Abstract

We present measurements on terahertz generation by optical rectification, in which both the thickness of the generation crystal and the wavelength of the generating optical pulse are varied. The difference between the group velocity at optical frequencies and the phase velocity at terahertz frequencies affects the time trace and spectrum of the generated terahertz pulse. For the thickest crystal, we find that the phase mismatch gives rise to the generation of two pulses, separated by 4.5 ps. The physical origin of the observed features is clarified with a simple model that includes phase matching and absorption.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, "GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863-865 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. R. Morris and Y. R. Shen, "Far-infrared generation by picosecond pulses in electro-optical materials," Opt. Commun. 3, 81-84 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. A. Kleinman and D. H. Auston, "Theory of electrooptic shock radiation in nonlinear optical media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 964-970 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, "Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 320-323 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. R. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Uhd Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, W. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. R. Shen, "Far-infrared generation by optical mixing," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 207-232 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X.-C. Zhang, "Distortion of terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Gallot and D. Grischkowsky, "Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1204-1212 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Schall and P. Uhd Jepsen, "Freeze-out of difference-phonon modes in ZnTe and its application in detection of THz pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2801-2803 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. T. F. Marple, "Refractive index of ZnSe, ZnTe, and CdTe," J. Appl. Phys. 35, 539-542 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Manabe, A. Mitsuishi, and H. Yoshinaga, "Infrared lattice reflection spectra of II-VI compounds," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 593-600 (1967).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, "GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863-865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Schall and P. Uhd Jepsen, "Freeze-out of difference-phonon modes in ZnTe and its application in detection of THz pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2801-2803 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot and D. Grischkowsky, "Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1204-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

P. Uhd Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, W. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. R. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. A. Kleinman and D. H. Auston, "Theory of electrooptic shock radiation in nonlinear optical media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 964-970 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Y. R. Shen, "Far-infrared generation by optical mixing," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 207-232 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, "Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 320-323 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Morris and Y. R. Shen, "Far-infrared generation by picosecond pulses in electro-optical materials," Opt. Commun. 3, 81-84 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

A. Manabe, A. Mitsuishi, and H. Yoshinaga, "Infrared lattice reflection spectra of II-VI compounds," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 593-600 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. T. F. Marple, "Refractive index of ZnSe, ZnTe, and CdTe," J. Appl. Phys. 35, 539-542 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kleinman and D. H. Auston, "Theory of electrooptic shock radiation in nonlinear optical media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 964-970 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, H. J.

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G. C.

Gallot, G.

G. Gallot and D. Grischkowsky, "Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1204-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot and D. Grischkowsky, "Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1204-1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. R.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. R. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

P. Uhd Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, W. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, T.-I.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. Uhd

M. Schall and P. Uhd Jepsen, "Freeze-out of difference-phonon modes in ZnTe and its application in detection of THz pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2801-2803 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Uhd Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, W. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

P. Uhd Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, W. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kleinman, D. A.

D. A. Kleinman and D. H. Auston, "Theory of electrooptic shock radiation in nonlinear optical media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 964-970 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

Leitenstorfer, A.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, "GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863-865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manabe, A.

A. Manabe, A. Mitsuishi, and H. Yoshinaga, "Infrared lattice reflection spectra of II-VI compounds," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 593-600 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Marple, D. T.

D. T. F. Marple, "Refractive index of ZnSe, ZnTe, and CdTe," J. Appl. Phys. 35, 539-542 (1964).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, R. W.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuishi, A.

A. Manabe, A. Mitsuishi, and H. Yoshinaga, "Infrared lattice reflection spectra of II-VI compounds," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 593-600 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Morris, J. R.

J. R. Morris and Y. R. Shen, "Far-infrared generation by picosecond pulses in electro-optical materials," Opt. Commun. 3, 81-84 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. R. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richards, P. L.

K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, "Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 320-323 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Schall, M.

M. Schall and P. Uhd Jepsen, "Freeze-out of difference-phonon modes in ZnTe and its application in detection of THz pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2801-2803 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Uhd Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, W. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schyja, W.

P. Uhd Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, W. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, "Far-infrared generation by optical mixing," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 207-232 (1976).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, "Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 320-323 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Morris and Y. R. Shen, "Far-infrared generation by picosecond pulses in electro-optical materials," Opt. Commun. 3, 81-84 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Tauser, F.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weling, A. S.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. R. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Winnewisser, C.

P. Uhd Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, W. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Xu, J.

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, "GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863-865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K. H.

K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, "Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 320-323 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Yoshinaga, H.

A. Manabe, A. Mitsuishi, and H. Yoshinaga, "Infrared lattice reflection spectra of II-VI compounds," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 593-600 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, "GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863-865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X.-C. Zhang, "Distortion of terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

K. H. Yang, P. L. Richards, and Y. R. Shen, "Generation of far-infrared radiation by picosecond light pulses in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 320-323 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. R. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses up to 41 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3191-3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Liu, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, "GaSe crystals for broadband terahertz wave detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 863-865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Schall and P. Uhd Jepsen, "Freeze-out of difference-phonon modes in ZnTe and its application in detection of THz pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2801-2803 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Kleinman and D. H. Auston, "Theory of electrooptic shock radiation in nonlinear optical media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 964-970 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. T. F. Marple, "Refractive index of ZnSe, ZnTe, and CdTe," J. Appl. Phys. 35, 539-542 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Manabe, A. Mitsuishi, and H. Yoshinaga, "Infrared lattice reflection spectra of II-VI compounds," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 6, 593-600 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. R. Morris and Y. R. Shen, "Far-infrared generation by picosecond pulses in electro-optical materials," Opt. Commun. 3, 81-84 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

P. Uhd Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, W. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. R. Shen, "Far-infrared generation by optical mixing," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 207-232 (1976).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the measurement setup. A beam splitter (BS) splits the Ti : sapphire beam (solid lines) into two parts. The larger part is used to pump the OPO, while the smaller part is used to detect the terahertz radiation. The beam from the OPO (dashed lines) goes through an optical delay stage and is then focused onto a ZnTe generation crystal. The generated terahertz beam is first collimated and then focused by two parabolic mirrors. In this focus the terahertz electric field is measured with a standard electro-optic detection setup, which consists of a ZnTe detection crystal, a quarter-wave plate ( λ 4 ) , a Wollaston prism (WP), and a differential photodetector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured terahertz power spectrum with the corresponding time traces. A and D show, respectively, the spectrum and the time trace for a 0.5 mm thick generation crystal; B and E are for a 1.0 mm thick crystal; C and F are for a 4.0 mm thick crystal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured power spectra of terahertz radiation generated and detected in two 1 mm thick ZnTe crystals. The three spectra are generated with optical wavelengths of 1080, 1148, and 1228 nm, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Terahertz intensity spectra calculated with expression (2). Three spectra are shown, corresponding to three different wavelengths for the optical beam used to generated the terahertz radiation.

Equations (2)

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E T rad ( ω T ) ω T 2 1 exp ( α l g i Δ k g l g ) α + i Δ k g ,
E T det ( ω T ) ω T 2 1 exp ( α l g i Δ k g l g ) α + i Δ k g sin ( 1 2 Δ k d l d ) 1 2 Δ k d l d .

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