Abstract

We have studied superfluorescence (SF) in Ca vapor evolving on the 3d4sDJ3-4s4pPJ13 transitions at 1.9μm by exciting the 4s2S01-4s4pP11 with a pulsed dye laser. SF is generated following population transfer by spin-changing collisions with an inert gas Ar from the 4s4pP11 and 3d4sD21 levels. We show for the first time to our knowledge that the time delay for SF evolution follows the 1N dependence expected for the case of uniform excitation of the vapor column by collisional transfer. Here, N is the number of participating atoms that was measured directly from the photon yield. The measured photon yield for the signal as a function of Ar pressure was found to be consistent with rate equations that simulate the buildup of populations in the DJ3 levels based on known collisional rates. This suggests that collisional rates can be directly inferred on the basis of SF photon yields and the atomic level populations. The pulse shapes for SF show temporal oscillations that depend on two distinct factors. The first is the presence of a number of independently evolving regions in the gain medium, and the second is the presence of spatial modes. Temporal ringing is a well-known effect related to the exchange of energy between the atoms and the radiation field during pulse propagation. However, the temporal ringing observed in this experiment is far more pronounced than in previous SF experiments due to a particular choice of evolution parameters. This should make it feasible to compare our results with detailed numerical simulations that have been carried out previously.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2003

A. Kumarakrishnan, S. Chudasama, and X. L. Han, "Superfluorescence polarization: signature of collisional redistribution," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Meziane, S. Oullemine, K. Amezian, and E. Boursey, "Competition between collective and stimulated effects in Te2130 superluorescence," Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 573578 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Lvovsky, S. R. Hartmann, and F. Moshary, "Superfluorescence-stimulated photon echoes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 263602-263605 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

M. Hogan, C. Pellegrini, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Varfolomeev, S. Anderson, K. Bishofberger, P. Frigola, A. Murokh, N. Osmanov, S. Reiche, and A. Tremaine, "Measurements of high gain and intensity fluctuations in a self-amplified, spontaneous-emission free-electron laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 289292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumarakrishnan and X. L. Han, "Superfluorescence from optically trapped calcium atoms," Phys. Rev. A 58, 4153-4162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. D. Drummond, J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, D. B. Hirst, and S. J. Carter, "Phase waves in mode-locked superfluorescent lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 836-839 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Tserepi, E. Wurzberg, and T. A. Miller, "Two-photon-excited stimulated emission from atomic oxygen in rf plasmas: detection and estimation of its threshold," Chem. Phys. Lett. 265, 297-302 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. D. Tserepi and T. A. Miller, "Spatially and temporally resolved absolute O-atom concentrations in etching plasmas," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 505-511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. Kumarakrishnan and X. L. Han, "Investigations of superfluorescent cascades," Opt. Commun. 109, 348-360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

E. Boursey, J. Meziane, and A. Topouzkhanian, "Superfluorescence beats in Te2125 emission," Phys. Rev. A 48, 30473050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Scherrer and F. K. Kneubuhl, "New phenomena related to pulsed far-infrared superradiant and Raman emissions," Infrared Phys. 34, 227-267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

D. A. Miller, L. You, J. Cooper, and A. Gallagher, "Collisional energy transfer between excited-state strontium and noble-gas atoms," Phys. Rev. A 46, 1303-1309 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Beitia, F. Castao, M. N. Sanchez Rayo, and D. Husain, "Time-dependent study of the dynamics of the collision-induced intramultiplet mixing of Ca(4s4p(PJ3)) by helium at 750 K following pulsed dye-laser generation of Ca(4s4p(P13))," Chem. Phys. 166, 275-285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. F. Kelly, M. Harris, J. Cooper, and A. Gallagher, "Competition of stimulated Raman and collision-induced stimulated emission in Sr," AIP Conf. Proc. 205, 87 (1989).

1988

W. H. Breckenridge and C. N. Merrow, "Nascent state distributions of Ca(4s3dD21), Ca(4s3dDJ3), and Ca(4s4pPJ3) in the collisional deactivation of Ca(4s4pP11) by the rare gases," J. Chem. Phys. 88, 2320-2328 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

M. Harris, D. R. McHugh, E. L. Lewis, I. Shannon, and M. Zokai, "Saturation of the calcium singlet resonance line and excitation transfer by collisions with rare gases," J. Phys. B 20, 5575-5583 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Lellouch and L. R. Hunter, "Measurement of the 4s4p1P-4s3d1D spontaneous emission rate in calcium by use of a Stark-electric-quadrupole interference," Phys. Rev. A 36, 3490-3493 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1985

D. J. Heinzen, J. E. Thomas, and M. S. Feld, "Coherent ringing in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 677-680 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

M. Gross and S. Haroche, "Superradiance: an essay on the theory of collective spontaneous emission," Phys. Rep. 93, 301-396 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

