. A. Fleitz, and T. Pottenger, "Nonlinear absorption study of a C60-toluene solution," Opt. Lett. 18, 858-860 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, M. E. Brant, D. G. McLean, J. E. Rogers, B. Sankaran, S. E. Kirkpatrick, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state absorption in a strongly two-photon absorbing neat organic material," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics , Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CFF6.

Naik, R. R.

S. M. Kirkpatrick, R. R. Naik, and M. O. Stone, "Nonlinear saturation and determination of the two-photon absorption cross section of green fluorescent protein," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2867-2873 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

R. L. Sutherland, E. Rea, L. V. Natarajan, T. Pottenger, and P. A. Fleitz, "Two-photon absorption and second hyperpolarizability measurements in diphenylbutadiene by degenerate four-wave mixing," J. Chem. Phys. 98, 2593-2603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, K. A.

P. N. Day, K. A. Nguyen, and R. Pachter, "TDDFT study of one- and two-photon absorption properties: donor-pi-acceptor chromophores," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1803-1814 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nguyen (UES, Inc., U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/MLPJ), 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-7702) (personal communication, 2004).

Oulianov, D. A.

D. A. Oulianov, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, and R. M. Rentzepis, "Observations on the measurement of two-photon absorption cross-section," Opt. Commun. 191, 235-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pachter, R.

P. N. Day, K. A. Nguyen, and R. Pachter, "TDDFT study of one- and two-photon absorption properties: donor-pi-acceptor chromophores," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1803-1814 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, M. A. Lee, J. R. DeSalvo, T. H. Wei, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Parker, T. C.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Brédas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Brédas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Ehrlich, X.-L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Röckel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes," Opt. Lett. 22, 1843-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Rumi and J. W. Perry, "Investigation on Air Force two-photon dyes," U.S. Air Force Rep. (University of Arizona, Tucson, March 2002).

Porter, P.

Pottenger, T.

D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, D. M. Brandelik, P. A. Fleitz, and T. Pottenger, "Nonlinear absorption study of a C60-toluene solution," Opt. Lett. 18, 858-860 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, E. Rea, L. V. Natarajan, T. Pottenger, and P. A. Fleitz, "Two-photon absorption and second hyperpolarizability measurements in diphenylbutadiene by degenerate four-wave mixing," J. Chem. Phys. 98, 2593-2603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, J. Dai, P. N. Prasad, R. Kannan, A. G. Dombroskie, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Degenerate two-photon-absorption spectral studies of highly two-photon active organic chromophores," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5275-5284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kannan, G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Toward highly active two-photon absorbing liquids. Synthesis and characterization of 1,3,5-triazine-based octupolar molecules," Chem. Mater. 16, 185-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various pi-electron acceptors," Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, Y. Jiang, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, L.-S. Tan, and R. Kannan, "Two-photon excitation and optical spatial-profile reshaping via a nonlinear absorbing medium," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4805-4810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Swiatikiewicz, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reinhardt, "Probing two-photon excitation dynamics using ultrafast laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 157, 135-138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, "Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application," Chem. Mater. 10, 1863-1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhao, Y. Cui, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, M. R. Unroe, and B. A. Reinhardt, "Influence of two-photon absorption on third-order nonlinear optical processes as studied by degenerate four-wave mixing: the study of soluble didecyloxy substituted polyphenyls," J. Chem. Phys. 95, 3391-4401 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

Rea, E.

R. L. Sutherland, E. Rea, L. V. Natarajan, T. Pottenger, and P. A. Fleitz, "Two-photon absorption and second hyperpolarizability measurements in diphenylbutadiene by degenerate four-wave mixing," J. Chem. Phys. 98, 2593-2603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, B. A.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various pi-electron acceptors," Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, Y. Jiang, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, L.-S. Tan, and R. Kannan, "Two-photon excitation and optical spatial-profile reshaping via a nonlinear absorbing medium," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4805-4810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Swiatikiewicz, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reinhardt, "Probing two-photon excitation dynamics using ultrafast laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 157, 135-138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, "Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application," Chem. Mater. 10, 1863-1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhao, Y. Cui, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, M. R. Unroe, and B. A. Reinhardt, "Influence of two-photon absorption on third-order nonlinear optical processes as studied by degenerate four-wave mixing: the study of soluble didecyloxy substituted polyphenyls," J. Chem. Phys. 95, 3391-4401 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Remy, D. E.

Rentsch, S.

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, and B. Wilhelmi, "Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbene-choloform solution, explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state," Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133-135 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rentzepis, R. M.

D. A. Oulianov, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, and R. M. Rentzepis, "Observations on the measurement of two-photon absorption cross-section," Opt. Commun. 191, 235-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roach, J. F.

