Abstract

We report on observations of transient two-wave mixing (TWM) of orthogonally polarized waves counterpropagating through an Er-doped single-mode optical fiber. Experiments were performed in a 2-m-long moderately birefringent (with beat length 2cm) Er-doped fiber without optical pumping at the laser wavelength 1549nm. The transient TWM signal observed for crossed linear polarizations of the recording waves oriented along two orthogonal birefringence axes of the fiber (i.e., for the interference pattern with spatially modulated state of light polarization only) proved to be approximately half of that observed for parallel polarizations. Direct measurements of the transient polarization hole-burning effect (i.e., that observed for fast switching of the input light linear polarization between two orthogonal orientations of the doped fiber birefringence axes) allow us to attribute formation of the corresponding anisotropic dynamic grating to this effect.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Frisken, "Transient Bragg reflection gratings in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 17, 1776-1778 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Nonlinear wave mixing and induced gratings in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 18, 2108-2110 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. D. Feuer, "Length and power dependence of self-adjusting optical fiber filters," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1587-1589 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. A. Havstad, B. Fischer, A. E. Willner, and M. G. Wickham, "Loop-mirror filters based on saturable-gain or -absorber gratings," Opt. Lett. 24, 1466-1468 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, B. Fischer, and J. Zyskind, "Narrow-linewidth, single-mode erbium-doped fibre laser with intracavity wave mixing in saturable absorber," Electron. Lett. 30, 648-649 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Cheng, J. T. Kringlebotn, W. H. Loh, R. I. Laming, and D. N. Payne, "Stable single-frequency traveling-wave fiber loop laser with integral saturable-absorber-based tracking narrow-band filter," Opt. Lett. 20, 875-877 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, L. Reekie, A. C. Trooper, and D. C. Hanna, "Single-frequency ytterbium-doped fiber laser stabilized by spatial hole burning," Opt. Lett. 22, 41-43 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Stepanov, E. Hernández, and M. Plata, "Two-wave mixing by means of dynamic Bragg gratings recorded by saturation of absorption in Erbium-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 1327-1329 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Stepanov and M. Plata, "Efficiency of two-wave mixing via dynamic Bragg gratings in Er-doped optical fibers," Ukr. J. Phys. 49, 389-399 (2004).
  10. M. G. Taylor, "Observation of new polarization effect in long haul optically amplified system," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1244-1246 (1993)
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. I. Mazurczuk and J. L. Zyskind, "Polarization dependent gain in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 616-618 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Wysocki and V. Mazurczyk, "Polarization dependent gain in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: computer model and approximate formulas," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 572-584 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Kikuchi and T. Okoshi, "Wavelength-sweeping tech-nique for measuring the beat length of linearly bire-fringent optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 8, 122-123 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Sausalito, Calif. 1986), Chap. 4.
  15. P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 4.
  16. V. Mazurczyk, R. Stolen, J. Wang, and C. Poole, "Observation of polarization hole burning in Er-doped fiber for circular polarization of the saturating signal," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 49-50.
  17. S. Stepanov, E. Hernández, and M. Plata, "Collinear mixing of orthogonally polarized waves via polarization hole burning in birefringent Er-doped fiber," Opt. Commun. 244, 159-165 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005

S. Stepanov, E. Hernández, and M. Plata, "Collinear mixing of orthogonally polarized waves via polarization hole burning in birefringent Er-doped fiber," Opt. Commun. 244, 159-165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Stepanov and M. Plata, "Efficiency of two-wave mixing via dynamic Bragg gratings in Er-doped optical fibers," Ukr. J. Phys. 49, 389-399 (2004).

S. Stepanov, E. Hernández, and M. Plata, "Two-wave mixing by means of dynamic Bragg gratings recorded by saturation of absorption in Erbium-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 1327-1329 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1998

M. D. Feuer, "Length and power dependence of self-adjusting optical fiber filters," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1587-1589 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, L. Reekie, A. C. Trooper, and D. C. Hanna, "Single-frequency ytterbium-doped fiber laser stabilized by spatial hole burning," Opt. Lett. 22, 41-43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. Wysocki and V. Mazurczyk, "Polarization dependent gain in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: computer model and approximate formulas," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 572-584 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

V. I. Mazurczuk and J. L. Zyskind, "Polarization dependent gain in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 616-618 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, B. Fischer, and J. Zyskind, "Narrow-linewidth, single-mode erbium-doped fibre laser with intracavity wave mixing in saturable absorber," Electron. Lett. 30, 648-649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. G. Taylor, "Observation of new polarization effect in long haul optically amplified system," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1244-1246 (1993)
[CrossRef]

B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Nonlinear wave mixing and induced gratings in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 18, 2108-2110 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1983

Becker, P. C.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 4.

