Abstract

We present a continuation of two previous studies [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1838 (2003) and J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 958 (2004) ] on the optical characteristics of perfluorocyclobutyl-based polymers. Previously, the spectral dependences of the refractive index and the extinction coefficient have been calculated, and investigations were made into the theoretical and measured attenuation spectra of these polymers. Here, we report on the erbium-doped perfluorocyclobutyl aryl ether polymer 1,1,1-tris(4-trifluorovinyloxy)phenyl ethane. The absorption and fluorescence spectra are provided, including the Judd–Ofelt parameterization. The Judd–Ofelt parameters are found to be Ω2=16.05×1020cm2, Ω4=3.67×1020cm2, and Ω6=3.59×1020cm2. These results are compared with those for a similar study on erbium-doped poly(methyl methacrylate), and conclusions are drawn concerning the effect of host properties in the 1550 nm region.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  13. D. W. Smith, Jr., S. Chen, S. M. Kumar, J. Ballato, C. Topping, H. V. Shah, and S. H. Foulger, "Perfluorocyclobutyl copolymers for microphotonics," Adv. Mater. 14, 1585-1589 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. W. Smith, Jr., and D. A. Babb, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic polyethers. Synthesis and characterization of new siloxane-containing fluoropolymers," Macromolecules 29, 852-860 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. A. Babb, H. Boone, D. W. Smith, Jr., and P. Rudolf, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic ether polymers. III. Synthesis and thermal stability of a thermoset polymer containing triphenylphosphine oxide," J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 69, 2005-2012 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Jin, J. Barden, A. R. Neilson, J. Gordon, J. Ballato, and D. W. Smith, Jr., "Trifluorovinylether functionalized semi-fluorinated lanthanides (III) complexes: synthesis and characterization," Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 91, 812-813 (2004).
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  22. G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
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  23. S. Tanabe, "Optical transitions of rare earth ions for amplifiers: How the local structure works in glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 1-9 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  27. R. Sosa Fonseca, M. Flores, R. Rodriguez, J. Hernandez, and A. Munoz, "Evidence of energy transfer in Er3+-doped PMMA-PAAc copolymer samples," J. Lumin. 93, 327-332 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  29. Z. Zheng, H. Liang, H. Ming, Q. Zhang, and J. Xie, "Optical transition probability of the Er3+ Ion in Er(DBM)3 phen-doped poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Commun. 233, 149-153 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. Jin, J. Barden, A. R. Neilson, J. Gordon, J. Ballato, and D. W. Smith, Jr., "Trifluorovinylether functionalized semi-fluorinated lanthanides (III) complexes: synthesis and characterization," Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 91, 812-813 (2004).

Z. Zheng, H. Liang, H. Ming, Q. Zhang, and J. Xie, "Optical transition probability of the Er3+ Ion in Er(DBM)3 phen-doped poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Commun. 233, 149-153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, S. Foulger, and D. W. Smith, Jr., "Optical properties of perfluorocyclobutyl polymers. II. Theoretical and experimental attenuation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 958-967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (6)

K. Kuriki, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, "Spectroscopic properties of lanthanide chelates in perfluorinated plastics for optical applications," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1844-1848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiaohong, M. Hai, D. Ning, X. Aifang, H. Jun, Z. Qijin, Y. Min, Z. Zebo, and X. Jianping, "Using spectra analysis and scanning near-field optical microscopy to study Eu doped polymer fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 111-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, "Rare-earth-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers in broadband telecommunication," C. R. Chim. 5, 815-824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kenyon, "Recent developments in rare-earth doped materials for optoelectronics," Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 225-284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Slooff, A. Van Blaaderen, A. Polman, G. A. Hebbink, S. I. Klink, F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, and J. W. Hofstraat, "Rare-earth doped polymers for planar optical waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3955-3980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Smith, Jr., S. Chen, S. M. Kumar, J. Ballato, C. Topping, H. V. Shah, and S. H. Foulger, "Perfluorocyclobutyl copolymers for microphotonics," Adv. Mater. 14, 1585-1589 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Sosa Fonseca, M. Flores, R. Rodriguez, J. Hernandez, and A. Munoz, "Evidence of energy transfer in Er3+-doped PMMA-PAAc copolymer samples," J. Lumin. 93, 327-332 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Eldad and L. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54-68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Tanabe, "Optical transitions of rare earth ions for amplifiers: How the local structure works in glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 1-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. A. Babb, H. Boone, D. W. Smith, Jr., and P. Rudolf, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic ether polymers. III. Synthesis and thermal stability of a thermoset polymer containing triphenylphosphine oxide," J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 69, 2005-2012 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