Röckel, H.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Brédas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Ehrlich, X.-L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Röckel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes," Opt. Lett. 22, 1843-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roderer, P.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. E.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, B. Sankaran, R. Kannan, L.-S. Tan, and P. A. Fleitz, "Understanding the one-photon photophysical properties of a two-photon absorbing chromophore," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 5514-5520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, M. E. Brant, D. G. McLean, J. E. Rogers, B. Sankaran, S. E. Kirkpatrick, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state absorption in a strongly two-photon absorbing neat organic material," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics , Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CFF6.

Rumi, M.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Brédas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rumi and J. W. Perry, "Investigation on Air Force two-photon dyes," U.S. Air Force Rep. (University of Arizona, Tucson, March 2002).

Said, A. A.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electron and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, M.

M. Zhao, Y. Cui, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, M. R. Unroe, and B. A. Reinhardt, "Influence of two-photon absorption on third-order nonlinear optical processes as studied by degenerate four-wave mixing: the study of soluble didecyloxy substituted polyphenyls," J. Chem. Phys. 95, 3391-4401 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sankaran, B.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, B. Sankaran, R. Kannan, L.-S. Tan, and P. A. Fleitz, "Understanding the one-photon photophysical properties of a two-photon absorbing chromophore," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 5514-5520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, M. E. Brant, D. G. McLean, J. E. Rogers, B. Sankaran, S. E. Kirkpatrick, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state absorption in a strongly two-photon absorbing neat organic material," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics , Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CFF6.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electron and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, M. A. Lee, J. R. DeSalvo, T. H. Wei, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Slagle, J. E.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, B. Sankaran, R. Kannan, L.-S. Tan, and P. A. Fleitz, "Understanding the one-photon photophysical properties of a two-photon absorbing chromophore," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 5514-5520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stone, M. O.

S. M. Kirkpatrick, R. R. Naik, and M. O. Stone, "Nonlinear saturation and determination of the two-photon absorption cross section of green fluorescent protein," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2867-2873 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Subramaniam, G.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutherland, R. L.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, B. Sankaran, R. Kannan, L.-S. Tan, and P. A. Fleitz, "Understanding the one-photon photophysical properties of a two-photon absorbing chromophore," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 5514-5520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, E. Rea, L. V. Natarajan, T. Pottenger, and P. A. Fleitz, "Two-photon absorption and second hyperpolarizability measurements in diphenylbutadiene by degenerate four-wave mixing," J. Chem. Phys. 98, 2593-2603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, D. M. Brandelik, P. A. Fleitz, and T. Pottenger, "Nonlinear absorption study of a C60-toluene solution," Opt. Lett. 18, 858-860 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

R. L. Sutherland, M. E. Brant, D. G. McLean, J. E. Rogers, B. Sankaran, S. E. Kirkpatrick, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state absorption in a strongly two-photon absorbing neat organic material," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics , Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CFF6.

Swiatikiewicz, J.

J. Swiatikiewicz, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reinhardt, "Probing two-photon excitation dynamics using ultrafast laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 157, 135-138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Swiatkiewicz, J.

G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, Y. Jiang, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, L.-S. Tan, and R. Kannan, "Two-photon excitation and optical spatial-profile reshaping via a nonlinear absorbing medium," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4805-4810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tan, L.-S.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Toward highly active two-photon absorbing liquids. Synthesis and characterization of 1,3,5-triazine-based octupolar molecules," Chem. Mater. 16, 185-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, J. Dai, P. N. Prasad, R. Kannan, A. G. Dombroskie, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Degenerate two-photon-absorption spectral studies of highly two-photon active organic chromophores," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5275-5284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, B. Sankaran, R. Kannan, L.-S. Tan, and P. A. Fleitz, "Understanding the one-photon photophysical properties of a two-photon absorbing chromophore," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 5514-5520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various pi-electron acceptors," Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, Y. Jiang, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, L.-S. Tan, and R. Kannan, "Two-photon excitation and optical spatial-profile reshaping via a nonlinear absorbing medium," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4805-4810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanigaki, K.

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, "Excited state properties of C60," Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 501-504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thayumanavan, S.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Brédas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tomov, I. V.

D. A. Oulianov, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, and R. M. Rentzepis, "Observations on the measurement of two-photon absorption cross-section," Opt. Commun. 191, 235-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tottleben, W.

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, and B. Wilhelmi, "Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbene-choloform solution, explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state," Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133-135 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Unroe, M. R.