F. P. Mattar, H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, and M. S. Feld, "Transverse effects in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1123-1126 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Diffenderfer, P. J. Dagdigian, and D. R. Yarkony, "Spin-forbidden radiative transitions in atomic Ca," J. Phys. B 14, 21-27 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. J. Wright and L. C. Balling, "P11-->P13 excitation transfer for Ca and Sr with the noble gases," J. Chem. Phys. 73, 1617-1619 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Andreev, V. I. Emelyanov, and Yu. A. IIinskii, "Collective spontaneous emissions (Dicke superradiance)," Sov. Phys. Usp. 23, 493-514 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. F. H. Schuurmans, "Superfluorescence and amplified spontaneous emission in an inhomogeneously broadened medium," Opt. Commun. 34, 185-189 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

R. Bonifacio, J. D. Farina, and L. M. Narducci, "Transverse effects in superfluorescence," Opt. Commun. 31, 377-382 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. Haake, H. King, G. Schroder, J. Haus, and R. Glauber, "Fluctuations in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. A 20, 2047-2063 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. Polder, M. F. H. Schuurmans, and Q. H. F. Vrehen, "Superfluorescence: quantum-mechanical derivation of Maxwell-Bloch description with fluctuating field source," Phys. Rev. A 19, 1192-1203 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. Haake, H. King, G. Schroder, J. Haus, R. Glauber, and F. Hopf, "Macroscopic quantum fluctuations in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1740-1743 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Bowden and C. C. Sung, "Transient effects of dephasing and relaxation in cooperative evolution among three-level systems: II," Phys. Rev. A 20, 2033-2039 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

B. E. Wilcomb and P. J. Dagdigian, "Visible chemiluminescence from the reaction of metastable Sr with N2O: absolute cross section and photon yield," J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1779-1781 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Bowden and C. C. Sung, "Cooperative behavior among three-level systems: transient effects of coherent optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 18, 1558-1570 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

D. J. Benard and W. D. Slater, "Mechanism of chemiluminescent chain reactions in Mg catalyzed N2O-CO flames," J. Chem. Phys. 66, 1017-1020 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, Q. H. F. Vrehen, and H. M. J. Hikspoors, "Single-pulse superfluorescence in cesium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 547-550 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

J. C. MacGillivray and M. S. Feld, "Theory of superradiance in an extended, optically thick medium," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1169-1189 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

P. S. Furcinitti, J. J. Wright, and L. C. Balling, "A measurement of the P13 metastable state in Ca," Phys. Lett. 53A, 75-76 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. Bonifacio and L. A. Lugiato, "Cooperative radiation processes in two-level systems: superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. A 11, 1507-1521 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

C. R. Jones and H. P. Broida, "Gas-phase reaction of Ba with N2O. I. Measurement of production efficiency of excited states," J. Chem. Phys. 60, 4369-4376 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

N. Skribanowitz, J. P. Herman, J. C. MacGillivray, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of Dicke superradiance in optically pumped HF gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309-312 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971

R. Bonifacio, P. Schwendimann, and F. Haake, "Quantum statistical theory of superradiance. I," Phys. Rev. A 4, 302-313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

N. E. Rehler and J. H. Eberly, "Superradiance," Phys. Rev. A 3, 1735-1751 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

G. S. Agarwal, "Master-equation approach to spontaneous emission," Phys. Rev. A 2, 2038-2046 (1970).
[CrossRef]

F. T. Arecchi and E. Courtens, "Cooperative phenomena in resonant electromagnetic propagation," Phys. Rev. A 2, 1730-1737 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

P. P. Sorokin and J. R. Lankard, "Infrared laser action in Sr vapor resulting from optical pumping and inelastic collisions," Phys. Rev. 186, 342-343 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, G. S.

G. S. Agarwal, "Master-equation approach to spontaneous emission," Phys. Rev. A 2, 2038-2046 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Amezian, K.

J. Meziane, S. Oullemine, K. Amezian, and E. Boursey, "Competition between collective and stimulated effects in Te2130 superluorescence," Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 573578 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, C. E.

T. W. Karras, R. S. Anderson, B. G. Bricks, and C. E. Anderson, "Visible cooperative emission in incoherently excited copper vapor," in Cooperative Effects in Matter and Radiation, C.M.Bowden, D.W.Howgate, and H.R.Robl, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1977), pp. 101-113.
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. S.

T. W. Karras, R. S. Anderson, B. G. Bricks, and C. E. Anderson, "Visible cooperative emission in incoherently excited copper vapor," in Cooperative Effects in Matter and Radiation, C.M.Bowden, D.W.Howgate, and H.R.Robl, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1977), pp. 101-113.
[CrossRef]

Anderson, S.

M. Hogan, C. Pellegrini, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Varfolomeev, S. Anderson, K. Bishofberger, P. Frigola, A. Murokh, N. Osmanov, S. Reiche, and A. Tremaine, "Measurements of high gain and intensity fluctuations in a self-amplified, spontaneous-emission free-electron laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 289292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, A. V.

