Abstract

Increased interest in highly nonlinear glasses for use as Raman amplifiers has encouraged the development of an experimental apparatus to measure the material Raman gain coefficient on millimeter-thick bulk glass samples. Apparatus design considerations, details of the apparatus, and justification for the data analysis employed are provided. The apparatus is a powerful tool offering the ability to quickly screen glass samples over a wide range of compositions without the time and cost of fiberizing candidate materials into a guiding geometry to directly measure Raman gain.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  6. A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, and M. E. Lines, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. I. A. Grishin, V. A. Gur'ev, E. B. Intyushin, Yu. E. Elliev, and A. P. Savikin, "Preparation and properties of Er- and Yb-activated TeO2- WO3 glasses," Neorg. Mater. 40, 502-504 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2005 (3)

2004 (4)

I. A. Grishin, V. A. Gur'ev, E. B. Intyushin, Yu. E. Elliev, and A. P. Savikin, "Preparation and properties of Er- and Yb-activated TeO2- WO3 glasses," Neorg. Mater. 40, 502-504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Slusher, G. Lenz, J. Hodelin, J. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Large Raman gain and nonlinear phase shifts in high-purity As2Se3 chalcogenide fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1146-1155 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Dai, F. Tassone, A. L. Bassi, V. Russo, C. E. Bottani, and F. D'Amore, "TeO2-based glasses containing Nb2O5,TiO2, and WO3 for discrete Raman fiber amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1011-1013 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, "Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 396-401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1999 (3)

S. Smolorz, I. Kang, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, "Studies of optical non-linearities of chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 310-317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As- S- Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. Cachau-Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide-based glasses: TeO2- BaO- TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, and M. Tonokawa, "Raman spectra of MO1/2- TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, and M. E. Lines, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (4)

M. E. Lines, "Absolute Raman intensities in glasses. I. Theory," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 89, 143-162 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Lines, "Absolute Raman intensities in glasses. II. Germania-based heavy metal oxides and global criteria," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 89, 163-180 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Kokubo, Y. Inaka, and S. Sakka, "Formation and optical properties of (R20 or R'O)-TiO2- Ga2O3 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 95-96, 547-554 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Lines, "Raman-gain estimates for high-gain optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4363-4370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

D. Heiman, R. W. Hellwarth, and D. S. Hamilton, "Raman scattering and nonlinear refractive index measurement of optical glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 63-79 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, "The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2,GeO2,B2O3, and P2O5," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen "Raman gain in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 273-276 (1972).

Aggarwal, I. D.

Aitken, B. G.

S. Smolorz, I. Kang, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, "Studies of optical non-linearities of chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 310-317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Armand, P.

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. Cachau-Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide-based glasses: TeO2- BaO- TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baldeck, P.

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. Cachau-Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide-based glasses: TeO2- BaO- TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bassi, A. L.

G. Dai, F. Tassone, A. L. Bassi, V. Russo, C. E. Bottani, and F. D'Amore, "TeO2-based glasses containing Nb2O5,TiO2, and WO3 for discrete Raman fiber amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1011-1013 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beatty, R.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As- S- Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blanchandin, S.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

S. Smolorz, I. Kang, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, "Studies of optical non-linearities of chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 310-317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bosquet, B.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bottani, C. E.

G. Dai, F. Tassone, A. L. Bassi, V. Russo, C. E. Bottani, and F. D'Amore, "TeO2-based glasses containing Nb2O5,TiO2, and WO3 for discrete Raman fiber amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1011-1013 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burdge, G. L.

Butler, D. L.

Cachau-Herreillat, D.

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. Cachau-Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide-based glasses: TeO2- BaO- TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Canioni, L.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

Champarnaud-Mesjard, J. C.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Champarnaud-Mesjard, J.-C.

Churbanov, M. F.

Couzi, M.