D. W. Smith, Jr., and D. A. Babb, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic polyethers. Synthesis and characterization of new siloxane-containing fluoropolymers," Macromolecules 29, 852-860 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Dejneka, E. Snitzer, and R. E. Riman, "Blue, green, and red fluorescence and energy transfer of Eu3+ in fluoride glasses," J. Lumin. 65, 227-245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

D. A. Babb, B. Ezzell, K. Clement, W. Richey, and A. Kennedy, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic ether polymers," J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 31, 3465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, E. Nihei, T. Yamamoto, and K. Sasaki, "Polymer optical fiber amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 883-884 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Hm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Aifang, X.

S. Xiaohong, M. Hai, D. Ning, X. Aifang, H. Jun, Z. Qijin, Y. Min, Z. Zebo, and X. Jianping, "Using spectra analysis and scanning near-field optical microscopy to study Eu doped polymer fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 111-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Babb, D. A.

D. A. Babb, H. Boone, D. W. Smith, Jr., and P. Rudolf, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic ether polymers. III. Synthesis and thermal stability of a thermoset polymer containing triphenylphosphine oxide," J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 69, 2005-2012 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Smith, Jr., and D. A. Babb, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic polyethers. Synthesis and characterization of new siloxane-containing fluoropolymers," Macromolecules 29, 852-860 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Babb, B. Ezzell, K. Clement, W. Richey, and A. Kennedy, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic ether polymers," J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 31, 3465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, J.

J. Jin, J. Barden, A. R. Neilson, J. Gordon, J. Ballato, and D. W. Smith, Jr., "Trifluorovinylether functionalized semi-fluorinated lanthanides (III) complexes: synthesis and characterization," Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 91, 812-813 (2004).

J. Ballato, S. Foulger, and D. W. Smith, Jr., "Optical properties of perfluorocyclobutyl polymers. II. Theoretical and experimental attenuation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 958-967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, S. Foulger, and D. W. Smith, Jr., "Optical properties of perfluorocyclobutyl polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1838-1843 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Smith, Jr., S. Chen, S. M. Kumar, J. Ballato, C. Topping, H. V. Shah, and S. H. Foulger, "Perfluorocyclobutyl copolymers for microphotonics," Adv. Mater. 14, 1585-1589 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barden, J.

J. Jin, J. Barden, A. R. Neilson, J. Gordon, J. Ballato, and D. W. Smith, Jr., "Trifluorovinylether functionalized semi-fluorinated lanthanides (III) complexes: synthesis and characterization," Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 91, 812-813 (2004).

Boone, H.

D. A. Babb, H. Boone, D. W. Smith, Jr., and P. Rudolf, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic ether polymers. III. Synthesis and thermal stability of a thermoset polymer containing triphenylphosphine oxide," J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 69, 2005-2012 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buck, W. H.

P. R. Resnick and W. H. Buck, "Teflon AF amorphous fluoropolymers," in Modern Fluoropolymers, J.Scheirs, ed. (Wiley, 1997), pp. 397-419.

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Hm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

D. W. Smith, Jr., S. Chen, S. M. Kumar, J. Ballato, C. Topping, H. V. Shah, and S. H. Foulger, "Perfluorocyclobutyl copolymers for microphotonics," Adv. Mater. 14, 1585-1589 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clement, K.

D. A. Babb, B. Ezzell, K. Clement, W. Richey, and A. Kennedy, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic ether polymers," J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 31, 3465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

Dejneka, M.

M. Dejneka, E. Snitzer, and R. E. Riman, "Blue, green, and red fluorescence and energy transfer of Eu3+ in fluoride glasses," J. Lumin. 65, 227-245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dieke, G. H.

G. H. Dieke, Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare-Earth Ions in Crystals, H.M.Crosswhite and H.Crosswhite, eds. (Interscience, 1968).

Eldad, L.

L. Eldad and L. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54-68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ezzell, B.

D. A. Babb, B. Ezzell, K. Clement, W. Richey, and A. Kennedy, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic ether polymers," J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 31, 3465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Hm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Flores, M.