A. V. Andreev, V. I. Emelyanov, and Yu. A. IIinskii, "Collective spontaneous emissions (Dicke superradiance)," Sov. Phys. Usp. 23, 493-514 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Arecchi, F. T.

F. T. Arecchi and E. Courtens, "Cooperative phenomena in resonant electromagnetic propagation," Phys. Rev. A 2, 1730-1737 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Balling, L. C.

J. J. Wright and L. C. Balling, "P11-->P13 excitation transfer for Ca and Sr with the noble gases," J. Chem. Phys. 73, 1617-1619 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Furcinitti, J. J. Wright, and L. C. Balling, "A measurement of the P13 metastable state in Ca," Phys. Lett. 53A, 75-76 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Beitia, F.

F. Beitia, F. Castao, M. N. Sanchez Rayo, and D. Husain, "Time-dependent study of the dynamics of the collision-induced intramultiplet mixing of Ca(4s4p(PJ3)) by helium at 750 K following pulsed dye-laser generation of Ca(4s4p(P13))," Chem. Phys. 166, 275-285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Benard, D. J.

D. J. Benard and W. D. Slater, "Mechanism of chemiluminescent chain reactions in Mg catalyzed N2O-CO flames," J. Chem. Phys. 66, 1017-1020 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bishofberger, K.

M. Hogan, C. Pellegrini, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Varfolomeev, S. Anderson, K. Bishofberger, P. Frigola, A. Murokh, N. Osmanov, S. Reiche, and A. Tremaine, "Measurements of high gain and intensity fluctuations in a self-amplified, spontaneous-emission free-electron laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 289292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bonifacio, R.

R. Bonifacio, J. D. Farina, and L. M. Narducci, "Transverse effects in superfluorescence," Opt. Commun. 31, 377-382 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Bonifacio and L. A. Lugiato, "Cooperative radiation processes in two-level systems: superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. A 11, 1507-1521 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. Bonifacio, P. Schwendimann, and F. Haake, "Quantum statistical theory of superradiance. I," Phys. Rev. A 4, 302-313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. Bonifacio, M. Gronchi, L. A. Lugiato, and A. M. Ricca, in Ref. , p. 193.

R. Bonifacio, M. Gronchi, and L. A. Lugiato, "Superfluorescence: Maxwell-Bloch equations, mean-field approach, and Cs experiment," in Coherence and Quantum Optics IV, L.Mandel and E.Wolf, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1978), p. 939-951.
[CrossRef]

Boursey, E.

J. Meziane, S. Oullemine, K. Amezian, and E. Boursey, "Competition between collective and stimulated effects in Te2130 superluorescence," Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 573578 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Boursey, J. Meziane, and A. Topouzkhanian, "Superfluorescence beats in Te2125 emission," Phys. Rev. A 48, 30473050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

C. M. Bowden and C. C. Sung, "Transient effects of dephasing and relaxation in cooperative evolution among three-level systems: II," Phys. Rev. A 20, 2033-2039 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Bowden and C. C. Sung, "Cooperative behavior among three-level systems: transient effects of coherent optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 18, 1558-1570 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Breckenridge, W. H.

W. H. Breckenridge and C. N. Merrow, "Nascent state distributions of Ca(4s3dD21), Ca(4s3dDJ3), and Ca(4s4pPJ3) in the collisional deactivation of Ca(4s4pP11) by the rare gases," J. Chem. Phys. 88, 2320-2328 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bricks, B. G.

T. W. Karras, R. S. Anderson, B. G. Bricks, and C. E. Anderson, "Visible cooperative emission in incoherently excited copper vapor," in Cooperative Effects in Matter and Radiation, C.M.Bowden, D.W.Howgate, and H.R.Robl, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1977), pp. 101-113.
[CrossRef]

Broida, H. P.

C. R. Jones and H. P. Broida, "Gas-phase reaction of Ba with N2O. I. Measurement of production efficiency of excited states," J. Chem. Phys. 60, 4369-4376 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bullough, R. K.

R. K. Bullough and R. Saunders, "Theory of FIR fluorescence", in Cooperative Effects in Matter and Radiation, M.Bowden, D.W.Hargate, and H.R.Robl, eds. (Plenum, 1977), pp. 209-256.

Carlsten, J. L.

Carter, S. J.

P. D. Drummond, J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, D. B. Hirst, and S. J. Carter, "Phase waves in mode-locked superfluorescent lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 836-839 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Castao, F.

F. Beitia, F. Castao, M. N. Sanchez Rayo, and D. Husain, "Time-dependent study of the dynamics of the collision-induced intramultiplet mixing of Ca(4s4p(PJ3)) by helium at 750 K following pulsed dye-laser generation of Ca(4s4p(P13))," Chem. Phys. 166, 275-285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chudasama, S.

