Abstract

Zero-additional-phase spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (ZAP-SPIDER) is a novel technique for measuring the temporal shape and phase of ultrashort optical pulses directly at the interaction point of a spectroscopic experiment. The scheme is suitable for an extremely wide wavelength region from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. We present a comprehensive description of the experimental setup and design guidelines to effectively apply the technique to various wavelengths and pulse durations. The calibration of the setup and procedures to check the consistency of the measurement are discussed in detail. We show experimental data for various center wavelengths and pulse durations down to 7 fs to verify the applicability to a wide range of pulse parameters.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (10)

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, and E. Riedle, "Phase-coherent generation of tunable visible femtosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 185-187 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Carrier-envelope phase fluctuations of amplified femtosecond pulses: characterization with a simple spatial interference setup," Appl. Phys. B 77, 129-132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, J. W. G. Tisch, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, and U. Keller, "Single-shot kilohertz characterization of ultrashort pulses by spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 28, 281-283 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Widely tunable sub-30 fs ultraviolet pulses by chirped sum frequency mixing," Opt. Express 23, 3110-3115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, F. Adler, A. Leitenstorfer, M. Beutter, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, "12-fs pulses from a continuous-wave-pumped 200-nJ Ti:sapphire amplifier at a variable repetition rate as high as 4 MHz," Opt. Lett. 28, 2118-2120 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, "Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers," Nature 424, 831-838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, "Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamane, Z. Zhang, K. Oka, R. Morita, and M. Yamashita, "Optical pulse compression to 3.4 fs in the monocycle region by feedback phase compensation," Opt. Lett. 28, 2258-2260 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Keusters, H.-S. Tan, P. O'Shea, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, and W. S. Warren, "Relative-phase ambiguities in measurements of ultrashort pulses with well-separated multiple frequency components," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2226-2237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

A. Baltuska and T. Kobayashi, "Adaptive shaping of two-cycle visible pulses using a flexible mirror," Appl. Phys. B 75, 427-443 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, and E. Riedle, "Real-time characterization and optimal phase control of tunable visible pulses with a flexible compressor," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S219-S224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Zavelani-Rossi, D. Polli, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Few-optical-cycle laser pulses by OPA: broadband chirped mirror compression and SPIDER characterization," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, 245-251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Hirasawa, N. Nakagawa, K. Yamamoto, R. Morita, H. Shigekawa, and M. Yamashita, "Sensitivity improvement of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction for the characterization of low-intensity femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S225-S229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer and I. A. Walmsley, "Precision and consistency criteria in spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1030-1038 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

2000 (5)

A. Fürbach, T. Le, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Generation of 8-fs pulses at 390 nm," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70, S37-S40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Anderson, L. E. E. de Araujo, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, "The effects of noise on ultrashort-optical-pulse measurement using SPIDER," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70S85-S93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70, S67-S75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (6)

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweeter, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhelm, J. Piel, and E. Riedle, "Sub-20-fs pulses tunable across the visible from a blue-pumped single-pass noncollinear parametric converter," Opt. Lett. 22, 1494-1496 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Hebling, "Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1759-1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1982 (1)

Adler, F.

Anderson, M. E.

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Anderson, L. E. E. de Araujo, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, "The effects of noise on ultrashort-optical-pulse measurement using SPIDER," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70S85-S93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska and T. Kobayashi, "Adaptive shaping of two-cycle visible pulses using a flexible mirror," Appl. Phys. B 75, 427-443 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, M. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "Amplitude and phase characterization of 4.5-fs pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Lett. 23, 1474-1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baum, P.

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Compact autocorrelator for the online measurement of tunable 10 femtosecond pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323-2327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Zero-additional-phase SPIDER: full characterization of visible and sub-20-fs ultraviolet pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 210-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Tunable sub-10-fs ultraviolet pulses generated by achromatic frequency doubling," Opt. Lett. 29, 1686-1688 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Carrier-envelope phase fluctuations of amplified femtosecond pulses: characterization with a simple spatial interference setup," Appl. Phys. B 77, 129-132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Widely tunable sub-30 fs ultraviolet pulses by chirped sum frequency mixing," Opt. Express 23, 3110-3115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, and E. Riedle, "Phase-coherent generation of tunable visible femtosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 185-187 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, F. Adler, A. Leitenstorfer, M. Beutter, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, "12-fs pulses from a continuous-wave-pumped 200-nJ Ti:sapphire amplifier at a variable repetition rate as high as 4 MHz," Opt. Lett. 28, 2118-2120 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, and E. Riedle, "Real-time characterization and optimal phase control of tunable visible pulses with a flexible compressor," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S219-S224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beutter, M.

