Abstract

A new method, to our knowledge, for use in the ultraviolet spectral range was developed for the direct measurement of the group-velocity mismatch (GVM) between two ultrashort pulses. It is based on a standard pump–probe spectroscopic arrangement. From the measured wavelength dependence of the GVM, the refractive-index dispersion can be determined if refractive-index data at one reference wavelength are known. The GVM was measured, and dispersion formulas were derived at room temperature in the 230 to 640 nm spectral range for 2-propanol, acetonitrile, cyclohexane, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethylene glycol, methanol, n-hexane, toluene, and water. The results obtained for water show a good agreement with available experimental data.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Walmsley, L. Waxer, and C. Dorrer, "The role of dispersion in ultrafast optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1-29 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Ch. Wohlfarth and B. Wohlfarth, "Refractive indices of organic liquids," in Landolt-Börnstein, Vol. 38 B of New Series III (Springer-Verlag, 1996), pp. 1-421.
  3. H. Voellmy, "Über die Dispersion ultravioletter Strahlen durch flüssige organische Substanzen," Z. Phys. Chem., Stoechiom. Verwandtschaftsl. 127, 305-357 (1927).
  4. C. C. Evans and E. J. Evans, "XVI. The magneto-optical dispersion of some organic liquids in the ultra-violet region of the spectrum," Philos. Mag. 8, 137-158 (1929).
  5. J. W. Gifford and T. M. Lowry, "Some refractive indices of benzene and cyclohexane," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 104, 430-437 (1923).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. D. T. Huibers, "Models for the wavelength dependence of the index of refraction of water," Appl. Opt. 36, 3785-3787 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Samoc, "Dispersion of the refractive properties of solvents: chloroform, toluene, benzene, and carbon disulfide in ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6167-6174 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. M. Lowry and S. T. Henderson, "Molecular structure and physical properties of prussic acid. Part I. - Refractive dispersion of prussic acid and its homolgues," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 136, 471-487 (1932).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. B. Allsopp and H. F. Willis, "Refractive index of organic compounds VIII - isomers of the formula C4H8O2: dioxan, ethyl acetate, iso-butyric acid, and acetoin," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 153, 392-406 (1936).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Tunable sub-10-fs ultraviolet pulses generated by achromatic frequency doubling," Opt. Lett. 29, 1686-1688 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachmann, L. K. Cheng, W. R. Bosenberg, and C. L. Tang, "Femtosecond ultraviolet pulse generation in beta-BaB2O4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2211-2213 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. W. Austin and G. Halikas, "The index of refraction of seawater," Tech. Rep. No. SIO Ref. 76-1 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1976).
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    [CrossRef]
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2004 (3)

2003 (3)

2001 (1)

I. Walmsley, L. Waxer, and C. Dorrer, "The role of dispersion in ultrafast optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1-29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

X. Quan and E. S. Fry, "Empirical equation for the index of refraction of seawater," Appl. Opt. 34, 3477-3480 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kerl and H. Varchmin, "Refractive index dispersion (RID) of some liquids in the UV/VIS between 20°C and 60°C," J. Mol. Struct. 349, 257-260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachmann, L. K. Cheng, W. R. Bosenberg, and C. L. Tang, "Femtosecond ultraviolet pulse generation in beta-BaB2O4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2211-2213 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1968 (1)

W. M. Irvine and J. B. Pollack, "Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres," Icarus 8, 324-360 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1936 (1)

C. B. Allsopp and H. F. Willis, "Refractive index of organic compounds VIII - isomers of the formula C4H8O2: dioxan, ethyl acetate, iso-butyric acid, and acetoin," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 153, 392-406 (1936).
[CrossRef]

1932 (1)

T. M. Lowry and S. T. Henderson, "Molecular structure and physical properties of prussic acid. Part I. - Refractive dispersion of prussic acid and its homolgues," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 136, 471-487 (1932).
[CrossRef]

1929 (1)

C. C. Evans and E. J. Evans, "XVI. The magneto-optical dispersion of some organic liquids in the ultra-violet region of the spectrum," Philos. Mag. 8, 137-158 (1929).