A. Kumarakrishnan, S. Chudasama, and X. L. Han, "Superfluorescence polarization: signature of collisional redistribution," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J.

D. A. Miller, L. You, J. Cooper, and A. Gallagher, "Collisional energy transfer between excited-state strontium and noble-gas atoms," Phys. Rev. A 46, 1303-1309 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Kelly, M. Harris, J. Cooper, and A. Gallagher, "Competition of stimulated Raman and collision-induced stimulated emission in Sr," AIP Conf. Proc. 205, 87 (1989).

Corney, A.

A. Corney, Atomic and Laser Spectroscopy (Oxford, New York, 1977).

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F. T. Arecchi and E. Courtens, "Cooperative phenomena in resonant electromagnetic propagation," Phys. Rev. A 2, 1730-1737 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Dagdigian, P. J.

R. N. Diffenderfer, P. J. Dagdigian, and D. R. Yarkony, "Spin-forbidden radiative transitions in atomic Ca," J. Phys. B 14, 21-27 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Wilcomb and P. J. Dagdigian, "Visible chemiluminescence from the reaction of metastable Sr with N2O: absolute cross section and photon yield," J. Chem. Phys. 69, 1779-1781 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Diffenderfer, R. N.

R. N. Diffenderfer, P. J. Dagdigian, and D. R. Yarkony, "Spin-forbidden radiative transitions in atomic Ca," J. Phys. B 14, 21-27 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, P. D.

P. D. Drummond, J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, D. B. Hirst, and S. J. Carter, "Phase waves in mode-locked superfluorescent lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 836-839 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

P. D. Drummond, J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, D. B. Hirst, and S. J. Carter, "Phase waves in mode-locked superfluorescent lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 836-839 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

N. E. Rehler and J. H. Eberly, "Superradiance," Phys. Rev. A 3, 1735-1751 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Emelyanov, V. I.

A. V. Andreev, V. I. Emelyanov, and Yu. A. IIinskii, "Collective spontaneous emissions (Dicke superradiance)," Sov. Phys. Usp. 23, 493-514 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Farina, J. D.

R. Bonifacio, J. D. Farina, and L. M. Narducci, "Transverse effects in superfluorescence," Opt. Commun. 31, 377-382 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

D. J. Heinzen, J. E. Thomas, and M. S. Feld, "Coherent ringing in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 677-680 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. P. Mattar, H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, and M. S. Feld, "Transverse effects in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1123-1126 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. C. MacGillivray and M. S. Feld, "Theory of superradiance in an extended, optically thick medium," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1169-1189 (1976).
[CrossRef]

N. Skribanowitz, J. P. Herman, J. C. MacGillivray, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of Dicke superradiance in optically pumped HF gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309-312 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Frigola, P.

M. Hogan, C. Pellegrini, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Varfolomeev, S. Anderson, K. Bishofberger, P. Frigola, A. Murokh, N. Osmanov, S. Reiche, and A. Tremaine, "Measurements of high gain and intensity fluctuations in a self-amplified, spontaneous-emission free-electron laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 289292 (1998).
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P. S. Furcinitti, J. J. Wright, and L. C. Balling, "A measurement of the P13 metastable state in Ca," Phys. Lett. 53A, 75-76 (1975).
[CrossRef]

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D. A. Miller, L. You, J. Cooper, and A. Gallagher, "Collisional energy transfer between excited-state strontium and noble-gas atoms," Phys. Rev. A 46, 1303-1309 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Kelly, M. Harris, J. Cooper, and A. Gallagher, "Competition of stimulated Raman and collision-induced stimulated emission in Sr," AIP Conf. Proc. 205, 87 (1989).

Gibbs, H. M.

F. P. Mattar, H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, and M. S. Feld, "Transverse effects in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1123-1126 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, Q. H. F. Vrehen, and H. M. J. Hikspoors, "Single-pulse superfluorescence in cesium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 547-550 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. F. Vrehen and H. M. Gibbs, "Superfluorescence experiments," in Dissipative Systems in Quantum Optics, R.Bonifacio, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982), pp. 111-147.
[CrossRef]

M. F. H. Schuurmans, Q. H. F. Vrehen, D. Polder, and H. M. Gibbs, "Superfluorescence," in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D.Bates and B.Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1981), pp. 167-228.

Glauber, R.

F. Haake, H. King, G. Schroder, J. Haus, R. Glauber, and F. Hopf, "Macroscopic quantum fluctuations in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1740-1743 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. Haake, H. King, G. Schroder, J. Haus, and R. Glauber, "Fluctuations in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. A 20, 2047-2063 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gronchi, M.

R. Bonifacio, M. Gronchi, and L. A. Lugiato, "Superfluorescence: Maxwell-Bloch equations, mean-field approach, and Cs experiment," in Coherence and Quantum Optics IV, L.Mandel and E.Wolf, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1978), p. 939-951.
[CrossRef]

R. Bonifacio, M. Gronchi, L. A. Lugiato, and A. M. Ricca, in Ref. , p. 193.

Gross, M.