Cheng, Y.

Daisy, R.

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, B. Fischer, and J. Zyskind, "Narrow-linewidth, single-mode erbium-doped fibre laser with intracavity wave mixing in saturable absorber," Electron. Lett. 30, 648-649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Feuer, M. D.

M. D. Feuer, "Length and power dependence of self-adjusting optical fiber filters," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1587-1589 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

Frisken, S.

Hanna, D. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, L. Reekie, A. C. Trooper, and D. C. Hanna, "Single-frequency ytterbium-doped fiber laser stabilized by spatial hole burning," Opt. Lett. 22, 41-43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Havstad, S. A.

Hernández, E.

S. Stepanov, E. Hernández, and M. Plata, "Collinear mixing of orthogonally polarized waves via polarization hole burning in birefringent Er-doped fiber," Opt. Commun. 244, 159-165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Stepanov, E. Hernández, and M. Plata, "Two-wave mixing by means of dynamic Bragg gratings recorded by saturation of absorption in Erbium-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 1327-1329 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horowitz, M.

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, B. Fischer, and J. Zyskind, "Narrow-linewidth, single-mode erbium-doped fibre laser with intracavity wave mixing in saturable absorber," Electron. Lett. 30, 648-649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

Kringlebotn, J. T.

Laming, R. I.

Loh, W. H.

Mazurczuk, V. I.

V. I. Mazurczuk and J. L. Zyskind, "Polarization dependent gain in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 616-618 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mazurczyk, V.

P. Wysocki and V. Mazurczyk, "Polarization dependent gain in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: computer model and approximate formulas," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 572-584 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Mazurczyk, R. Stolen, J. Wang, and C. Poole, "Observation of polarization hole burning in Er-doped fiber for circular polarization of the saturating signal," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 49-50.

Nilsson, J.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, L. Reekie, A. C. Trooper, and D. C. Hanna, "Single-frequency ytterbium-doped fiber laser stabilized by spatial hole burning," Opt. Lett. 22, 41-43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

Olsson, N. A.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 4.

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, L. Reekie, A. C. Trooper, and D. C. Hanna, "Single-frequency ytterbium-doped fiber laser stabilized by spatial hole burning," Opt. Lett. 22, 41-43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

Plata, M.

S. Stepanov, E. Hernández, and M. Plata, "Collinear mixing of orthogonally polarized waves via polarization hole burning in birefringent Er-doped fiber," Opt. Commun. 244, 159-165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Stepanov and M. Plata, "Efficiency of two-wave mixing via dynamic Bragg gratings in Er-doped optical fibers," Ukr. J. Phys. 49, 389-399 (2004).

S. Stepanov, E. Hernández, and M. Plata, "Two-wave mixing by means of dynamic Bragg gratings recorded by saturation of absorption in Erbium-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 1327-1329 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poole, C.

V. Mazurczyk, R. Stolen, J. Wang, and C. Poole, "Observation of polarization hole burning in Er-doped fiber for circular polarization of the saturating signal," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 49-50.

Reekie, L.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, L. Reekie, A. C. Trooper, and D. C. Hanna, "Single-frequency ytterbium-doped fiber laser stabilized by spatial hole burning," Opt. Lett. 22, 41-43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Sausalito, Calif. 1986), Chap. 4.

Simpson, J. R.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 4.

Stepanov, S.

S. Stepanov, E. Hernández, and M. Plata, "Collinear mixing of orthogonally polarized waves via polarization hole burning in birefringent Er-doped fiber," Opt. Commun. 244, 159-165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Stepanov and M. Plata, "Efficiency of two-wave mixing via dynamic Bragg gratings in Er-doped optical fibers," Ukr. J. Phys. 49, 389-399 (2004).

S. Stepanov, E. Hernández, and M. Plata, "Two-wave mixing by means of dynamic Bragg gratings recorded by saturation of absorption in Erbium-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 1327-1329 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolen, R.

V. Mazurczyk, R. Stolen, J. Wang, and C. Poole, "Observation of polarization hole burning in Er-doped fiber for circular polarization of the saturating signal," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 49-50.

Sulhoff, J. W.

Taylor, M. G.