1927 (1)

H. Voellmy, "Über die Dispersion ultravioletter Strahlen durch flüssige organische Substanzen," Z. Phys. Chem., Stoechiom. Verwandtschaftsl. 127, 305-357 (1927).

1923 (1)

J. W. Gifford and T. M. Lowry, "Some refractive indices of benzene and cyclohexane," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 104, 430-437 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Allsopp, C. B.

C. B. Allsopp and H. F. Willis, "Refractive index of organic compounds VIII - isomers of the formula C4H8O2: dioxan, ethyl acetate, iso-butyric acid, and acetoin," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 153, 392-406 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin and G. Halikas, "The index of refraction of seawater," Tech. Rep. No. SIO Ref. 76-1 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1976).

Baum, P.

Beutter, M.

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bialkowski, S.

S. Bialkowski, "Thermal, optical, and physical properties of common solvents," http://www.chem.usu.edu/∼sbialkow/Research/Tablevalues.html (2003).

Borowicz, P.

Bosenberg, W. R.

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachmann, L. K. Cheng, W. R. Bosenberg, and C. L. Tang, "Femtosecond ultraviolet pulse generation in beta-BaB2O4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2211-2213 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. K.

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachmann, L. K. Cheng, W. R. Bosenberg, and C. L. Tang, "Femtosecond ultraviolet pulse generation in beta-BaB2O4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2211-2213 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dorrer, C.

I. Walmsley, L. Waxer, and C. Dorrer, "The role of dispersion in ultrafast optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1-29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Edelstein, D. C.

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachmann, L. K. Cheng, W. R. Bosenberg, and C. L. Tang, "Femtosecond ultraviolet pulse generation in beta-BaB2O4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2211-2213 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. C.

C. C. Evans and E. J. Evans, "XVI. The magneto-optical dispersion of some organic liquids in the ultra-violet region of the spectrum," Philos. Mag. 8, 137-158 (1929).

Evans, E. J.

C. C. Evans and E. J. Evans, "XVI. The magneto-optical dispersion of some organic liquids in the ultra-violet region of the spectrum," Philos. Mag. 8, 137-158 (1929).

Feuerhake, M.

Fry, E. S.

Gifford, J. W.

J. W. Gifford and T. M. Lowry, "Some refractive indices of benzene and cyclohexane," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 104, 430-437 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Hale, G. M.

Halikas, G.

R. W. Austin and G. Halikas, "The index of refraction of seawater," Tech. Rep. No. SIO Ref. 76-1 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1976).

Henderson, S. T.

T. M. Lowry and S. T. Henderson, "Molecular structure and physical properties of prussic acid. Part I. - Refractive dispersion of prussic acid and its homolgues," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 136, 471-487 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Huibers, P. D.

Irvine, W. M.

W. M. Irvine and J. B. Pollack, "Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres," Icarus 8, 324-360 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Jasny, J.

Kerl, K.

K. Kerl and H. Varchmin, "Refractive index dispersion (RID) of some liquids in the UV/VIS between 20°C and 60°C," J. Mol. Struct. 349, 257-260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kozma, I. Z.

Kurtev, S.

Lentes, F.-T.

F.-T. Lentes, "Optical properties: refractive index and dispersion," in The Properties of Optical Glass, H.Bach and N.Neuroth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 19-37.

Lochbrunner, S.

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Generation of tunable 7-fs ultraviolet pulses: achromatic phase matching and chirp management," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79, 1027-1032 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Tunable sub-10-fs ultraviolet pulses generated by achromatic frequency doubling," Opt. Lett. 29, 1686-1688 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Widely tunable sub-30 fs ultraviolet pulses by chirped sum frequency mixing," Opt. Express 11, 3110-3115 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lowry, T. M.

T. M. Lowry and S. T. Henderson, "Molecular structure and physical properties of prussic acid. Part I. - Refractive dispersion of prussic acid and its homolgues," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 136, 471-487 (1932).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Gifford and T. M. Lowry, "Some refractive indices of benzene and cyclohexane," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 104, 430-437 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Nickel, B.

Piel, J.

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhelm, J. Piel, and E. Riedle, "Sub-20-fs pulses tunable across the visible from a blue-pumped single-pass noncollinear parametric converter," Opt. Lett. 22, 1494-1496 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J. B.