R. Huber, F. Adler, A. Leitenstorfer, M. Beutter, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, "12-fs pulses from a continuous-wave-pumped 200-nJ Ti:sapphire amplifier at a variable repetition rate as high as 4 MHz," Opt. Lett. 28, 2118-2120 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, "Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Zavelani-Rossi, D. Polli, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Few-optical-cycle laser pulses by OPA: broadband chirped mirror compression and SPIDER characterization," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, 245-251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chambaret, J.-P.

Cheng, Z.

de Araujo, L. E.

M. E. Anderson, L. E. E. de Araujo, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, "The effects of noise on ultrashort-optical-pulse measurement using SPIDER," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70S85-S93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Beauvoir, B.

De Silvestri, S.

W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, J. W. G. Tisch, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, and U. Keller, "Single-shot kilohertz characterization of ultrashort pulses by spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 28, 281-283 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, "Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Zavelani-Rossi, D. Polli, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Few-optical-cycle laser pulses by OPA: broadband chirped mirror compression and SPIDER characterization," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, 245-251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweeter, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dorrer, C.

Durfee, C. G.

Fejer, M. M.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweeter, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fürbach, A.

Gallmann, L.

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, and E. Riedle, "Real-time characterization and optimal phase control of tunable visible pulses with a flexible compressor," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S219-S224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Zavelani-Rossi, D. Polli, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Few-optical-cycle laser pulses by OPA: broadband chirped mirror compression and SPIDER characterization," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, 245-251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, G. Imeshev, M. M. Fejer, and J.-P. Meyn, "Generation of sub-6-fs blue pulses by frequency doubling with quasi-phase-matching gratings," Opt. Lett. 26, 614-616 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70, S67-S75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 24, 1314-1316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hebling, J.

J. Hebling, "Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1759-1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, M.

M. Hirasawa, N. Nakagawa, K. Yamamoto, R. Morita, H. Shigekawa, and M. Yamashita, "Sensitivity improvement of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction for the characterization of low-intensity femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S225-S229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

Iaconis, C.

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, "Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501-509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 24, 1314-1316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses," Opt. Lett. 23, 792-794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Imeshev, G.

Ina, H.

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweeter, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H.

Keller, U.

W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, J. W. G. Tisch, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, and U. Keller, "Single-shot kilohertz characterization of ultrashort pulses by spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 28, 281-283 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, "Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers," Nature 424, 831-838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, and E. Riedle, "Real-time characterization and optimal phase control of tunable visible pulses with a flexible compressor," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S219-S224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Zavelani-Rossi, D. Polli, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Few-optical-cycle laser pulses by OPA: broadband chirped mirror compression and SPIDER characterization," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, 245-251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, G. Imeshev, M. M. Fejer, and J.-P. Meyn, "Generation of sub-6-fs blue pulses by frequency doubling with quasi-phase-matching gratings," Opt. Lett. 26, 614-616 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70, S67-S75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 24, 1314-1316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keusters, D.

Kobayashi, S.

Kobayashi, T.

A. Baltuska and T. Kobayashi, "Adaptive shaping of two-cycle visible pulses using a flexible mirror," Appl. Phys. B 75, 427-443 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kornelis, W.

Kosik, E. M.

M. E. Anderson, L. E. E. de Araujo, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, "The effects of noise on ultrashort-optical-pulse measurement using SPIDER," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70S85-S93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kozma, I. Z.

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Compact autocorrelator for the online measurement of tunable 10 femtosecond pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323-2327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Widely tunable sub-30 fs ultraviolet pulses by chirped sum frequency mixing," Opt. Express 23, 3110-3115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

A. Fürbach, T. Le, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Generation of 8-fs pulses at 390 nm," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70, S37-S40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, A. Fürbach, S. Sartania, M. Lenzner, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Amplitude and chirp characterization of high-power laser pulses in the 5-fs regime," Opt. Lett. 24, 247-249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krumbügel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweeter, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laubscher, M.

