Abstract

A variety of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks of gold nanoparticles was detected in the wavelength range between the SPR peak of AuSiO2 (535nm) and AuTiO2 (655nm) with the parameter x in the triple-component composite films, (SiO2)1xAu(TiO2)x. Based on the spectrum of the dielectric constant of Au and the location of the SPR peaks, the effective refractive index neff of these composite films was found to be almost equal to nSiO2(1x)+nTiO2x. These composite films can be used as optical filters owing to their high damage threshold value (>6.5MWcm2). Their potential applications in nonlinear optical devices are due to their larger third-order nonlinear susceptibilities, χ(3), which were measured by the degenerate four-wave-mixing method at a laser wavelength of 532nm. The χ(3) value reached 2.6×106esu.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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2003 (2)

H. Liao, W. Wen, G. K. L. Wong, and G. Yang, "Optical nonlinearity of nanocrystalline Au/ZnO composite films," Opt. Lett. 28, 1790-1792 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Liao, W. Wen, and G. K. L. Wong, "Preparation and optical characterization of Au/SiO2 composite films with multilayer structure," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4485-4488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanoclusters/BaTiO3 composite films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969-3971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Liao, R. Xiao, H. Wang, K. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:TiO2 composite films measured on a femtosecond time scale,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1817-1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

I. Tanahashi, Y. Manabe, T. Tohda, S. Sasaki, and A. Nakanura, "Optical nonlinearities of Au/SiO2 composite thin films prepared by a sputtering method," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1224-1249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1985 (1)

Asahara, Y.

Chen, Z.

G. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanoclusters/BaTiO3 composite films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969-3971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flytzanis, C.

Hata, C.

Kaneko, S.

Kreibig, U.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 20-24.

Liao, H.

H. Liao, W. Wen, G. K. L. Wong, and G. Yang, "Optical nonlinearity of nanocrystalline Au/ZnO composite films," Opt. Lett. 28, 1790-1792 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, R. Xiao, H. Wang, K. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:TiO2 composite films measured on a femtosecond time scale,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1817-1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liao, H. B.

H. B. Liao, W. Wen, and G. K. L. Wong, "Preparation and optical characterization of Au/SiO2 composite films with multilayer structure," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4485-4488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

G. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanoclusters/BaTiO3 composite films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969-3971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Manabe, Y.

I. Tanahashi, Y. Manabe, T. Tohda, S. Sasaki, and A. Nakanura, "Optical nonlinearities of Au/SiO2 composite thin films prepared by a sputtering method," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1224-1249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakanura, A.

I. Tanahashi, Y. Manabe, T. Tohda, S. Sasaki, and A. Nakanura, "Optical nonlinearities of Au/SiO2 composite thin films prepared by a sputtering method," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1224-1249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, and A. Nakanura, "Optical nonlinearities of a high concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1236-1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Omi, S.

Ricard, D.

Roussignol, P.

Sakai, J. I.

J. I. Sakai, Phase Conjugate Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1994).

Sasaki, S.

I. Tanahashi, Y. Manabe, T. Tohda, S. Sasaki, and A. Nakanura, "Optical nonlinearities of Au/SiO2 composite thin films prepared by a sputtering method," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1224-1249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984).

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, 1996).

Tanahashi, I.

I. Tanahashi, Y. Manabe, T. Tohda, S. Sasaki, and A. Nakanura, "Optical nonlinearities of Au/SiO2 composite thin films prepared by a sputtering method," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1224-1249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanji, H.

Tohda, T.

I. Tanahashi, Y. Manabe, T. Tohda, S. Sasaki, and A. Nakanura, "Optical nonlinearities of Au/SiO2 composite thin films prepared by a sputtering method," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1224-1249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, K.

Vollmer, M.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 20-24.

Wang, H.

H. Liao, R. Xiao, H. Wang, K. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:TiO2 composite films measured on a femtosecond time scale,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1817-1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

G. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanoclusters/BaTiO3 composite films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969-3971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wen, W.