W. M. Irvine and J. B. Pollack, "Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres," Icarus 8, 324-360 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Quan, X.

Querry, M. R.

Riedle, E.

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Generation of tunable 7-fs ultraviolet pulses: achromatic phase matching and chirp management," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79, 1027-1032 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Tunable sub-10-fs ultraviolet pulses generated by achromatic frequency doubling," Opt. Lett. 29, 1686-1688 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Z. Kozma, P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Widely tunable sub-30 fs ultraviolet pulses by chirped sum frequency mixing," Opt. Express 11, 3110-3115 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhelm, J. Piel, and E. Riedle, "Sub-20-fs pulses tunable across the visible from a blue-pumped single-pass noncollinear parametric converter," Opt. Lett. 22, 1494-1496 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sainov, S.

Samoc, A.

A. Samoc, "Dispersion of the refractive properties of solvents: chloroform, toluene, benzene, and carbon disulfide in ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6167-6174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarov, Y.

Schenkl, S.

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P.

Spörlein, S.

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Szatmári, S.

Tang, C. L.

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachmann, L. K. Cheng, W. R. Bosenberg, and C. L. Tang, "Femtosecond ultraviolet pulse generation in beta-BaB2O4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2211-2213 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Varchmin, H.

K. Kerl and H. Varchmin, "Refractive index dispersion (RID) of some liquids in the UV/VIS between 20°C and 60°C," J. Mol. Struct. 349, 257-260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Voellmy, H.

H. Voellmy, "Über die Dispersion ultravioletter Strahlen durch flüssige organische Substanzen," Z. Phys. Chem., Stoechiom. Verwandtschaftsl. 127, 305-357 (1927).

Wachmann, E. S.

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachmann, L. K. Cheng, W. R. Bosenberg, and C. L. Tang, "Femtosecond ultraviolet pulse generation in beta-BaB2O4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2211-2213 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I.

I. Walmsley, L. Waxer, and C. Dorrer, "The role of dispersion in ultrafast optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1-29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Waxer, L.

I. Walmsley, L. Waxer, and C. Dorrer, "The role of dispersion in ultrafast optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1-29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wilhelm, T.

Willis, H. F.

C. B. Allsopp and H. F. Willis, "Refractive index of organic compounds VIII - isomers of the formula C4H8O2: dioxan, ethyl acetate, iso-butyric acid, and acetoin," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 153, 392-406 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Wohlfarth, B.

Ch. Wohlfarth and B. Wohlfarth, "Refractive indices of organic liquids," in Landolt-Börnstein, Vol. 38 B of New Series III (Springer-Verlag, 1996), pp. 1-421.

Wohlfarth, Ch.

Ch. Wohlfarth and B. Wohlfarth, "Refractive indices of organic liquids," in Landolt-Börnstein, Vol. 38 B of New Series III (Springer-Verlag, 1996), pp. 1-421.

Zinth, W.

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. Riedle, M. Beutter, S. Lochbrunner, J. Piel, S. Schenkl, S. Spörlein, and W. Zinth, "Generation of 10 to 50 fs pulses tunable through all of the visible and the NIR," Appl. Phys. B 71, 457-465 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Generation of tunable 7-fs ultraviolet pulses: achromatic phase matching and chirp management," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 79, 1027-1032 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachmann, L. K. Cheng, W. R. Bosenberg, and C. L. Tang, "Femtosecond ultraviolet pulse generation in beta-BaB2O4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2211-2213 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (1)

W. M. Irvine and J. B. Pollack, "Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres," Icarus 8, 324-360 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Samoc, "Dispersion of the refractive properties of solvents: chloroform, toluene, benzene, and carbon disulfide in ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6167-6174 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

K. Kerl and H. Varchmin, "Refractive index dispersion (RID) of some liquids in the UV/VIS between 20°C and 60°C," J. Mol. Struct. 349, 257-260 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Philos. Mag. (1)

C. C. Evans and E. J. Evans, "XVI. The magneto-optical dispersion of some organic liquids in the ultra-violet region of the spectrum," Philos. Mag. 8, 137-158 (1929).