M. Zhao, Y. Cui, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, M. R. Unroe, and B. A. Reinhardt, "Influence of two-photon absorption on third-order nonlinear optical processes as studied by degenerate four-wave mixing: the study of soluble didecyloxy substituted polyphenyls," J. Chem. Phys. 95, 3391-4401 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vaia, R. A.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Toward highly active two-photon absorbing liquids. Synthesis and characterization of 1,3,5-triazine-based octupolar molecules," Chem. Mater. 16, 185-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, J. Dai, P. N. Prasad, R. Kannan, A. G. Dombroskie, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Degenerate two-photon-absorption spectral studies of highly two-photon active organic chromophores," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5275-5284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various pi-electron acceptors," Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electron and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, M. A. Lee, J. R. DeSalvo, T. H. Wei, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wamsley, C.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Webb, W. W.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu and W. W. Webb, "Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690to1050 nm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 481-491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electron and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, M. A. Lee, J. R. DeSalvo, T. H. Wei, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wilhelmi, B.

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, and B. Wilhelmi, "Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbene-choloform solution, explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state," Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133-135 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.-L.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Ehrlich, X.-L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Röckel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes," Opt. Lett. 22, 1843-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu and W. W. Webb, "Measurement of two-photon excitation cross sections of molecular fluorophores with data from 690to1050 nm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 481-491 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various pi-electron acceptors," Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

Yuan, H. J.

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, M. A. Lee, J. R. DeSalvo, T. H. Wei, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various pi-electron acceptors," Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, "Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application," Chem. Mater. 10, 1863-1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, M.

M. Zhao, Y. Cui, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, M. R. Unroe, and B. A. Reinhardt, "Influence of two-photon absorption on third-order nonlinear optical processes as studied by degenerate four-wave mixing: the study of soluble didecyloxy substituted polyphenyls," J. Chem. Phys. 95, 3391-4401 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (3)

R. Kannan, G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Toward highly active two-photon absorbing liquids. Synthesis and characterization of 1,3,5-triazine-based octupolar molecules," Chem. Mater. 16, 185-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-absorbing chromophores with various pi-electron acceptors," Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, "Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application," Chem. Mater. 10, 1863-1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third- and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, and B. Wilhelmi, "Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbene-choloform solution, explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state," Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133-135 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, K. Tanigaki, and S. Kuroshima, "Excited state properties of C60," Chem. Phys. Lett. 181, 501-504 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Röckel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J.-L. Brédas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: bis-donor diphenylpolyene and bis(styryl)benzene derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

M. Zhao, Y. Cui, M. Samoc, P. N. Prasad, M. R. Unroe, and B. A. Reinhardt, "Influence of two-photon absorption on third-order nonlinear optical processes as studied by degenerate four-wave mixing: the study of soluble didecyloxy substituted polyphenyls," J. Chem. Phys. 95, 3391-4401 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, E. Rea, L. V. Natarajan, T. Pottenger, and P. A. Fleitz, "Two-photon absorption and second hyperpolarizability measurements in diphenylbutadiene by degenerate four-wave mixing," J. Chem. Phys. 98, 2593-2603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, T.-C. Lin, J. Dai, P. N. Prasad, R. Kannan, A. G. Dombroskie, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, "Degenerate two-photon-absorption spectral studies of highly two-photon active organic chromophores," J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5275-5284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Phys. Chem. A (2)

G. S. He, J. Swiatkiewicz, Y. Jiang, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, L.-S. Tan, and R. Kannan, "Two-photon excitation and optical spatial-profile reshaping via a nonlinear absorbing medium," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4805-4810 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, B. Sankaran, R. Kannan, L.-S. Tan, and P. A. Fleitz, "Understanding the one-photon photophysical properties of a two-photon absorbing chromophore," J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 5514-5520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

S. M. Kirkpatrick, R. R. Naik, and M. O. Stone, "Nonlinear saturation and determination of the two-photon absorption cross section of green fluorescent protein," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2867-2873 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Day, K. A. Nguyen, and R. Pachter, "TDDFT study of one- and two-photon absorption properties: donor-pi-acceptor chromophores," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1803-1814 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. J. Yuan, L. Li, M. A. Lee, J. R. DeSalvo, T. H. Wei, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Measurements of third order optical nonlinearities of nematic liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 207, 291-305 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

D. A. Oulianov, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, and R. M. Rentzepis, "Observations on the measurement of two-photon absorption cross-section," Opt. Commun. 191, 235-243 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Swiatikiewicz, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reinhardt, "Probing two-photon excitation dynamics using ultrafast laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 157, 135-138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, "Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections," Science 281, 1653-1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

K. A. Nguyen (UES, Inc., U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/MLPJ), 3005 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-7702) (personal communication, 2004).