H. B. Liao, W. Wen, and G. K. L. Wong, "Preparation and optical characterization of Au/SiO2 composite films with multilayer structure," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4485-4488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, W. Wen, G. K. L. Wong, and G. Yang, "Optical nonlinearity of nanocrystalline Au/ZnO composite films," Opt. Lett. 28, 1790-1792 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, G. K. L.

H. Liao, W. Wen, G. K. L. Wong, and G. Yang, "Optical nonlinearity of nanocrystalline Au/ZnO composite films," Opt. Lett. 28, 1790-1792 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Liao, W. Wen, and G. K. L. Wong, "Preparation and optical characterization of Au/SiO2 composite films with multilayer structure," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4485-4488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, R. Xiao, H. Wang, K. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:TiO2 composite films measured on a femtosecond time scale,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1817-1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K.

H. Liao, R. Xiao, H. Wang, K. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:TiO2 composite films measured on a femtosecond time scale,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1817-1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, R.

H. Liao, R. Xiao, H. Wang, K. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:TiO2 composite films measured on a femtosecond time scale,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1817-1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

H. Liao, W. Wen, G. K. L. Wong, and G. Yang, "Optical nonlinearity of nanocrystalline Au/ZnO composite films," Opt. Lett. 28, 1790-1792 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanoclusters/BaTiO3 composite films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969-3971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanoclusters/BaTiO3 composite films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969-3971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

G. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanoclusters/BaTiO3 composite films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969-3971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Liao, R. Xiao, H. Wang, K. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:TiO2 composite films measured on a femtosecond time scale,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1817-1819 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Yang, W. Wang, Y. Zhou, Y. Lu, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, "Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag nanoclusters/BaTiO3 composite films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3969-3971 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. B. Liao, W. Wen, and G. K. L. Wong, "Preparation and optical characterization of Au/SiO2 composite films with multilayer structure," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4485-4488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Tanahashi, Y. Manabe, T. Tohda, S. Sasaki, and A. Nakanura, "Optical nonlinearities of Au/SiO2 composite thin films prepared by a sputtering method," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1224-1249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (5)

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984).

J. I. Sakai, Phase Conjugate Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1994).

E.Wolf, ed., Progress in Optics XXIX (Elsevier, 1991).

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 20-24.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, 1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The x-ray diffraction data of Si O 2 Au Ti O 2 composites. The sample was annealed at (a) 950 ° C for 1 h , (b) 950 ° C for 10 h , (c) 1050 ° C for 2 h , and (d) 1050 ° C for 12 h .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Selected cross-sectional TEM pictures of Si O 2 Au Ti O 2 composites. (a) As-grown films, the sample annealed at (b) 950 ° C for 1 h , (c) 1050 ° C 12 h . The inset is the diffraction pattern of: (1) Au particles; (2) rutile Ti O 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

UV-VIS spectra of Si O 2 Au Ti O 2 composites. (a) pure Au Si O 2 films, (b) pure Au Ti O 2 ; Si O 2 Au Ti O 2 composite films; (c) as-grown films, annealed at (d) 950 ° C for 1 h , (e) 950 ° C for 10 h , and (f) 1050 ° C 12 h .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the effective refractive index n eff of ( Si O 2 ) 1 x Au ( Ti O 2 ) x composite films on the parameter x. The dependence of the wavelength of their SPR peaks on the parameter x is shown in the inset.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Experimental Parameters Used in the Preparation of Si O 2 / Au / Ti O 2 Composites

Tables Icon

Table 2 Third-Order Nonlinear Susceptibilities, χ ( 3 ) , of Si O 2 / Au / Ti O 2 Composites

Equations (1)

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χ ( 3 ) = χ CS 2 ( 3 ) ( I s I CS 2 ) 1 2 n s 2 n CS 2 2 L CS 2 L s ln ( 1 T ) ( 1 T ) T ,

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