C. Rivero, R. Stegeman, M. Couzi, D. Talaga, T. Cardinal, K. Richardson, and G. Stegeman, "Resolved discrepancies between visible spontaneous Raman cross-section and direct near-infrared Raman gain measurements in TeO2-based glasses," Opt. Express 13, 4759-4769 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, "Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 396-401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dai, G.

G. Dai, F. Tassone, A. L. Bassi, V. Russo, C. E. Bottani, and F. D'Amore, "TeO2-based glasses containing Nb2O5,TiO2, and WO3 for discrete Raman fiber amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1011-1013 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D'Amore, F.

G. Dai, F. Tassone, A. L. Bassi, V. Russo, C. E. Bottani, and F. D'Amore, "TeO2-based glasses containing Nb2O5,TiO2, and WO3 for discrete Raman fiber amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1011-1013 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P.

Dianov, E. M.

Doclot, O.

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. Cachau-Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide-based glasses: TeO2- BaO- TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Elliev, Yu. E.

I. A. Grishin, V. A. Gur'ev, E. B. Intyushin, Yu. E. Elliev, and A. P. Savikin, "Preparation and properties of Er- and Yb-activated TeO2- WO3 glasses," Neorg. Mater. 40, 502-504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fargin, E.

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, "Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 396-401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frit, B.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Galeener, F. L.

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, "The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2,GeO2,B2O3, and P2O5," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Geils, R. H.

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, "The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2,GeO2,B2O3, and P2O5," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Goldhar, J.

Gordon, J. P

Grishin, I. A.

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Sokolov, V. V. Koltashev, E. M. Dianov, I. A. Grishin, and M. F. Churbanov, "Raman band intensities of tellurite glasses," Opt. Lett. 30, 1156--1158 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Grishin, V. A. Gur'ev, E. B. Intyushin, Yu. E. Elliev, and A. P. Savikin, "Preparation and properties of Er- and Yb-activated TeO2- WO3 glasses," Neorg. Mater. 40, 502-504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

Gur'ev, V. A.

I. A. Grishin, V. A. Gur'ev, E. B. Intyushin, Yu. E. Elliev, and A. P. Savikin, "Preparation and properties of Er- and Yb-activated TeO2- WO3 glasses," Neorg. Mater. 40, 502-504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, D. S.

D. Heiman, R. W. Hellwarth, and D. S. Hamilton, "Raman scattering and nonlinear refractive index measurement of optical glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 63-79 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Heiman, D.

D. Heiman, R. W. Hellwarth, and D. S. Hamilton, "Raman scattering and nonlinear refractive index measurement of optical glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 63-79 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R. W.

D. Heiman, R. W. Hellwarth, and D. S. Hamilton, "Raman scattering and nonlinear refractive index measurement of optical glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 63-79 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hodelin, J.

Ibanez, A.

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. Cachau-Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide-based glasses: TeO2- BaO- TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inaka, Y.

T. Kokubo, Y. Inaka, and S. Sakka, "Formation and optical properties of (R20 or R'O)-TiO2- Ga2O3 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 95-96, 547-554 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Intyushin, E. B.

I. A. Grishin, V. A. Gur'ev, E. B. Intyushin, Yu. E. Elliev, and A. P. Savikin, "Preparation and properties of Er- and Yb-activated TeO2- WO3 glasses," Neorg. Mater. 40, 502-504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen "Raman gain in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 273-276 (1972).

Jankovic, L.

Jeansannetas, B.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.

S. Smolorz, I. Kang, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, "Studies of optical non-linearities of chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 310-317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Kokubo, T.

T. Kokubo, Y. Inaka, and S. Sakka, "Formation and optical properties of (R20 or R'O)-TiO2- Ga2O3 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 95-96, 547-554 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Koltashev, V. V.

Le Boiteux, S.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Le Flem, G.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Le Foulgoc, K.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As- S- Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

Lines, M. E.

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, and M. E. Lines, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Lines, "Absolute Raman intensities in glasses. I. Theory," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 89, 143-162 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Lines, "Absolute Raman intensities in glasses. II. Germania-based heavy metal oxides and global criteria," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 89, 163-180 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Lines, "Raman-gain estimates for high-gain optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4363-4370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, K. B.