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2003).

M. Rumi and J. W. Perry, "Investigation on Air Force two-photon dyes," U.S. Air Force Rep. (University of Arizona, Tucson, March 2002).

R. L. Sutherland, M. E. Brant, D. G. McLean, J. E. Rogers, B. Sankaran, S. E. Kirkpatrick, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state absorption in a strongly two-photon absorbing neat organic material," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics , Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CFF6.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structure of AFX molecules used in this study.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Linear absorption spectra (ground-state cross section σ 0 ) of AF240, AF350, and AF455 solutions in THF. (b) Expanded spectrum of AF455 taken with a long-cell spectrometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Energy-level diagram for two-photon-induced excited-state absorption model of AFX chromophores. (b) Effective three-photon absorption model for the system in (a) in the quasi-steady-state regime. E is an effective intermediate state that is a time-averaged combination of the S 1 and T 1 states.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Development of the S 1 and T 1 population densities in time overlaid with a Gaussian time behavior for the intensity. The population densities are normalized to the S 1 steady-state value. Parameters chosen for the plot are τ = τ S and φ T = 0.1 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative error versus parameter p for computing G by using a rectangular pulse approximation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Absorbance change ( Δ A ) at 800 nm as a function of time in an AF455–THF solution after pumping with a 100 fs , 400 nm pulse. (b) Decay of Δ A over a period of 1.5 ns .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fluorescence decay of the S 1 state monitored in an AF455–THF solution.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Excited singlet–singlet and triplet–triplet absorption spectra for AF240, AF350, and AF455 solutions in THF.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Experimental (circles) and theoretical (curves) nanosecond nonlinear transmittance as a function of laser pulse energy for a 0.02 M THF solution of AF455 at 800 nm . The solid curve is for the analytical effective three-photon absorption model, and the dashed curve gives the results of numerically solving the population rate equations and the radiation transport equation. (b) Illustration of the difference in transmission loss by TPA alone and by two-photon-induced ESA in AF455.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental (circles) and theoretical (curves) nanosecond nonlinear transmittance as a function of laser pulse energy for a 0.02 M THF solution of AF350 at 820 nm . The solid curves are for the analytical effective three-photon absorption model, and the dashed curves give the results of numerically solving the population rate equations and the radiation transport equation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental (circles) and theoretical (curves) nanosecond nonlinear transmittance as a function of laser pulse energy for a 0.02 M THF solution of AF240 at 820 nm . The solid curves are for the analytical effective three-photon absorption model, and the dashed curves give the results of numerically solving the population rate equations and the radiation transport equation.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Nonlinear Absorption and Photophysical Parameters for AFX Solutions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Computed Parameters for AFX Solutions

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I z = σ 2 N S 0 I 2 σ S N S 1 I σ T N T 1 I ,
N S 1 t = σ 2 I 2 2 ω N S 0 N S 1 τ S ,
N T 1 t = φ T τ S N S 1 N T 1 τ T ,
N S 0 = N N S 1 N T 1 .
N S 1 ( t ) = σ 2 N 2 ω t I 2 ( t ) exp [ ( t t ) τ S ] d t ,
N T 1 ( t ) = φ T τ S t N S 1 ( t ) exp [ ( t t ) τ T ] d t ,
N S 1 ( t ) = σ 2 N 2 ω G ( t ) I 2 ( t ) ,
N T 1 ( t ) = φ T σ 2 N 2 ω τ S F ( t ) I 2 ( t ) ,
G ( t ) = 1 I 2 ( t ) t I 2 ( t ) exp [ ( t t ) τ S ] d t ,
F ( t ) = 1 I 2 ( t ) t G ( t ) I 2 ( t ) d t .
G = G ( t ) I 3 ( t ) d t I 3 ( t ) d t
I ( r , z , t ) = I ( r , 0 , 0 ) exp ( t 2 τ 2 ) [ 1 + p 2 exp ( 2 t 2 τ 2 ) ] 1 2 ,
τ p ( p ) = τ L [ 1 + ln ( 1 + 0.75 p 2 ) 2 ln 2 ] 1 2 ,
G = τ p η ,
F = τ S τ p ( 1 2 η ) ,
η = τ S τ p { 1 τ S τ p [ 1 exp ( τ p τ S ) ] } .
I z = ( β + γ I ) I 2 ,
γ = τ p σ eff σ 2 N 2 ω ,
σ eff = η σ S + ( 1 2 η ) φ T σ T ,
T = T 0 2 π p 0 + ln { [ 1 + p 0 2 exp ( 2 x 2 ) ] 1 2 + p 0 exp ( x 2 ) } d x ,

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