M. G. Taylor, "Observation of new polarization effect in long haul optically amplified system," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1244-1246 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Trooper, A. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, L. Reekie, A. C. Trooper, and D. C. Hanna, "Single-frequency ytterbium-doped fiber laser stabilized by spatial hole burning," Opt. Lett. 22, 41-43 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

V. Mazurczyk, R. Stolen, J. Wang, and C. Poole, "Observation of polarization hole burning in Er-doped fiber for circular polarization of the saturating signal," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 49-50.

Wickham, M. G.

Willner, A. E.

Wysocki, P.

P. Wysocki and V. Mazurczyk, "Polarization dependent gain in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: computer model and approximate formulas," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 572-584 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J.

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, B. Fischer, and J. Zyskind, "Narrow-linewidth, single-mode erbium-doped fibre laser with intracavity wave mixing in saturable absorber," Electron. Lett. 30, 648-649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zyskind, J. L.

V. I. Mazurczuk and J. L. Zyskind, "Polarization dependent gain in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 616-618 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Fischer, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, and D. J. DiGiovanni, "Nonlinear wave mixing and induced gratings in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 18, 2108-2110 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett.

M. Horowitz, R. Daisy, B. Fischer, and J. Zyskind, "Narrow-linewidth, single-mode erbium-doped fibre laser with intracavity wave mixing in saturable absorber," Electron. Lett. 30, 648-649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

M. D. Feuer, "Length and power dependence of self-adjusting optical fiber filters," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1587-1589 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Taylor, "Observation of new polarization effect in long haul optically amplified system," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1244-1246 (1993)
[CrossRef]

V. I. Mazurczuk and J. L. Zyskind, "Polarization dependent gain in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 616-618 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

P. Wysocki and V. Mazurczyk, "Polarization dependent gain in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers: computer model and approximate formulas," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 572-584 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. Stepanov, E. Hernández, and M. Plata, "Collinear mixing of orthogonally polarized waves via polarization hole burning in birefringent Er-doped fiber," Opt. Commun. 244, 159-165 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Ukr. J. Phys.

S. Stepanov and M. Plata, "Efficiency of two-wave mixing via dynamic Bragg gratings in Er-doped optical fibers," Ukr. J. Phys. 49, 389-399 (2004).

Other

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Sausalito, Calif. 1986), Chap. 4.

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), Chap. 4.

V. Mazurczyk, R. Stolen, J. Wang, and C. Poole, "Observation of polarization hole burning in Er-doped fiber for circular polarization of the saturating signal," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 49-50.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration of the Sagnac interferometer utilized for investigation of transient TWM via dynamic reflectance Bragg gratings in Er-doped fiber (PC1,2,3, polarization controllers; EOM, electro-optic light modulator; 50 50 , coupler). Inset shows wavelength dependence of normalized optical transmittance of 3 - m -long Er-doped fiber put between crossed polarizers rotated by 45° from the fiber birefringence axes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Typical transient TWM response observed for periodic rectangular phase modulation with a frequency of 20 Hz for parallel polarizations of the recording waves. (b) and (c) are the odd and even components of this signal, respectively. (d) represents the even component of the TWM response excited with crossed wave polarizations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TWM relative amplitude as a function of angle θ between linear polarizations of S and R in point B when the linear polarization of S corresponds to one eigenaxis of the fiber birefringence. Inset shows similar dependences versus angle of rotation φ of the wave S linear polarization (measured in point A) from this eigenaxis for θ = 0 ( π ) and 90 ° ( ) .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Diagrams showing interference pattern formed in birefringent optical fiber by two counterpropagating waves of parallel linear polarizations corresponding to one axis of birefringence and (b) that formed by orthogonally polarized waves (phase of the wave S is assumed to be constant; polarization of the total field is shown by dotted line).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Characteristic relaxation time and (b) normalized amplitude of the even component of the transient TWM signal as functions of the total input light power observed for parallel ( π ) and orthogonal (Υ) recording waves polarizations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Typical form of the fiber transient transmission response and (b) that of even and (c) odd components, respectively (all curves are obtained for modulation frequency 10 Hz ).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Characteristic relaxation time of even ( π ) and odd (Υ) components of the fiber transient transmission (Fig. 6) and (b) normalized amplitude of even component as functions of the input light power.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T 1 = τ 1 + P Σ P sat .
Δ U TWM U 0 P Σ P sat [ 1 + ( P Σ P sat ) 2 ] 1 2 .

Metrics