Le, T.

A. Fürbach, T. Le, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Generation of 8-fs pulses at 390 nm," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70, S37-S40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Le Blanc, C.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Lenzner, M.

Lochbrunner, S.

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Compact autocorrelator for the online measurement of tunable 10 femtosecond pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323-2327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Zero-additional-phase SPIDER: full characterization of visible and sub-20-fs ultraviolet pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 210-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Tunable sub-10-fs ultraviolet pulses generated by achromatic frequency doubling," Opt. Lett. 29, 1686-1688 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Carrier-envelope phase fluctuations of amplified femtosecond pulses: characterization with a simple spatial interference setup," Appl. Phys. B 77, 129-132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Widely tunable sub-30 fs ultraviolet pulses by chirped sum frequency mixing," Opt. Express 23, 3110-3115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, and E. Riedle, "Phase-coherent generation of tunable visible femtosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 185-187 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, and E. Riedle, "Real-time characterization and optimal phase control of tunable visible pulses with a flexible compressor," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S219-S224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Londero, P.

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matuschek, N.

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70, S67-S75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 24, 1314-1316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meyn, J.-P.

Morita, R.

K. Yamane, Z. Zhang, K. Oka, R. Morita, and M. Yamashita, "Optical pulse compression to 3.4 fs in the monocycle region by feedback phase compensation," Opt. Lett. 28, 2258-2260 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hirasawa, N. Nakagawa, K. Yamamoto, R. Morita, H. Shigekawa, and M. Yamashita, "Sensitivity improvement of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction for the characterization of low-intensity femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S225-S229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Müller, A.

Murnane, M. M.

Nakagawa, N.

M. Hirasawa, N. Nakagawa, K. Yamamoto, R. Morita, H. Shigekawa, and M. Yamashita, "Sensitivity improvement of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction for the characterization of low-intensity femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S225-S229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

Oka, K.

O'Shea, P.

Piel, J.

Polli, D.

M. Zavelani-Rossi, D. Polli, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Few-optical-cycle laser pulses by OPA: broadband chirped mirror compression and SPIDER characterization," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, 245-251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pshenichnikov, M.

Radzewicz, C.

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ranc, S.

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweeter, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Riedle, E.

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Compact autocorrelator for the online measurement of tunable 10 femtosecond pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323-2327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Zero-additional-phase SPIDER: full characterization of visible and sub-20-fs ultraviolet pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 210-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Tunable sub-10-fs ultraviolet pulses generated by achromatic frequency doubling," Opt. Lett. 29, 1686-1688 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Carrier-envelope phase fluctuations of amplified femtosecond pulses: characterization with a simple spatial interference setup," Appl. Phys. B 77, 129-132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Widely tunable sub-30 fs ultraviolet pulses by chirped sum frequency mixing," Opt. Express 23, 3110-3115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, and E. Riedle, "Phase-coherent generation of tunable visible femtosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 185-187 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, F. Adler, A. Leitenstorfer, M. Beutter, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, "12-fs pulses from a continuous-wave-pumped 200-nJ Ti:sapphire amplifier at a variable repetition rate as high as 4 MHz," Opt. Lett. 28, 2118-2120 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, and E. Riedle, "Real-time characterization and optimal phase control of tunable visible pulses with a flexible compressor," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S219-S224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhelm, J. Piel, and E. Riedle, "Sub-20-fs pulses tunable across the visible from a blue-pumped single-pass noncollinear parametric converter," Opt. Lett. 22, 1494-1496 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, J.-P.

Rousseau, P.

Salin, F.

Sansone, G.

Sartania, S.

Schenkl, S.

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmidhammer, U.

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Compact autocorrelator for the online measurement of tunable 10 femtosecond pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323-2327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shigekawa, H.

M. Hirasawa, N. Nakagawa, K. Yamamoto, R. Morita, H. Shigekawa, and M. Yamashita, "Sensitivity improvement of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction for the characterization of low-intensity femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S225-S229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

A. Fürbach, T. Le, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Generation of 8-fs pulses at 390 nm," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70, S37-S40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

Spörlein, S.