M. Gross and S. Haroche, "Superradiance: an essay on the theory of collective spontaneous emission," Phys. Rep. 93, 301-396 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Haake, F.

F. Haake, H. King, G. Schroder, J. Haus, and R. Glauber, "Fluctuations in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. A 20, 2047-2063 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. Haake, H. King, G. Schroder, J. Haus, R. Glauber, and F. Hopf, "Macroscopic quantum fluctuations in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1740-1743 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Bonifacio, P. Schwendimann, and F. Haake, "Quantum statistical theory of superradiance. I," Phys. Rev. A 4, 302-313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Han, X. L.

A. Kumarakrishnan, S. Chudasama, and X. L. Han, "Superfluorescence polarization: signature of collisional redistribution," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumarakrishnan and X. L. Han, "Superfluorescence from optically trapped calcium atoms," Phys. Rev. A 58, 4153-4162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumarakrishnan and X. L. Han, "Investigations of superfluorescent cascades," Opt. Commun. 109, 348-360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

M. Gross and S. Haroche, "Superradiance: an essay on the theory of collective spontaneous emission," Phys. Rep. 93, 301-396 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Harris, M.

J. F. Kelly, M. Harris, J. Cooper, and A. Gallagher, "Competition of stimulated Raman and collision-induced stimulated emission in Sr," AIP Conf. Proc. 205, 87 (1989).

M. Harris, D. R. McHugh, E. L. Lewis, I. Shannon, and M. Zokai, "Saturation of the calcium singlet resonance line and excitation transfer by collisions with rare gases," J. Phys. B 20, 5575-5583 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, S. R.

A. I. Lvovsky, S. R. Hartmann, and F. Moshary, "Superfluorescence-stimulated photon echoes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 263602-263605 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harvey, J. D.

P. D. Drummond, J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, D. B. Hirst, and S. J. Carter, "Phase waves in mode-locked superfluorescent lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 836-839 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haus, J.

F. Haake, H. King, G. Schroder, J. Haus, R. Glauber, and F. Hopf, "Macroscopic quantum fluctuations in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1740-1743 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. Haake, H. King, G. Schroder, J. Haus, and R. Glauber, "Fluctuations in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. A 20, 2047-2063 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Heinzen, D. J.

D. J. Heinzen, J. E. Thomas, and M. S. Feld, "Coherent ringing in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 677-680 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herman, J. P.

N. Skribanowitz, J. P. Herman, J. C. MacGillivray, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of Dicke superradiance in optically pumped HF gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309-312 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hikspoors, H. M.

H. M. Gibbs, Q. H. F. Vrehen, and H. M. J. Hikspoors, "Single-pulse superfluorescence in cesium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 547-550 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hirst, D. B.

P. D. Drummond, J. D. Harvey, J. M. Dudley, D. B. Hirst, and S. J. Carter, "Phase waves in mode-locked superfluorescent lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 836-839 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hogan, M.

M. Hogan, C. Pellegrini, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Varfolomeev, S. Anderson, K. Bishofberger, P. Frigola, A. Murokh, N. Osmanov, S. Reiche, and A. Tremaine, "Measurements of high gain and intensity fluctuations in a self-amplified, spontaneous-emission free-electron laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 289292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hopf, F.

F. Haake, H. King, G. Schroder, J. Haus, R. Glauber, and F. Hopf, "Macroscopic quantum fluctuations in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1740-1743 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, L. R.

L. P. Lellouch and L. R. Hunter, "Measurement of the 4s4p1P-4s3d1D spontaneous emission rate in calcium by use of a Stark-electric-quadrupole interference," Phys. Rev. A 36, 3490-3493 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husain, D.

F. Beitia, F. Castao, M. N. Sanchez Rayo, and D. Husain, "Time-dependent study of the dynamics of the collision-induced intramultiplet mixing of Ca(4s4p(PJ3)) by helium at 750 K following pulsed dye-laser generation of Ca(4s4p(P13))," Chem. Phys. 166, 275-285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IIinskii, Yu. A.

A. V. Andreev, V. I. Emelyanov, and Yu. A. IIinskii, "Collective spontaneous emissions (Dicke superradiance)," Sov. Phys. Usp. 23, 493-514 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jones, C. R.

C. R. Jones and H. P. Broida, "Gas-phase reaction of Ba with N2O. I. Measurement of production efficiency of excited states," J. Chem. Phys. 60, 4369-4376 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Karras, T. W.

T. W. Karras, R. S. Anderson, B. G. Bricks, and C. E. Anderson, "Visible cooperative emission in incoherently excited copper vapor," in Cooperative Effects in Matter and Radiation, C.M.Bowden, D.W.Howgate, and H.R.Robl, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1977), pp. 101-113.
[CrossRef]

Kelly, J. F.