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, and M. E. Lines, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mahgerefteh, D.

Marchet, P.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. O.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, C.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As- S- Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Merle-Mejean, T.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, J. C.

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, "The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2,GeO2,B2O3, and P2O5," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A. E.

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, and M. E. Lines, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mochida, N.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, and M. Tonokawa, "Raman spectra of MO1/2- TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mosby, W. J.

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, "The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2,GeO2,B2O3, and P2O5," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nassau, K.

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, and M. E. Lines, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nazabal, V.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, A.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, and M. Tonokawa, "Raman spectra of MO1/2- TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Philippot, E.

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. Cachau-Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide-based glasses: TeO2- BaO- TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Pope, A.

Richardson, K.

Richardson, K. A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As- S- Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rivero, C.

Rodriguez, V.

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, "Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 396-401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, B.

Russo, V.

G. Dai, F. Tassone, A. L. Bassi, V. Russo, C. E. Bottani, and F. D'Amore, "TeO2-based glasses containing Nb2O5,TiO2, and WO3 for discrete Raman fiber amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1011-1013 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sabadel, J. C.

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. Cachau-Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide-based glasses: TeO2- BaO- TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sakka, S.

T. Kokubo, Y. Inaka, and S. Sakka, "Formation and optical properties of (R20 or R'O)-TiO2- Ga2O3 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 95-96, 547-554 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J.

Sarger, L.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Savikin, A. P.

I. A. Grishin, V. A. Gur'ev, E. B. Intyushin, Yu. E. Elliev, and A. P. Savikin, "Preparation and properties of Er- and Yb-activated TeO2- WO3 glasses," Neorg. Mater. 40, 502-504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schiek, R.

R. Schiek, R. Stegeman, and G. Stegeman, "Measurement of third-order nonlinear succeptibility tensor elements in lithium niobate," in Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper JWA74.

Schulte, A.

Segonds, P.

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sekiya, T.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, and M. Tonokawa, "Raman spectra of MO1/2- TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

Shim, H.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As- S- Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

Smolorz, S.

S. Smolorz, I. Kang, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, "Studies of optical non-linearities of chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 310-317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, V. O.

Stegeman, G.

R. Stegeman, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, G. Stegeman, P. Delfyett, Jr., Y. Guo, A. Pope, A. Schulte, T. Cardinal, P. Thomas, and J.-C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, "Raman gain measurements of thallium-tellurium oxide glasses," Opt. Express 13, 1144-1149 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rivero, R. Stegeman, M. Couzi, D. Talaga, T. Cardinal, K. Richardson, and G. Stegeman, "Resolved discrepancies between visible spontaneous Raman cross-section and direct near-infrared Raman gain measurements in TeO2-based glasses," Opt. Express 13, 4759-4769 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, "Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 396-401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Stegeman, L. Jankovic, H. Kim, C. Rivero, G. Stegeman, K. Richardson, P. Delfyett, Y. Guo, A. Schulte, and T. Cardinal, "Tellurite glasses with peak absolute Raman gain coefficients up to 30 times that of fused silica," Opt. Lett. 28, 1126-1128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schiek, R. Stegeman, and G. Stegeman, "Measurement of third-order nonlinear succeptibility tensor elements in lithium niobate," in Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper JWA74.

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, and G. Stegeman, "Characterization of performance parameters of new broadband glasses for Raman amplification," Phys. Chem. Glasses (to be published).

Stegeman, R.