R. Sosa Fonseca, M. Flores, R. Rodriguez, J. Hernandez, and A. Munoz, "Evidence of energy transfer in Er3+-doped PMMA-PAAc copolymer samples," J. Lumin. 93, 327-332 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fonseca, R. Sosa

R. Sosa Fonseca, M. Flores, R. Rodriguez, J. Hernandez, and A. Munoz, "Evidence of energy transfer in Er3+-doped PMMA-PAAc copolymer samples," J. Lumin. 93, 327-332 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Foulger, S.

Foulger, S. H.

D. W. Smith, Jr., S. Chen, S. M. Kumar, J. Ballato, C. Topping, H. V. Shah, and S. H. Foulger, "Perfluorocyclobutyl copolymers for microphotonics," Adv. Mater. 14, 1585-1589 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, T.

T. Freeman, "Plastic optical fibre tackles automotive requirements," Fibers.org, June 14, 2004, http://fibers.iop.org/articles/news/6/6/7/1.

Garito, A. F.

Gordon, J.

J. Jin, J. Barden, A. R. Neilson, J. Gordon, J. Ballato, and D. W. Smith, Jr., "Trifluorovinylether functionalized semi-fluorinated lanthanides (III) complexes: synthesis and characterization," Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 91, 812-813 (2004).

Hai, M.

S. Xiaohong, M. Hai, D. Ning, X. Aifang, H. Jun, Z. Qijin, Y. Min, Z. Zebo, and X. Jianping, "Using spectra analysis and scanning near-field optical microscopy to study Eu doped polymer fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 111-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hebbink, G. A.

L. H. Slooff, A. Van Blaaderen, A. Polman, G. A. Hebbink, S. I. Klink, F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, and J. W. Hofstraat, "Rare-earth doped polymers for planar optical waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3955-3980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, J.

R. Sosa Fonseca, M. Flores, R. Rodriguez, J. Hernandez, and A. Munoz, "Evidence of energy transfer in Er3+-doped PMMA-PAAc copolymer samples," J. Lumin. 93, 327-332 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hofstraat, J. W.

L. H. Slooff, A. Van Blaaderen, A. Polman, G. A. Hebbink, S. I. Klink, F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, and J. W. Hofstraat, "Rare-earth doped polymers for planar optical waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3955-3980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, G.

Jianping, X.

S. Xiaohong, M. Hai, D. Ning, X. Aifang, H. Jun, Z. Qijin, Y. Min, Z. Zebo, and X. Jianping, "Using spectra analysis and scanning near-field optical microscopy to study Eu doped polymer fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 111-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jin, J.

J. Jin, J. Barden, A. R. Neilson, J. Gordon, J. Ballato, and D. W. Smith, Jr., "Trifluorovinylether functionalized semi-fluorinated lanthanides (III) complexes: synthesis and characterization," Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 91, 812-813 (2004).

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Jun, H.

S. Xiaohong, M. Hai, D. Ning, X. Aifang, H. Jun, Z. Qijin, Y. Min, Z. Zebo, and X. Jianping, "Using spectra analysis and scanning near-field optical microscopy to study Eu doped polymer fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 111-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A.

A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes, (CRC Press, 1996), p. 235.

Kennedy, A.

D. A. Babb, B. Ezzell, K. Clement, W. Richey, and A. Kennedy, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic ether polymers," J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 31, 3465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kenyon, A. J.

A. J. Kenyon, "Recent developments in rare-earth doped materials for optoelectronics," Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 225-284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, T.

A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, E. Nihei, T. Yamamoto, and K. Sasaki, "Polymer optical fiber amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 883-884 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Klink, S. I.

L. H. Slooff, A. Van Blaaderen, A. Polman, G. A. Hebbink, S. I. Klink, F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, and J. W. Hofstraat, "Rare-earth doped polymers for planar optical waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3955-3980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koeppen, C.

Koike, Y.

Kumar, S. M.

D. W. Smith, Jr., S. Chen, S. M. Kumar, J. Ballato, C. Topping, H. V. Shah, and S. H. Foulger, "Perfluorocyclobutyl copolymers for microphotonics," Adv. Mater. 14, 1585-1589 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuriki, K.

Liang, H.

Z. Zheng, H. Liang, H. Ming, Q. Zhang, and J. Xie, "Optical transition probability of the Er3+ Ion in Er(DBM)3 phen-doped poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Commun. 233, 149-153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Min, Y.

S. Xiaohong, M. Hai, D. Ning, X. Aifang, H. Jun, Z. Qijin, Y. Min, Z. Zebo, and X. Jianping, "Using spectra analysis and scanning near-field optical microscopy to study Eu doped polymer fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 111-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ming, H.