J. F. Kelly, M. Harris, J. Cooper, and A. Gallagher, "Competition of stimulated Raman and collision-induced stimulated emission in Sr," AIP Conf. Proc. 205, 87 (1989).

King, H.

F. Haake, H. King, G. Schroder, J. Haus, R. Glauber, and F. Hopf, "Macroscopic quantum fluctuations in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1740-1743 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. Haake, H. King, G. Schroder, J. Haus, and R. Glauber, "Fluctuations in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. A 20, 2047-2063 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kneubuhl, F. K.

D. P. Scherrer and F. K. Kneubuhl, "New phenomena related to pulsed far-infrared superradiant and Raman emissions," Infrared Phys. 34, 227-267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kumarakrishnan, A.

A. Kumarakrishnan, S. Chudasama, and X. L. Han, "Superfluorescence polarization: signature of collisional redistribution," Phys. Rev. A 68, 033801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumarakrishnan and X. L. Han, "Superfluorescence from optically trapped calcium atoms," Phys. Rev. A 58, 4153-4162 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumarakrishnan and X. L. Han, "Investigations of superfluorescent cascades," Opt. Commun. 109, 348-360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Kumarakrishnan, "An experimental investigation of superfluorescence in atomic calcium," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, 1992).

Lankard, J. R.

P. P. Sorokin and J. R. Lankard, "Infrared laser action in Sr vapor resulting from optical pumping and inelastic collisions," Phys. Rev. 186, 342-343 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lellouch, L. P.

L. P. Lellouch and L. R. Hunter, "Measurement of the 4s4p1P-4s3d1D spontaneous emission rate in calcium by use of a Stark-electric-quadrupole interference," Phys. Rev. A 36, 3490-3493 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, E. L.

M. Harris, D. R. McHugh, E. L. Lewis, I. Shannon, and M. Zokai, "Saturation of the calcium singlet resonance line and excitation transfer by collisions with rare gases," J. Phys. B 20, 5575-5583 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lugiato, L. A.

R. Bonifacio and L. A. Lugiato, "Cooperative radiation processes in two-level systems: superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. A 11, 1507-1521 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. Bonifacio, M. Gronchi, and L. A. Lugiato, "Superfluorescence: Maxwell-Bloch equations, mean-field approach, and Cs experiment," in Coherence and Quantum Optics IV, L.Mandel and E.Wolf, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1978), p. 939-951.
[CrossRef]

R. Bonifacio, M. Gronchi, L. A. Lugiato, and A. M. Ricca, in Ref. , p. 193.

Lvovsky, A. I.

A. I. Lvovsky, S. R. Hartmann, and F. Moshary, "Superfluorescence-stimulated photon echoes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 263602-263605 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacGillivray, J. C.

J. C. MacGillivray and M. S. Feld, "Theory of superradiance in an extended, optically thick medium," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1169-1189 (1976).
[CrossRef]

N. Skribanowitz, J. P. Herman, J. C. MacGillivray, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of Dicke superradiance in optically pumped HF gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309-312 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Mattar, F. P.

F. P. Mattar, H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, and M. S. Feld, "Transverse effects in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1123-1126 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

F. P. Mattar, H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, and M. S. Feld, "Transverse effects in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1123-1126 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McHugh, D. R.

M. Harris, D. R. McHugh, E. L. Lewis, I. Shannon, and M. Zokai, "Saturation of the calcium singlet resonance line and excitation transfer by collisions with rare gases," J. Phys. B 20, 5575-5583 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Merrow, C. N.

W. H. Breckenridge and C. N. Merrow, "Nascent state distributions of Ca(4s3dD21), Ca(4s3dDJ3), and Ca(4s4pPJ3) in the collisional deactivation of Ca(4s4pP11) by the rare gases," J. Chem. Phys. 88, 2320-2328 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Meziane, J.

J. Meziane, S. Oullemine, K. Amezian, and E. Boursey, "Competition between collective and stimulated effects in Te2130 superluorescence," Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 573578 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Boursey, J. Meziane, and A. Topouzkhanian, "Superfluorescence beats in Te2125 emission," Phys. Rev. A 48, 30473050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Miles, B. M.

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, and B. M. Miles, Atomic Transition Probabilities, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ. No. 22 (U.S. GPO, Washington, DC, 1969).

Miller, D. A.

D. A. Miller, L. You, J. Cooper, and A. Gallagher, "Collisional energy transfer between excited-state strontium and noble-gas atoms," Phys. Rev. A 46, 1303-1309 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, T. A.

A. D. Tserepi, E. Wurzberg, and T. A. Miller, "Two-photon-excited stimulated emission from atomic oxygen in rf plasmas: detection and estimation of its threshold," Chem. Phys. Lett. 265, 297-302 (1997).
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A. D. Tserepi and T. A. Miller, "Spatially and temporally resolved absolute O-atom concentrations in etching plasmas," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 505-511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moshary, F.