C. Rivero, R. Stegeman, M. Couzi, D. Talaga, T. Cardinal, K. Richardson, and G. Stegeman, "Resolved discrepancies between visible spontaneous Raman cross-section and direct near-infrared Raman gain measurements in TeO2-based glasses," Opt. Express 13, 4759-4769 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Stegeman, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, G. Stegeman, P. Delfyett, Jr., Y. Guo, A. Pope, A. Schulte, T. Cardinal, P. Thomas, and J.-C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, "Raman gain measurements of thallium-tellurium oxide glasses," Opt. Express 13, 1144-1149 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, "Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 396-401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Stegeman, L. Jankovic, H. Kim, C. Rivero, G. Stegeman, K. Richardson, P. Delfyett, Y. Guo, A. Schulte, and T. Cardinal, "Tellurite glasses with peak absolute Raman gain coefficients up to 30 times that of fused silica," Opt. Lett. 28, 1126-1128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, and G. Stegeman, "Characterization of performance parameters of new broadband glasses for Raman amplification," Phys. Chem. Glasses (to be published).

R. Schiek, R. Stegeman, and G. Stegeman, "Measurement of third-order nonlinear succeptibility tensor elements in lithium niobate," in Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper JWA74.

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, J. P Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, and H. A. Haus, "Raman response function of silica-core fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1159-1166 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen "Raman gain in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 273-276 (1972).

Talaga, D.

Tassone, F.

G. Dai, F. Tassone, A. L. Bassi, V. Russo, C. E. Bottani, and F. D'Amore, "TeO2-based glasses containing Nb2O5,TiO2, and WO3 for discrete Raman fiber amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1011-1013 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, P.

R. Stegeman, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, G. Stegeman, P. Delfyett, Jr., Y. Guo, A. Pope, A. Schulte, T. Cardinal, P. Thomas, and J.-C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, "Raman gain measurements of thallium-tellurium oxide glasses," Opt. Express 13, 1144-1149 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

Tonokawa, M.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, and M. Tonokawa, "Raman spectra of MO1/2- TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Viens, J. F.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As- S- Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As- S- Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F.

S. Smolorz, I. Kang, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, "Studies of optical non-linearities of chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 310-317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, "The relative Raman cross sections of vitreous SiO2,GeO2,B2O3, and P2O5," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen and E. P. Ippen "Raman gain in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 273-276 (1972).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Dai, F. Tassone, A. L. Bassi, V. Russo, C. E. Bottani, and F. D'Amore, "TeO2-based glasses containing Nb2O5,TiO2, and WO3 for discrete Raman fiber amplification," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1011-1013 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. E. Lines, "Raman-gain estimates for high-gain optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 4363-4370 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (9)

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, "Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 396-401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Smolorz, I. Kang, F. Wise, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, "Studies of optical non-linearities of chalcogenide and heavy-metal oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 310-317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As- S- Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Heiman, R. W. Hellwarth, and D. S. Hamilton, "Raman scattering and nonlinear refractive index measurement of optical glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 63-79 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Lines, "Absolute Raman intensities in glasses. I. Theory," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 89, 143-162 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Lines, "Absolute Raman intensities in glasses. II. Germania-based heavy metal oxides and global criteria," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 89, 163-180 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Kokubo, Y. Inaka, and S. Sakka, "Formation and optical properties of (R20 or R'O)-TiO2- Ga2O3 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 95-96, 547-554 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, and M. E. Lines, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, and M. Tonokawa, "Raman spectra of MO1/2- TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Solid State Chem. (2)

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. Cachau-Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide-based glasses: TeO2- BaO- TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Jeansannetas, S. Blanchandin, P. Thomas, P. Marchet, J. C. Champarnaud-Mesjard, T. Merle-Mejean, B. Frit, V. Nazabal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem, M. O. Martin, B. Bosquet, L. Canioni, S. Le Boiteux, P. Segonds, and L. Sarger, "Glass structure and optical nonlinearities in thallium (I) tellurium (IV) oxide glasses," J. Solid State Chem. 146, 329-335 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neorg. Mater. (1)

I. A. Grishin, V. A. Gur'ev, E. B. Intyushin, Yu. E. Elliev, and A. P. Savikin, "Preparation and properties of Er- and Yb-activated TeO2- WO3 glasses," Neorg. Mater. 40, 502-504 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, and G. Stegeman, "Characterization of performance parameters of new broadband glasses for Raman amplification," Phys. Chem. Glasses (to be published).

