Abstract

We have measured the line centers and pressure-induced shift and broadening of 25 lines in the 2ν3 rotational–vibrational band of hydrogen cyanide H13C14N. These lines can be used as wavelength references in the optical fiber communication wavelength division multiplexing C-band (approximately 1530–1565 nm). We find that the pressure shift varies with line number from +0.09pmkPa to 0.15pmkPa (approximately 1.5 to +2.5MHzTorr). The pressure broadening also varies with line number and is typically between 1 and 5.4pmkPa(1790MHzTorr). We determined the line centers of 21 lines with an expanded uncertainty (2σ) of 0.01 pm (1MHz), an improvement of more than 1 order of magnitude over previous line center measurements of this band. We also calculate the molecular constants for the band, yielding improved determination of the band origin frequency and the excited-state molecular constants.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1510-1540-nm acetylene wavelength calibration lines," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1263-1270 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. L. Gilbert and W. C. Swann, "Acetylene C212H2 absorption reference for 1510 nm to 1540 nm wavelength calibration--SRM 2517a," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-133 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2001).
  3. S. L. Gilbert, W. C. Swann, and C. M. Wang, "Hydrogen cyanide HC13N14 absorption reference for 1530-1560 nm wavelength calibration--SRM 2519," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-137 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1998).
  4. W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1560-1630-nm carbon monoxide wavelength calibration lines," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2461-2467 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. L. Gilbert and W. C. Swann, "Carbon monoxide absorption references for 1560 nm to 1630 nm wavelength calibration--SRM 2514 (C12O16) and SRM 2515 (C13O16)," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-146 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  9. K. Nakagawa, M. de Labachelerie, Y. Awaji, and M. Kourogi, "Accurate optical frequency atlas of the 1.5-µm bands of acetylene," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2708-2714 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  16. F. Maiwald, F. Lewen, V. Ahrens, M. Beaky, R. Gendriesch, A. N. Koroliev, A. A. Negirev, D. G. Paveljev, B. Vowinkel, and G. Winnewisser, "Pure rotational spectrum of HCN in the terahertz region: use of a new planar Schottky diode multiplier," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 202, 166-168 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. M. Smith, K. K. Lehmann, and W. Klemperer, "The intensity and self-broadening of overtone transitions in HCN," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 4958-4965 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Boulet, D. Robert, and L. Galatry, "Shifts of the vibration-rotation absorption line of diatomic molecules perturbed by diatomic polar molecules. A theoretical analysis," J. Chem. Phys. 65, 5302-5314 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

2004

2002

2000

F. Maiwald, F. Lewen, V. Ahrens, M. Beaky, R. Gendriesch, A. N. Koroliev, A. A. Negirev, D. G. Paveljev, B. Vowinkel, and G. Winnewisser, "Pure rotational spectrum of HCN in the terahertz region: use of a new planar Schottky diode multiplier," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 202, 166-168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1510-1540-nm acetylene wavelength calibration lines," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1263-1270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

1991

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Frequency measurements on optically narrowed Rb-stabilized laser diodes at 780 nm and 795 nm," Appl. Phys. B 53, 142-147 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1986

A. M. Smith, K. K. Lehmann, and W. Klemperer, "The intensity and self-broadening of overtone transitions in HCN," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 4958-4965 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

1976

C. Boulet, D. Robert, and L. Galatry, "Shifts of the vibration-rotation absorption line of diatomic molecules perturbed by diatomic polar molecules. A theoretical analysis," J. Chem. Phys. 65, 5302-5314 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ahrens, V.

F. Maiwald, F. Lewen, V. Ahrens, M. Beaky, R. Gendriesch, A. N. Koroliev, A. A. Negirev, D. G. Paveljev, B. Vowinkel, and G. Winnewisser, "Pure rotational spectrum of HCN in the terahertz region: use of a new planar Schottky diode multiplier," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 202, 166-168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Awaji, Y.

Bartels, A.

Barwood, G. P.

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Frequency measurements on optically narrowed Rb-stabilized laser diodes at 780 nm and 795 nm," Appl. Phys. B 53, 142-147 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Beaky, M.

F. Maiwald, F. Lewen, V. Ahrens, M. Beaky, R. Gendriesch, A. N. Koroliev, A. A. Negirev, D. G. Paveljev, B. Vowinkel, and G. Winnewisser, "Pure rotational spectrum of HCN in the terahertz region: use of a new planar Schottky diode multiplier," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 202, 166-168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boggs, P. A.

