Abstract

We report an extended-range distributed temperature sensor based on coherent detection of the frequency shift of the spontaneous Brillouin backscatter combined with Raman amplification. We achieved the Raman amplification within the sensing fiber using either a copropagating or counterpropagating Raman pump with respect to the probe pulse, and experiments were conducted to investigate the optimum pump and probe power combination. With a copropagating Raman pump a temperature resolution of 0.8°C was achieved at a sensing range of 100 km, and with a counterpropagating Raman pump a temperature resolution of 5.2°C was achieved at a sensing range of 150 km with 50-m spatial resolution.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, and T. Kurashima, "Coherent self-heterodyne detection of spontaneously Brillouin-scatted light waves in a single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 185-187 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "100 km distributed temperature sensor based on coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin backscatter," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1544-1547 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. T. Cho and T. P. Newson, "Brillouin-based distributed fibre temperature sensor at 1.53µm using Raman amplification," in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest, E.Udd and R.O.Claus, eds. (IEEE Press, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 305-308.
  5. M. N. Alahbabi, N. P. Lawrence, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "High spatial resolution microwave detection system for long range Brillouin-based distributed sensors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1539-1543 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. N. Alahbabi, P. C. Wait, Y. T. Cho, A. H. Hartog, and T. P. Newson, "Influence of modulation instability on distributed optical fiber sensors based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1156-1160 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004

M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "100 km distributed temperature sensor based on coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin backscatter," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1544-1547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Alahbabi, N. P. Lawrence, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "High spatial resolution microwave detection system for long range Brillouin-based distributed sensors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1539-1543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Alahbabi, P. C. Wait, Y. T. Cho, A. H. Hartog, and T. P. Newson, "Influence of modulation instability on distributed optical fiber sensors based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1156-1160 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

Alahbabi, M. N.

M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "100 km distributed temperature sensor based on coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin backscatter," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1544-1547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Alahbabi, N. P. Lawrence, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "High spatial resolution microwave detection system for long range Brillouin-based distributed sensors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1539-1543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Alahbabi, P. C. Wait, Y. T. Cho, A. H. Hartog, and T. P. Newson, "Influence of modulation instability on distributed optical fiber sensors based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1156-1160 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y. T.

M. N. Alahbabi, P. C. Wait, Y. T. Cho, A. H. Hartog, and T. P. Newson, "Influence of modulation instability on distributed optical fiber sensors based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1156-1160 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Alahbabi, N. P. Lawrence, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "High spatial resolution microwave detection system for long range Brillouin-based distributed sensors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1539-1543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "100 km distributed temperature sensor based on coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin backscatter," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1544-1547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Cho and T. P. Newson, "Brillouin-based distributed fibre temperature sensor at 1.53µm using Raman amplification," in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest, E.Udd and R.O.Claus, eds. (IEEE Press, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 305-308.

Hartog, A. H.

Horiguchi, T.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, and T. Kurashima, "Coherent self-heterodyne detection of spontaneously Brillouin-scatted light waves in a single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 185-187 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koyamada, Y.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, and T. Kurashima, "Coherent self-heterodyne detection of spontaneously Brillouin-scatted light waves in a single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 185-187 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kurashima, T.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, and T. Kurashima, "Coherent self-heterodyne detection of spontaneously Brillouin-scatted light waves in a single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 185-187 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, N. P.

M. N. Alahbabi, N. P. Lawrence, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "High spatial resolution microwave detection system for long range Brillouin-based distributed sensors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1539-1543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Newson, T. P.

M. N. Alahbabi, N. P. Lawrence, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "High spatial resolution microwave detection system for long range Brillouin-based distributed sensors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1539-1543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "100 km distributed temperature sensor based on coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin backscatter," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1544-1547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Alahbabi, P. C. Wait, Y. T. Cho, A. H. Hartog, and T. P. Newson, "Influence of modulation instability on distributed optical fiber sensors based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1156-1160 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Cho and T. P. Newson, "Brillouin-based distributed fibre temperature sensor at 1.53µm using Raman amplification," in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest, E.Udd and R.O.Claus, eds. (IEEE Press, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 305-308.

Shimizu, K.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, and T. Kurashima, "Coherent self-heterodyne detection of spontaneously Brillouin-scatted light waves in a single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 185-187 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tateda, M.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wait, P. C.

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, and Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Meas. Sci. Technol.

M. N. Alahbabi, N. P. Lawrence, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "High spatial resolution microwave detection system for long range Brillouin-based distributed sensors," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1539-1543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, and T. P. Newson, "100 km distributed temperature sensor based on coherent detection of spontaneous Brillouin backscatter," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1544-1547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

Y. T. Cho and T. P. Newson, "Brillouin-based distributed fibre temperature sensor at 1.53µm using Raman amplification," in 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest, E.Udd and R.O.Claus, eds. (IEEE Press, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), pp. 305-308.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement used to measure the Brillouin frequency shift with Raman amplification. EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; PS, polarization scrambler; LO, local oscillator; BG, Bragg grating; C, circulator; R, Rayleigh signal arm; PM, pulse monitor arm; WDM, wave division multiplexer; SMF, single-mode fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral broadening of the probe pulse due to MI for copropagating Raman pump powers of 200, 600, and 1000 mW. The probe power equaled 80 mW; and the probe pulse width equaled 500 ns.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Raman gain with a copropagating pump. The probe pulse is 10 mW. The inset illustrates a linear increase in gain with pump power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature resolution at 100 km as a function of pump power for different probe powers for the copropagating pump configuration with a pulse width of 500 ns.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Brillouin frequency shift (left side) and the corresponding temperature (right side) along the sensing fiber for the copropagating Raman pump. The probe power is 10 mW, the probe pulse width is 200 ns, and the Raman pump is 1 W. Heated sections at 47 and 100 km are visible.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Detail of the 1.3-km heated section at 100 km for room and oven temperatures of 22°C and 80°C, respectively. The probe power is 10 mW, the probe pulse width is 200 ns, and the copropagating Raman pump is 1 W.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Rms temperature resolution as a function of distance based on Brillouin frequency measurements at 20-km intervals averaged over a length of 5 km for a zero Raman pump, a probe pulse of 80 mW, a copropagating Raman pump of 1 W with a probe pulse 10 mW, and a counterpropagating Raman pump of 1 W with a probe pulse of 80 mW.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Brillouin frequency shift (left side) and the corresponding temperature (right side) along the sensing fiber for the counterpropagating Raman pump configuration. The probe power is 80 mW, the probe pulse width is 500 ns, and the Raman pump is 1 W. Heated sections are visible at 97 and 150 km. (b) Rms temperature resolution based on Brillouin frequency measurements along 150 km at 15-km intervals averaged over a length of 5 km for the counterpropagating Raman pump configuration.

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