A. I. Lvovsky, S. R. Hartmann, and F. Moshary, "Superfluorescence-stimulated photon echoes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 263602-263605 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murokh, A.

M. Hogan, C. Pellegrini, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Varfolomeev, S. Anderson, K. Bishofberger, P. Frigola, A. Murokh, N. Osmanov, S. Reiche, and A. Tremaine, "Measurements of high gain and intensity fluctuations in a self-amplified, spontaneous-emission free-electron laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 289292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Narducci, L. M.

R. Bonifacio, J. D. Farina, and L. M. Narducci, "Transverse effects in superfluorescence," Opt. Commun. 31, 377-382 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Osmanov, N.

M. Hogan, C. Pellegrini, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Varfolomeev, S. Anderson, K. Bishofberger, P. Frigola, A. Murokh, N. Osmanov, S. Reiche, and A. Tremaine, "Measurements of high gain and intensity fluctuations in a self-amplified, spontaneous-emission free-electron laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 289292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oullemine, S.

J. Meziane, S. Oullemine, K. Amezian, and E. Boursey, "Competition between collective and stimulated effects in Te2130 superluorescence," Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 573578 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrini, C.

M. Hogan, C. Pellegrini, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Varfolomeev, S. Anderson, K. Bishofberger, P. Frigola, A. Murokh, N. Osmanov, S. Reiche, and A. Tremaine, "Measurements of high gain and intensity fluctuations in a self-amplified, spontaneous-emission free-electron laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 289292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Polder, D.

D. Polder, M. F. H. Schuurmans, and Q. H. F. Vrehen, "Superfluorescence: quantum-mechanical derivation of Maxwell-Bloch description with fluctuating field source," Phys. Rev. A 19, 1192-1203 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. F. H. Schuurmans, Q. H. F. Vrehen, D. Polder, and H. M. Gibbs, "Superfluorescence," in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D.Bates and B.Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1981), pp. 167-228.

Rayo, M. N.

F. Beitia, F. Castao, M. N. Sanchez Rayo, and D. Husain, "Time-dependent study of the dynamics of the collision-induced intramultiplet mixing of Ca(4s4p(PJ3)) by helium at 750 K following pulsed dye-laser generation of Ca(4s4p(P13))," Chem. Phys. 166, 275-285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rehler, N. E.

N. E. Rehler and J. H. Eberly, "Superradiance," Phys. Rev. A 3, 1735-1751 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Reiche, S.

M. Hogan, C. Pellegrini, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Varfolomeev, S. Anderson, K. Bishofberger, P. Frigola, A. Murokh, N. Osmanov, S. Reiche, and A. Tremaine, "Measurements of high gain and intensity fluctuations in a self-amplified, spontaneous-emission free-electron laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 289292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ricca, A. M.

R. Bonifacio, M. Gronchi, L. A. Lugiato, and A. M. Ricca, in Ref. , p. 193.

Rosenzweig, J.

M. Hogan, C. Pellegrini, J. Rosenzweig, G. Travish, A. Varfolomeev, S. Anderson, K. Bishofberger, P. Frigola, A. Murokh, N. Osmanov, S. Reiche, and A. Tremaine, "Measurements of high gain and intensity fluctuations in a self-amplified, spontaneous-emission free-electron laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 289292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, R.

R. K. Bullough and R. Saunders, "Theory of FIR fluorescence", in Cooperative Effects in Matter and Radiation, M.Bowden, D.W.Hargate, and H.R.Robl, eds. (Plenum, 1977), pp. 209-256.

Scherrer, D. P.

D. P. Scherrer and F. K. Kneubuhl, "New phenomena related to pulsed far-infrared superradiant and Raman emissions," Infrared Phys. 34, 227-267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schroder, G.

F. Haake, H. King, G. Schroder, J. Haus, and R. Glauber, "Fluctuations in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. A 20, 2047-2063 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. Haake, H. King, G. Schroder, J. Haus, R. Glauber, and F. Hopf, "Macroscopic quantum fluctuations in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1740-1743 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Schuurmans, M. F.

M. F. H. Schuurmans, "Superfluorescence and amplified spontaneous emission in an inhomogeneously broadened medium," Opt. Commun. 34, 185-189 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. Polder, M. F. H. Schuurmans, and Q. H. F. Vrehen, "Superfluorescence: quantum-mechanical derivation of Maxwell-Bloch description with fluctuating field source," Phys. Rev. A 19, 1192-1203 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. F. H. Schuurmans, Q. H. F. Vrehen, D. Polder, and H. M. Gibbs, "Superfluorescence," in Advances in Atomic and Molecular Physics, D.Bates and B.Bederson, eds. (Academic, New York, 1981), pp. 167-228.

Schwendimann, P.

R. Bonifacio, P. Schwendimann, and F. Haake, "Quantum statistical theory of superradiance. I," Phys. Rev. A 4, 302-313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, I.