P. A. Boggs, R. H. Byrd, J. E. Rogers, and R. B. Schnabel, "Users reference guide for ODRPAC version 2.01 software for weighted orthogonal distance regression," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Interagency Rep. 4834 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1992).

Boulet, C.

C. Boulet, D. Robert, and L. Galatry, "Shifts of the vibration-rotation absorption line of diatomic molecules perturbed by diatomic polar molecules. A theoretical analysis," J. Chem. Phys. 65, 5302-5314 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Byrd, R. H.

P. A. Boggs, R. H. Byrd, J. E. Rogers, and R. B. Schnabel, "Users reference guide for ODRPAC version 2.01 software for weighted orthogonal distance regression," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Interagency Rep. 4834 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1992).

Chang, J.

F. J. Lovas, J. S. Coursey, S. A. Kotochigova, J. Chang, K. Olsen, and R. A. Dragoset, Triatomic Spectral Database (version 2.0), http://physics.nist.gov/Triatomic (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2003).

Corwin, K. L.

Coursey, J. S.

F. J. Lovas, J. S. Coursey, S. A. Kotochigova, J. Chang, K. Olsen, and R. A. Dragoset, Triatomic Spectral Database (version 2.0), http://physics.nist.gov/Triatomic (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2003).

Curtis, E. A.

de Labachelerie, M.

Demtröder, W.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1996), pp. 67-82.

Dennis, T.

Diddams, S. A.

Dragoset, R. A.

F. J. Lovas, J. S. Coursey, S. A. Kotochigova, J. Chang, K. Olsen, and R. A. Dragoset, Triatomic Spectral Database (version 2.0), http://physics.nist.gov/Triatomic (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2003).

Fox, R. W.

Galatry, L.

C. Boulet, D. Robert, and L. Galatry, "Shifts of the vibration-rotation absorption line of diatomic molecules perturbed by diatomic polar molecules. A theoretical analysis," J. Chem. Phys. 65, 5302-5314 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gendriesch, R.

F. Maiwald, F. Lewen, V. Ahrens, M. Beaky, R. Gendriesch, A. N. Koroliev, A. A. Negirev, D. G. Paveljev, B. Vowinkel, and G. Winnewisser, "Pure rotational spectrum of HCN in the terahertz region: use of a new planar Schottky diode multiplier," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 202, 166-168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, S. L.

K. L. Corwin, I. Thomann, T. Dennis, R. W. Fox, W. Swann, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, A. Bartels, S. L. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, "Absolute frequency measurements with a stabilized near-infrared optical frequency comb from a Cr:forsterite laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 397-399 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1560-1630-nm carbon monoxide wavelength calibration lines," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2461-2467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1510-1540-nm acetylene wavelength calibration lines," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1263-1270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Gilbert and W. C. Swann, "Acetylene C212H2 absorption reference for 1510 nm to 1540 nm wavelength calibration--SRM 2517a," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-133 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2001).

S. L. Gilbert, W. C. Swann, and C. M. Wang, "Hydrogen cyanide HC13N14 absorption reference for 1530-1560 nm wavelength calibration--SRM 2519," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-137 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1998).

S. L. Gilbert and W. C. Swann, "Carbon monoxide absorption references for 1560 nm to 1630 nm wavelength calibration--SRM 2514 (C12O16) and SRM 2515 (C13O16)," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-146 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2002).

Gill, P.

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Frequency measurements on optically narrowed Rb-stabilized laser diodes at 780 nm and 795 nm," Appl. Phys. B 53, 142-147 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Hanson, R. K.

Hollberg, L.

Jungner, P.

Klemperer, W.

A. M. Smith, K. K. Lehmann, and W. Klemperer, "The intensity and self-broadening of overtone transitions in HCN," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 4958-4965 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Koroliev, A. N.

F. Maiwald, F. Lewen, V. Ahrens, M. Beaky, R. Gendriesch, A. N. Koroliev, A. A. Negirev, D. G. Paveljev, B. Vowinkel, and G. Winnewisser, "Pure rotational spectrum of HCN in the terahertz region: use of a new planar Schottky diode multiplier," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 202, 166-168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kotochigova, S. A.

F. J. Lovas, J. S. Coursey, S. A. Kotochigova, J. Chang, K. Olsen, and R. A. Dragoset, Triatomic Spectral Database (version 2.0), http://physics.nist.gov/Triatomic (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2003).

Kourogi, M.

Kuyatt, C. E.

B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, "Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Tech. Note 1297 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1993).

Lehmann, K. K.

A. M. Smith, K. K. Lehmann, and W. Klemperer, "The intensity and self-broadening of overtone transitions in HCN," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 4958-4965 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lewen, F.