Other (1)

R. Schiek, R. Stegeman, and G. Stegeman, "Measurement of third-order nonlinear succeptibility tensor elements in lithium niobate," in Frontiers in Optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper JWA74.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pump and probe beam interactions in Raman gain measurements. The Rayleigh range of the probe beam is 1.4 cm at the longest wavelengths tested, which enables a plane-wave approximation in millimeter-thick bulk samples.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Major equipment used in the experimental apparatus for Raman gain measurements. A detailed explanation is given in the text. PBS, polarizing beam splitter; GT, Glan–Thompson polarization rotator; Pol., polarizer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical autocorrelation trace for a 1064 nm pump beam. This result was generated with a 0.5 mm thick c-cut LiNbO 3 crystal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical autocorrelation trace for an OPG–OPA probe beam. This result was generated with a 0.5 mm thick c-cut LiNbO 3 crystal. The detection method enables the shot-to-shot instabilities out of the OPG–OPA to be canceled out in a first-order approximation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulse duration out of an OPG–OPA probe beam as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Raman gain spectrum of a 3.18 mm thick Corning 7980-2F fused-silica reference sample. Overlaid in the figure is the spontaneous Raman-scattering curve for the same sample.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Raman gain spectrum of a 2.64 mm thick 63 TeO 2 27 TlO 0.5 10 PbO sample with the spontaneous Raman-scattering spectrum overlaid for comparison.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Raman gain spectrum of a 3.4 mm thick [ ( 100 - x ) NaPO 3 X Na 2 B 4 O 7 ] : TiO 2 Nb 2 O 5 = 1 sample, where x = 5 % . The spontaneous Raman-scattering spectrum is overlaid on the Raman gain data.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Parallel (VV) and orthogonal (VH) spontaneous Raman-scattering curves for [ ( 100 - x ) NaPO 3 X Na 2 B 4 O 7 ] : TiO 2 Nb 2 O 5 = 1 sample, where x = 5 % .

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d d z E R ( z ) = g RG 2 E S ( z ) I P ( z ) ,
E R ( x , y , z , t ) = E R p ( z ) f R ( x , y , t ) , E S ( x , y , 0 , t ) = E S p ( z ) f S ( x , y , t ) ,
E P ( x , y , z , t ) = E P p ( z ) f P ( x , y , t ) ,
f S ( x , y , t ) = exp [ ( x 2 + y 2 ) ω S 2 t 2 τ S 2 ] ,
f P ( x , y , t ) = exp [ ( x 2 + y 2 ) ω P 2 t 2 τ P 2 ] ,
f R ( x , y , t ) = f S ( x , y , t ) f P 2 ( x , y , t ) .
E R p ( L 2 ) = 1 2 g RG L E S p ( 0 ) I P p ( 0 ) .
E T ( x , y , L 2 ) = E S p ( 0 ) f S ( x , y , t ) + 1 2 g RG L E S p ( 0 ) I P p ( 0 ) f S ( x , y , t ) f P 2 ( x , y , t ) .
I T ( x , y , L 2 , t ) = I S p ( 0 ) f S 2 ( x , y , t ) [ 1 + 1 2 g RG L I P p ( 0 ) f P 2 ( x , y , t ) ] 2 .
I T ( x , y , L 2 , t ) = I S p ( 0 ) f S 2 ( x , y , t ) [ 1 + g RG L I P p ( 0 ) f P 2 ( x , y , t ) ] .
Δ E r ( L 2 ) = Δ E S ( 0 ) [ 1 + 8 π 3 2 1 ( ω S 2 + ω P 2 ) τ S 2 + τ P 2 g RG L Δ E P ( 0 ) ]
g RG L = Δ E T ( L 2 ) Δ E S ( 0 ) Δ E S ( 0 ) Δ E P ( 0 ) ( w p 2 + w s 2 ) ( τ s 2 + τ p 2 ) ( π 2 ) 3 2 .

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