Z. Zheng, H. Liang, H. Ming, Q. Zhang, and J. Xie, "Optical transition probability of the Er3+ Ion in Er(DBM)3 phen-doped poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Commun. 233, 149-153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, A.

R. Sosa Fonseca, M. Flores, R. Rodriguez, J. Hernandez, and A. Munoz, "Evidence of energy transfer in Er3+-doped PMMA-PAAc copolymer samples," J. Lumin. 93, 327-332 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neilson, A. R.

J. Jin, J. Barden, A. R. Neilson, J. Gordon, J. Ballato, and D. W. Smith, Jr., "Trifluorovinylether functionalized semi-fluorinated lanthanides (III) complexes: synthesis and characterization," Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 91, 812-813 (2004).

Nihei, E.

A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, E. Nihei, T. Yamamoto, and K. Sasaki, "Polymer optical fiber amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 883-884 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ning, D.

S. Xiaohong, M. Hai, D. Ning, X. Aifang, H. Jun, Z. Qijin, Y. Min, Z. Zebo, and X. Jianping, "Using spectra analysis and scanning near-field optical microscopy to study Eu doped polymer fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 111-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, S.

Nishizawa, Y.

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, Y.

Peacock, R. D.

R. D. Peacock, The Intensities of Lanthanide f-f Transitions, Vol. 22 of Structure and Bonding (Springer-Verlag, 1975), p. 84.

Polman, A.

L. H. Slooff, A. Van Blaaderen, A. Polman, G. A. Hebbink, S. I. Klink, F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, and J. W. Hofstraat, "Rare-earth doped polymers for planar optical waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3955-3980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qijin, Z.

S. Xiaohong, M. Hai, D. Ning, X. Aifang, H. Jun, Z. Qijin, Y. Min, Z. Zebo, and X. Jianping, "Using spectra analysis and scanning near-field optical microscopy to study Eu doped polymer fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 111-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Hm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Reinhoudt, D. N.

L. H. Slooff, A. Van Blaaderen, A. Polman, G. A. Hebbink, S. I. Klink, F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, and J. W. Hofstraat, "Rare-earth doped polymers for planar optical waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3955-3980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Resnick, P. R.

P. R. Resnick and W. H. Buck, "Teflon AF amorphous fluoropolymers," in Modern Fluoropolymers, J.Scheirs, ed. (Wiley, 1997), pp. 397-419.

Richey, W.

D. A. Babb, B. Ezzell, K. Clement, W. Richey, and A. Kennedy, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic ether polymers," J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 31, 3465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Riman, R. E.

M. Dejneka, E. Snitzer, and R. E. Riman, "Blue, green, and red fluorescence and energy transfer of Eu3+ in fluoride glasses," J. Lumin. 65, 227-245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, R.

R. Sosa Fonseca, M. Flores, R. Rodriguez, J. Hernandez, and A. Munoz, "Evidence of energy transfer in Er3+-doped PMMA-PAAc copolymer samples," J. Lumin. 93, 327-332 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rudolf, P.

D. A. Babb, H. Boone, D. W. Smith, Jr., and P. Rudolf, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic ether polymers. III. Synthesis and thermal stability of a thermoset polymer containing triphenylphosphine oxide," J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 69, 2005-2012 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, E. Nihei, T. Yamamoto, and K. Sasaki, "Polymer optical fiber amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 883-884 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shacklette, L.

L. Eldad and L. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54-68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shah, H. V.

D. W. Smith, Jr., S. Chen, S. M. Kumar, J. Ballato, C. Topping, H. V. Shah, and S. H. Foulger, "Perfluorocyclobutyl copolymers for microphotonics," Adv. Mater. 14, 1585-1589 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Slooff, L. H.

L. H. Slooff, A. Van Blaaderen, A. Polman, G. A. Hebbink, S. I. Klink, F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, and J. W. Hofstraat, "Rare-earth doped polymers for planar optical waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3955-3980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. W.

J. Jin, J. Barden, A. R. Neilson, J. Gordon, J. Ballato, and D. W. Smith, Jr., "Trifluorovinylether functionalized semi-fluorinated lanthanides (III) complexes: synthesis and characterization," Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 91, 812-813 (2004).