F. Maiwald, F. Lewen, V. Ahrens, M. Beaky, R. Gendriesch, A. N. Koroliev, A. A. Negirev, D. G. Paveljev, B. Vowinkel, and G. Winnewisser, "Pure rotational spectrum of HCN in the terahertz region: use of a new planar Schottky diode multiplier," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 202, 166-168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lovas, F. J.

F. J. Lovas, J. S. Coursey, S. A. Kotochigova, J. Chang, K. Olsen, and R. A. Dragoset, Triatomic Spectral Database (version 2.0), http://physics.nist.gov/Triatomic (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2003).

Maiwald, F.

F. Maiwald, F. Lewen, V. Ahrens, M. Beaky, R. Gendriesch, A. N. Koroliev, A. A. Negirev, D. G. Paveljev, B. Vowinkel, and G. Winnewisser, "Pure rotational spectrum of HCN in the terahertz region: use of a new planar Schottky diode multiplier," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 202, 166-168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

Negirev, A. A.

F. Maiwald, F. Lewen, V. Ahrens, M. Beaky, R. Gendriesch, A. N. Koroliev, A. A. Negirev, D. G. Paveljev, B. Vowinkel, and G. Winnewisser, "Pure rotational spectrum of HCN in the terahertz region: use of a new planar Schottky diode multiplier," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 202, 166-168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, J. W.

Oates, C. W.

Olsen, K.

F. J. Lovas, J. S. Coursey, S. A. Kotochigova, J. Chang, K. Olsen, and R. A. Dragoset, Triatomic Spectral Database (version 2.0), http://physics.nist.gov/Triatomic (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2003).

Paveljev, D. G.

F. Maiwald, F. Lewen, V. Ahrens, M. Beaky, R. Gendriesch, A. N. Koroliev, A. A. Negirev, D. G. Paveljev, B. Vowinkel, and G. Winnewisser, "Pure rotational spectrum of HCN in the terahertz region: use of a new planar Schottky diode multiplier," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 202, 166-168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Robert, D.

C. Boulet, D. Robert, and L. Galatry, "Shifts of the vibration-rotation absorption line of diatomic molecules perturbed by diatomic polar molecules. A theoretical analysis," J. Chem. Phys. 65, 5302-5314 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. E.

P. A. Boggs, R. H. Byrd, J. E. Rogers, and R. B. Schnabel, "Users reference guide for ODRPAC version 2.01 software for weighted orthogonal distance regression," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Interagency Rep. 4834 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1992).

Rowley, W. R.

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Frequency measurements on optically narrowed Rb-stabilized laser diodes at 780 nm and 795 nm," Appl. Phys. B 53, 142-147 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sasada, H.

Schnabel, R. B.

P. A. Boggs, R. H. Byrd, J. E. Rogers, and R. B. Schnabel, "Users reference guide for ODRPAC version 2.01 software for weighted orthogonal distance regression," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Interagency Rep. 4834 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1992).

Smith, A. M.

A. M. Smith, K. K. Lehmann, and W. Klemperer, "The intensity and self-broadening of overtone transitions in HCN," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 4958-4965 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W.

Swann, W. C.

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1560-1630-nm carbon monoxide wavelength calibration lines," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2461-2467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1510-1540-nm acetylene wavelength calibration lines," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1263-1270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Gilbert and W. C. Swann, "Acetylene C212H2 absorption reference for 1510 nm to 1540 nm wavelength calibration--SRM 2517a," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-133 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2001).

S. L. Gilbert and W. C. Swann, "Carbon monoxide absorption references for 1560 nm to 1630 nm wavelength calibration--SRM 2514 (C12O16) and SRM 2515 (C13O16)," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-146 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2002).

S. L. Gilbert, W. C. Swann, and C. M. Wang, "Hydrogen cyanide HC13N14 absorption reference for 1530-1560 nm wavelength calibration--SRM 2519," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-137 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1998).

Swartz, S.

Taylor, B. N.

B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, "Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Tech. Note 1297 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1993).

Thomann, I.

Varghese, P. L.

Vowinkel, B.

F. Maiwald, F. Lewen, V. Ahrens, M. Beaky, R. Gendriesch, A. N. Koroliev, A. A. Negirev, D. G. Paveljev, B. Vowinkel, and G. Winnewisser, "Pure rotational spectrum of HCN in the terahertz region: use of a new planar Schottky diode multiplier," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 202, 166-168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. M.

S. L. Gilbert, W. C. Swann, and C. M. Wang, "Hydrogen cyanide HC13N14 absorption reference for 1530-1560 nm wavelength calibration--SRM 2519," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-137 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1998).