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, and E. Riedle, "Real-time characterization and optimal phase control of tunable visible pulses with a flexible compressor," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S219-S224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Zavelani-Rossi, D. Polli, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Few-optical-cycle laser pulses by OPA: broadband chirped mirror compression and SPIDER characterization," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, 245-251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, G. Imeshev, M. M. Fejer, and J.-P. Meyn, "Generation of sub-6-fs blue pulses by frequency doubling with quasi-phase-matching gratings," Opt. Lett. 26, 614-616 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70, S67-S75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 24, 1314-1316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, D. H.

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70, S67-S75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 24, 1314-1316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sweeter, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweeter, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

Tan, H.-S.

Tisch, J. W.

Trebino, R.

D. Keusters, H.-S. Tan, P. O'Shea, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, and W. S. Warren, "Relative-phase ambiguities in measurements of ultrashort pulses with well-separated multiple frequency components," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2226-2237 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweeter, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

Walmsley, I. A.

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer and I. A. Walmsley, "Precision and consistency criteria in spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1030-1038 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Anderson, L. E. E. de Araujo, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, "The effects of noise on ultrashort-optical-pulse measurement using SPIDER," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70S85-S93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, "Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501-509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 24, 1314-1316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses," Opt. Lett. 23, 792-794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Wong and I. A. Walmsley, "Analysis of ultrashort pulse-shape measurement using linear interferometers," Opt. Lett. 19, 287-289 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, W. S.

Wiersma, D. A.

Wilhelm, T.

Wong, V.

Yamamoto, K.

M. Hirasawa, N. Nakagawa, K. Yamamoto, R. Morita, H. Shigekawa, and M. Yamashita, "Sensitivity improvement of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction for the characterization of low-intensity femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S225-S229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamane, K.

Yamashita, M.

K. Yamane, Z. Zhang, K. Oka, R. Morita, and M. Yamashita, "Optical pulse compression to 3.4 fs in the monocycle region by feedback phase compensation," Opt. Lett. 28, 2258-2260 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hirasawa, N. Nakagawa, K. Yamamoto, R. Morita, H. Shigekawa, and M. Yamashita, "Sensitivity improvement of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction for the characterization of low-intensity femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S225-S229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zavelani-Rossi, M.

M. Zavelani-Rossi, D. Polli, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Few-optical-cycle laser pulses by OPA: broadband chirped mirror compression and SPIDER characterization," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, 245-251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeek, E.

Zhang, Z.

Zinth, W.

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (9)

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Fürbach, T. Le, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Generation of 8-fs pulses at 390 nm," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70, S37-S40 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Techniques for the characterization of sub-10-fs optical pulses: a comparison," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70, S67-S75 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska and T. Kobayashi, "Adaptive shaping of two-cycle visible pulses using a flexible mirror," Appl. Phys. B 75, 427-443 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, and E. Riedle, "Real-time characterization and optimal phase control of tunable visible pulses with a flexible compressor," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S219-S224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Zavelani-Rossi, D. Polli, G. Cerullo, S. De Silvestri, L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, and U. Keller, "Few-optical-cycle laser pulses by OPA: broadband chirped mirror compression and SPIDER characterization," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, 245-251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Anderson, L. E. E. de Araujo, E. M. Kosik, and I. A. Walmsley, "The effects of noise on ultrashort-optical-pulse measurement using SPIDER," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 70S85-S93 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Carrier-envelope phase fluctuations of amplified femtosecond pulses: characterization with a simple spatial interference setup," Appl. Phys. B 77, 129-132 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Hirasawa, N. Nakagawa, K. Yamamoto, R. Morita, H. Shigekawa, and M. Yamashita, "Sensitivity improvement of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction for the characterization of low-intensity femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. B Suppl. 74, S225-S229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, "Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501-509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction," J. Mod. Opt. 50, 179-184 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Nature (1)

U. Keller, "Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers," Nature 424, 831-838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Widely tunable sub-30 fs ultraviolet pulses by chirped sum frequency mixing," Opt. Express 23, 3110-3115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (16)