J. Ballato, S. Foulger, and D. W. Smith, Jr., "Optical properties of perfluorocyclobutyl polymers. II. Theoretical and experimental attenuation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 958-967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Ballato, S. Foulger, and D. W. Smith, Jr., "Optical properties of perfluorocyclobutyl polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1838-1843 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Smith, Jr., S. Chen, S. M. Kumar, J. Ballato, C. Topping, H. V. Shah, and S. H. Foulger, "Perfluorocyclobutyl copolymers for microphotonics," Adv. Mater. 14, 1585-1589 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Babb, H. Boone, D. W. Smith, Jr., and P. Rudolf, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic ether polymers. III. Synthesis and thermal stability of a thermoset polymer containing triphenylphosphine oxide," J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 69, 2005-2012 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Smith, Jr., and D. A. Babb, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic polyethers. Synthesis and characterization of new siloxane-containing fluoropolymers," Macromolecules 29, 852-860 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

M. Dejneka, E. Snitzer, and R. E. Riman, "Blue, green, and red fluorescence and energy transfer of Eu3+ in fluoride glasses," J. Lumin. 65, 227-245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, N.

N. Sugiyama, "Perfluoropolymers obtained by cyclopolymerization and their applications," in Modern Fluoropolymers, J.Scheirs, ed. (Wiley, 1997), pp. 541-555.

Tagaya, A.

Tanabe, S.

S. Tanabe, "Rare-earth-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers in broadband telecommunication," C. R. Chim. 5, 815-824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, "Optical transitions of rare earth ions for amplifiers: How the local structure works in glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 1-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Topping, C.

D. W. Smith, Jr., S. Chen, S. M. Kumar, J. Ballato, C. Topping, H. V. Shah, and S. H. Foulger, "Perfluorocyclobutyl copolymers for microphotonics," Adv. Mater. 14, 1585-1589 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Blaaderen, A.

L. H. Slooff, A. Van Blaaderen, A. Polman, G. A. Hebbink, S. I. Klink, F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, and J. W. Hofstraat, "Rare-earth doped polymers for planar optical waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3955-3980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Veggel, F. C. J. M.

L. H. Slooff, A. Van Blaaderen, A. Polman, G. A. Hebbink, S. I. Klink, F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, and J. W. Hofstraat, "Rare-earth doped polymers for planar optical waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3955-3980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wagener, E.

E. Wagener, Tetramer Technologies, 657 S. Mechanic Street, Pendleton, S.C. 29670, http://www.tetramertechnologies.com (personal communication, 2003).

Xiaohong, S.

S. Xiaohong, M. Hai, D. Ning, X. Aifang, H. Jun, Z. Qijin, Y. Min, Z. Zebo, and X. Jianping, "Using spectra analysis and scanning near-field optical microscopy to study Eu doped polymer fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 111-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.

Z. Zheng, H. Liang, H. Ming, Q. Zhang, and J. Xie, "Optical transition probability of the Er3+ Ion in Er(DBM)3 phen-doped poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Commun. 233, 149-153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, S.

Yamamoto, T.

A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, E. Nihei, T. Yamamoto, and K. Sasaki, "Polymer optical fiber amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 883-884 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zebo, Z.

S. Xiaohong, M. Hai, D. Ning, X. Aifang, H. Jun, Z. Qijin, Y. Min, Z. Zebo, and X. Jianping, "Using spectra analysis and scanning near-field optical microscopy to study Eu doped polymer fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 111-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Z. Zheng, H. Liang, H. Ming, Q. Zhang, and J. Xie, "Optical transition probability of the Er3+ Ion in Er(DBM)3 phen-doped poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Commun. 233, 149-153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

Z. Zheng, H. Liang, H. Ming, Q. Zhang, and J. Xie, "Optical transition probability of the Er3+ Ion in Er(DBM)3 phen-doped poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Commun. 233, 149-153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

D. W. Smith, Jr., S. Chen, S. M. Kumar, J. Ballato, C. Topping, H. V. Shah, and S. H. Foulger, "Perfluorocyclobutyl copolymers for microphotonics," Adv. Mater. 14, 1585-1589 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, T. Kinoshita, E. Nihei, T. Yamamoto, and K. Sasaki, "Polymer optical fiber amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 883-884 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Chim. (1)

S. Tanabe, "Rare-earth-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers in broadband telecommunication," C. R. Chim. 5, 815-824 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Eldad and L. Shacklette, "Advances in polymer integrated optics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54-68 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. H. Slooff, A. Van Blaaderen, A. Polman, G. A. Hebbink, S. I. Klink, F. C. J. M. Van Veggel, D. N. Reinhoudt, and J. W. Hofstraat, "Rare-earth doped polymers for planar optical waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3955-3980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