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A (3)

J. W. Gifford and T. M. Lowry, "Some refractive indices of benzene and cyclohexane," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 104, 430-437 (1923).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Lowry and S. T. Henderson, "Molecular structure and physical properties of prussic acid. Part I. - Refractive dispersion of prussic acid and its homolgues," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 136, 471-487 (1932).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Allsopp and H. F. Willis, "Refractive index of organic compounds VIII - isomers of the formula C4H8O2: dioxan, ethyl acetate, iso-butyric acid, and acetoin," Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 153, 392-406 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

I. Walmsley, L. Waxer, and C. Dorrer, "The role of dispersion in ultrafast optics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1-29 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. Chem., Stoechiom. Verwandtschaftsl. (1)

H. Voellmy, "Über die Dispersion ultravioletter Strahlen durch flüssige organische Substanzen," Z. Phys. Chem., Stoechiom. Verwandtschaftsl. 127, 305-357 (1927).

Other (4)

Ch. Wohlfarth and B. Wohlfarth, "Refractive indices of organic liquids," in Landolt-Börnstein, Vol. 38 B of New Series III (Springer-Verlag, 1996), pp. 1-421.

F.-T. Lentes, "Optical properties: refractive index and dispersion," in The Properties of Optical Glass, H.Bach and N.Neuroth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 19-37.

R. W. Austin and G. Halikas, "The index of refraction of seawater," Tech. Rep. No. SIO Ref. 76-1 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1976).

S. Bialkowski, "Thermal, optical, and physical properties of common solvents," http://www.chem.usu.edu/∼sbialkow/Research/Tablevalues.html (2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup: The output of two noncollinearly phase-matched optical parametric amplifiers (NOPAs) is compressed in prism compressors (PCs). The reference pulse (dashed line) is delayed with respect to the other pulse (continuous line) or its second-harmonic generation (SHG) (dotted line). The two pulses are passing parallel to each other through a standard absorption cell and focused with a spherical mirror into a beta-barium borate (BBO) crystal. The cross-correlation signal is detected (SFM) by sum-frequency mixing, for difference-frequency mixing (DFM) with a silicon photodiode when the cell is empty and when it is filled with a solvent. (b) Typical measurement curves obtained for pulses at 589.3 and 230 nm in a 1 mm empty cell (open circles) and a cell filled with 2-propanol (filled circles).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison between the measured GVM values (symbols) and the corresponding curves obtained from dispersion models from the literature for water (squares and solid curve[19]), cyclohexane (triangles and dotted curve[10]), and toluene (circles and dashed curve[7]).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured GVM values (symbols) and the calculated GVM dispersion curves obtained from the derived dispersion formulas for 11 solvents. For DMSO, water and cyclohexane, the Sellmeier formula is used; for all others the Cauchy formula is used (see text).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Difference between the experimental data and the calculated GVM curves obtained from the derived dispersion formulas at the measured wavelengths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of data for the wavelength dependence of the refractive index with the derived dispersion models for water (solid curve),[20, 21] cyclohexane (dashed curve),[2] and toluene (dotted curve).[2, 7]

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Values of the GVM in Femtoseconds per Millimeter at Room Temperature

Tables Icon

Table 2 Constants of the Cauchy Dispersion Formula [Eq. (7)]

Tables Icon

Table 3 Constants of the Sellmeier Dispersion Formula [Eq. (8)]

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

GVM = ( 1 υ gr , i 1 υ gr , j ) ,
υ gr ( λ ) = c n ( λ ) λ d n ( λ ) d λ ,
Δ t = z × ( GVM ) ,
n ( λ ) = 1.31279 + 15.762 λ 4382 λ 2 + 1.1455 × 10 6 λ 3 ,
n ( λ ) = 1.4189699 4.92555 λ + 5212.005 λ 2 .
n ( λ ) = 1.474775 + 6990.31 λ 2 + 2.1776 × 10 8 λ 4 ,
n ( λ ) = A 0 + A 1 λ 2 + A 2 λ 4 + A 3 λ 6
n ( λ ) = ( 1 + B 1 λ 2 λ 2 C 1 2 + B 2 λ 2 λ 2 C 2 2 ) 1 2 ,
GVM ( λ ) = 1 c { [ n ( λ ) λ d n ( λ ) d λ ] [ n D + λ D d n ( λ ) d λ λ D ] } .

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