M. Harris, D. R. McHugh, E. L. Lewis, I. Shannon, and M. Zokai, "Saturation of the calcium singlet resonance line and excitation transfer by collisions with rare gases," J. Phys. B 20, 5575-5583 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Skribanowitz, N.

N. Skribanowitz, J. P. Herman, J. C. MacGillivray, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of Dicke superradiance in optically pumped HF gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 309-312 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Slater, W. D.

D. J. Benard and W. D. Slater, "Mechanism of chemiluminescent chain reactions in Mg catalyzed N2O-CO flames," J. Chem. Phys. 66, 1017-1020 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. W.

W. L. Wiese, M. W. Smith, and B. M. Miles, Atomic Transition Probabilities, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Circ. No. 22 (U.S. GPO, Washington, DC, 1969).

Sorokin, P. P.

P. P. Sorokin and J. R. Lankard, "Infrared laser action in Sr vapor resulting from optical pumping and inelastic collisions," Phys. Rev. 186, 342-343 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Sung, C. C.

C. M. Bowden and C. C. Sung, "Transient effects of dephasing and relaxation in cooperative evolution among three-level systems: II," Phys. Rev. A 20, 2033-2039 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Bowden and C. C. Sung, "Cooperative behavior among three-level systems: transient effects of coherent optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 18, 1558-1570 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Telle, J. M.

Thomas, J. E.

D. J. Heinzen, J. E. Thomas, and M. S. Feld, "Coherent ringing in superfluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 677-680 (1985).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ca energy level diagram. Wavy lines show SF transitions; dashed lines show collisional channels; the solid line is the pump transition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of experiment. C, cell with Ca and Ar; D, detector; S, oscilloscope; F, filter or spectrometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time delay of 1.9 - μ m SF measured from the beginning of the pump pulse versus SF photon yield N. Ar pressure is 405 Torr; pump beam diameter is 0.19 cm; [ S 0 1 ] = 3.9 × 10 14 ; circles represent the data; dashed line is 1 N predicted by Eq. (1) with N replaced by N ; dotted line is 1 N dependence predicted by Eq. (1); solid line is the power law fit to the data by a N x + b , which gives x ́ = 0.37 ± 0.050 and b = 9.4 ± 5.0 ns .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Photon yield of 1.9 - μ m SF as a function of Ar pressure. Dots represent the data; solid curve is the result of the model discussed in the text for the population of the D J 3 level. There was no scaling to match the photon yield with the calculated population. The drop in SF photon yield above 700 Torr is attributed to collisional dephasing, an effect that is ignored by the model. (b) Absolute photon yields for 5.5 - μ m (triangles) and 1.9 - μ m (circles) SF emissions as a function of Ar pressure. In both (a) and (b) the error in the measured photon yields is ± 15 % .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Oscilloscope traces showing 1.97 - μ m SF pulses for four different photon yields N. Ar pressure is 766 Torr; pump beam diameter is 0.19 cm; horizontal time base is 25 ns division. Pump pulses are positive going and SF pulses are negative going because of bias voltages of respective detectors. Two records are overlayed in each graph; the first shows the pump pulse and corresponding SF pulse for a single shot; the second shows the average values of the pump and SF pulses obtained by averaging 256 repetitions. Zeros for SF and pump pulses are shown at the top and bottom of the graphs, respectively. (a) N = 5.9 × 10 13 , S = 73 ; (b) N = 2.2 × 10 13 , S = 45 ; (c) N = 7.2 × 10 12 , S = 25 ; (d) N = 4.6 × 10 12 , S = 20 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Oscilloscope traces showing 1.9 - μ m SF pulses for four different pump beam diameters D. Ar pressure is 405 Torr; horizontal time base is 25 ns division ; vertical scale for SF pulses are 10 mV division for (a) and (b), 20 mV division for (c), and 100 mV division for (d), Pump pulses are positive going and SF pulses are negative going because of bias voltages of the respective detectors. Two records are overlayed in each graph: the first shows the pump pulse and corresponding SF pulse for a single shot; the second shows the average values of the pump and SF pulses obtained by averaging 256 repetitions. Zeros for SF and pump pulses are shown at the top and bottom of the graphs, respectively. (a) D = 0.064 cm , (b) D = 0.076 cm , (c) D = 0.19 cm , (d) D = 0.38 cm .

Equations (5)

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T D = τ R [ 1 4 ln ( 2 π N ) ] 2 ,
d N P 1 1 d t = Γ T P D N P 1 1 ,
d N D 2 1 d t = Γ T D D N D 2 1 ,
d N D J 3 d t = Γ T P D N P 1 1 + Γ T D D N D 2 1 .
N D J 3 = Γ T P D ( 0 τ SF N P 1 1 d t + τ SF τ C N P 1 1 d t ) + Γ T D D τ SF τ C N D 2 1 d t .

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