D. A. Babb, H. Boone, D. W. Smith, Jr., and P. Rudolf, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic ether polymers. III. Synthesis and thermal stability of a thermoset polymer containing triphenylphosphine oxide," J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 69, 2005-2012 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Hm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (2)

M. Dejneka, E. Snitzer, and R. E. Riman, "Blue, green, and red fluorescence and energy transfer of Eu3+ in fluoride glasses," J. Lumin. 65, 227-245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Sosa Fonseca, M. Flores, R. Rodriguez, J. Hernandez, and A. Munoz, "Evidence of energy transfer in Er3+-doped PMMA-PAAc copolymer samples," J. Lumin. 93, 327-332 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

S. Tanabe, "Optical transitions of rare earth ions for amplifiers: How the local structure works in glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 1-9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. (1)

D. A. Babb, B. Ezzell, K. Clement, W. Richey, and A. Kennedy, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic ether polymers," J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 31, 3465 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

D. W. Smith, Jr., and D. A. Babb, "Perfluorocyclobutane aromatic polyethers. Synthesis and characterization of new siloxane-containing fluoropolymers," Macromolecules 29, 852-860 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

Z. Zheng, H. Liang, H. Ming, Q. Zhang, and J. Xie, "Optical transition probability of the Er3+ Ion in Er(DBM)3 phen-doped poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Commun. 233, 149-153 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Xiaohong, M. Hai, D. Ning, X. Aifang, H. Jun, Z. Qijin, Y. Min, Z. Zebo, and X. Jianping, "Using spectra analysis and scanning near-field optical microscopy to study Eu doped polymer fiber," Opt. Commun. 208, 111-115 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. (1)

J. Jin, J. Barden, A. R. Neilson, J. Gordon, J. Ballato, and D. W. Smith, Jr., "Trifluorovinylether functionalized semi-fluorinated lanthanides (III) complexes: synthesis and characterization," Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng. 91, 812-813 (2004).

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. J. Kenyon, "Recent developments in rare-earth doped materials for optoelectronics," Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 225-284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

P. R. Resnick and W. H. Buck, "Teflon AF amorphous fluoropolymers," in Modern Fluoropolymers, J.Scheirs, ed. (Wiley, 1997), pp. 397-419.

N. Sugiyama, "Perfluoropolymers obtained by cyclopolymerization and their applications," in Modern Fluoropolymers, J.Scheirs, ed. (Wiley, 1997), pp. 541-555.

E. Wagener, Tetramer Technologies, 657 S. Mechanic Street, Pendleton, S.C. 29670, http://www.tetramertechnologies.com (personal communication, 2003).

G. H. Dieke, Spectra and Energy Levels of Rare-Earth Ions in Crystals, H.M.Crosswhite and H.Crosswhite, eds. (Interscience, 1968).

R. D. Peacock, The Intensities of Lanthanide f-f Transitions, Vol. 22 of Structure and Bonding (Springer-Verlag, 1975), p. 84.

A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes, (CRC Press, 1996), p. 235.

T. Freeman, "Plastic optical fibre tackles automotive requirements," Fibers.org, June 14, 2004, http://fibers.iop.org/articles/news/6/6/7/1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Polymerization of TVE. (b) Complex used for incorporation of erbium into TVE.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

UV–visible region of absorption spectrum of erbium-doped TVE. Absorptions are from the I 15 2 4 ground state. O.D., optical density.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Near-IR region of absorption spectrum of erbium-doped TVE. Absorptions are from the I 15 2 4 ground state.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission from the I 13 2 4 to the I 15 2 4 ground state in 0.97 wt. % erbium-doped TVE, 980 nm pump.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Absorption Bands Used in the Judd–Ofelt Analysis along with Peak Wavelengths and Refractive Indices of TVE and PMMA at This Wavelength

Tables Icon

Table 2 Judd–Ofelt Parameters for Erbium-Doped TVE and PMMA

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparisons of the Observed and Calculated Values for S ed in TVE and PMMA

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ed [ ( S , L ) J ; ( S , L ) J ] = t = 2 , 4 , 6 Ω t ( S , L ) J U ( t ) ( S , L ) J 2 ,
S md [ ( S , L ) J ; ( S , L ) J ] = ( e h 4 π m c ) 2 ( S , L ) J L + 2 S ( S , L ) J 2 ,
k ( λ ) d λ = 8 π 3 e 2 λ avg N K 3 c h ( 2 J + 1 ) n 2 ( χ ed S ed + χ md S md ) ,

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