C. G. Durfee III, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet," Opt. Lett. 24, 697-699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, F. Adler, A. Leitenstorfer, M. Beutter, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, "12-fs pulses from a continuous-wave-pumped 200-nJ Ti:sapphire amplifier at a variable repetition rate as high as 4 MHz," Opt. Lett. 28, 2118-2120 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gallmann, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, G. Imeshev, M. M. Fejer, and J.-P. Meyn, "Generation of sub-6-fs blue pulses by frequency doubling with quasi-phase-matching gratings," Opt. Lett. 26, 614-616 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Tunable sub-10-fs ultraviolet pulses generated by achromatic frequency doubling," Opt. Lett. 29, 1686-1688 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, M. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, "Amplitude and phase characterization of 4.5-fs pulses by frequency-resolved optical gating," Opt. Lett. 23, 1474-1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses," Opt. Lett. 23, 792-794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Gallmann, D. H. Sutter, N. Matuschek, G. Steinmeyer, U. Keller, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, "Characterization of sub-6-fs optical pulses with spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 24, 1314-1316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, A. Fürbach, S. Sartania, M. Lenzner, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Amplitude and chirp characterization of high-power laser pulses in the 5-fs regime," Opt. Lett. 24, 247-249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamane, Z. Zhang, K. Oka, R. Morita, and M. Yamashita, "Optical pulse compression to 3.4 fs in the monocycle region by feedback phase compensation," Opt. Lett. 28, 2258-2260 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Müller and M. Laubscher, "Spectral phase and amplitude interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 26, 1915-1917 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, and E. Riedle, "Phase-coherent generation of tunable visible femtosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 185-187 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wilhelm, J. Piel, and E. Riedle, "Sub-20-fs pulses tunable across the visible from a blue-pumped single-pass noncollinear parametric converter," Opt. Lett. 22, 1494-1496 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Zero-additional-phase SPIDER: full characterization of visible and sub-20-fs ultraviolet pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 210-212 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Wong and I. A. Walmsley, "Analysis of ultrashort pulse-shape measurement using linear interferometers," Opt. Lett. 19, 287-289 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dorrer, B. de Beauvoir, C. Le Blanc, S. Ranc, J.-P. Rousseau, P. Rousseau, J.-P. Chambaret, and F. Salin, "Single-shot real-time characterization of chirped-pulse amplification systems by spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 24, 1644-1646 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Kornelis, J. Biegert, J. W. G. Tisch, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. De Silvestri, and U. Keller, "Single-shot kilohertz characterization of ultrashort pulses by spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction," Opt. Lett. 28, 281-283 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Hebling, "Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1759-1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, "Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 1-18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweeter, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, and D. J. Kane, "Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277-3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, U. Schmidhammer, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Compact autocorrelator for the online measurement of tunable 10 femtosecond pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2323-2327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of ZAP-SPIDER. For explanation, see text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup: SF57, dispersive glass; BS, beam splitter; Ω, delay to adjust the spectral shear; BBO, thin sum- or difference-frequency-mixing crystal; τ, delay to adjust the mean fringe spacing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pairs of sheared spectra and experimental interferograms for pulses with a center wavelength of (a) 550, (b) 600, and (c) 308 nm. Sum-frequency mixing [for (a) and (b)] and difference-frequency mixing [for (c)] lead to the signal wavelength shown in the figure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Center of shifted spectra versus delay of the auxiliary pulse, revealing the first-order chirp of the auxiliary pulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)–(d) Spectral phases and (e)–(h) corresponding pulse shapes of visible pulses with various amounts of second-order chirp. The dashed curve in (c) shows the pulse spectrum.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Temporal intensity and phase of a 10.0 fs pulse at 600 nm measured by ZAP-SPIDER. (b) Comparison between the autocorrelation calculated from the pulse shape (solid curve) and an independently measured trace (dots) (c) Temporal intensity and phase of a structured pulse at 550 nm. (d) Comparison between the autocorrelation trace calculated from the ZAP-SPIDER result (solid curve) and a directly measured one (dots). A Gaussian shape is shown for comparison (dashed curve).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Spectrum (solid curve) and spectral phase (dotted curve) of an ultrashort UV pulse. (b) Corresponding temporal pulse shape (solid curve) and temporal phase (dotted curve). (c) Spectrum (solid curve), spectral phase (dotted curve), and (d) temporal shape of a 7.1 fs UV pulse.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Consistency checks for ZAP-SPIDER. (a) Calculated spectral phase of a glass plate (dots) and phase difference measured with ZAP-SPIDER (solid curve). (b) Measured spectral phases of a slightly chirped pulse for a positive value and a negative value of the shear (solid curves). Some of the measured values of the upper trace are plotted as dots on top of the lower trace for comparison.

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