Wilpers, G.

Winnewisser, G.

F. Maiwald, F. Lewen, V. Ahrens, M. Beaky, R. Gendriesch, A. N. Koroliev, A. A. Negirev, D. G. Paveljev, B. Vowinkel, and G. Winnewisser, "Pure rotational spectrum of HCN in the terahertz region: use of a new planar Schottky diode multiplier," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 202, 166-168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Yan, M. F.

Ye, J.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "Frequency measurements on optically narrowed Rb-stabilized laser diodes at 780 nm and 795 nm," Appl. Phys. B 53, 142-147 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

A. M. Smith, K. K. Lehmann, and W. Klemperer, "The intensity and self-broadening of overtone transitions in HCN," J. Chem. Phys. 85, 4958-4965 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Boulet, D. Robert, and L. Galatry, "Shifts of the vibration-rotation absorption line of diatomic molecules perturbed by diatomic polar molecules. A theoretical analysis," J. Chem. Phys. 65, 5302-5314 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

F. Maiwald, F. Lewen, V. Ahrens, M. Beaky, R. Gendriesch, A. N. Koroliev, A. A. Negirev, D. G. Paveljev, B. Vowinkel, and G. Winnewisser, "Pure rotational spectrum of HCN in the terahertz region: use of a new planar Schottky diode multiplier," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 202, 166-168 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Other

F. J. Lovas, J. S. Coursey, S. A. Kotochigova, J. Chang, K. Olsen, and R. A. Dragoset, Triatomic Spectral Database (version 2.0), http://physics.nist.gov/Triatomic (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2003).

S. L. Gilbert and W. C. Swann, "Acetylene C212H2 absorption reference for 1510 nm to 1540 nm wavelength calibration--SRM 2517a," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-133 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2001).

S. L. Gilbert, W. C. Swann, and C. M. Wang, "Hydrogen cyanide HC13N14 absorption reference for 1530-1560 nm wavelength calibration--SRM 2519," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-137 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1998).

S. L. Gilbert and W. C. Swann, "Carbon monoxide absorption references for 1560 nm to 1630 nm wavelength calibration--SRM 2514 (C12O16) and SRM 2515 (C13O16)," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Spec. Publ. 260-146 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2002).

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1996), pp. 67-82.

P. A. Boggs, R. H. Byrd, J. E. Rogers, and R. B. Schnabel, "Users reference guide for ODRPAC version 2.01 software for weighted orthogonal distance regression," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Interagency Rep. 4834 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1992).

B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, "Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results," Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (US) Tech. Note 1297 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1993).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Hydrogen cyanide H 13 C 14 N 2 ν 3 rotational–vibrational band spectrum obtained by scanning a tunable diode laser and measuring the laser power transmitted through a 15 cm long cell filled to a pressure of 3.3 kPa (25 Torr).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the pressure shift measurement apparatus.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Tunable diode laser scan of H 13 C 14 N line P 16 showing the transmittance through a low-pressure cell (0.9 kPa) and a higher-pressure (3.3 kPa) cell.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) FWHM of the Lorentzian component of H 13 C 14 N line P 16 versus pressure and the corresponding linear least-squares fit to the higher-pressure data ( > 0.9 kPa ) . (b) Line P 16 center wavelength shift from the zero-pressure value versus pressure and the corresponding linear least-squares fit to the data. For both plots, the error bars are smaller than the points.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured pressure shift coefficient versus line number for the H 13 C 14 N 2 ν 3 rotational–vibrational band. The error bars are smaller than the data points.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured pressure dependence of the Lorentzian component (FWHM) of the linewidth derived from a Voigt fit versus line number for the H 13 C 14 N 2 ν 3 rotational–vibrational band. Error bars are one standard uncertainty ( 1 σ ) .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Zero-pressure line centers (data points), results of fit to Eq. (2) (solid line), and residuals of the fit (dashed curve). The index m = J + 1 for the R branch, and m = J for the P branch. The molecular constants determined by this fit are given in Table 3.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Line Center, Pressure Shift, and Pressure-Broadening Results for H 13 C 14 N a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Line Center Vacuum Wavelength Measurement Comparison a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Molecular Constants for H 13 C 14 N a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Calculated Wavenumbers and Vacuum Wavelengths of Line Centers a

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I T = I 0 exp ( α L ) ,
Δ T m = Δ T + B ( m 2 + m ) D ( m 2 + m ) 2 + H ( m 2 + m ) 3 B ( m 2 m ) + D ( m 2 m ) 2 H ( m 2 m ) 3 .

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