Abstract

We propose two novel double-well magnetic surface traps (i.e., a double-well U-U-shaped wire trap and a double-well U-Z-shaped wire trap) for cold atoms using a straight and U-shaped current-carrying wire or two U-shaped current-carrying wires. These double-well magnetic traps can be continuously changed into a single-well by reducing the current in a straight wire or an inner U-shaped wire from a suitable value to zero, and vice versa. The spatial distributions of the magnetic fields from two current-carrying wire layouts and their field gradients are calculated and analyzed, and the trapped atomic number and its temperature in each magnetic well are estimated. Our study shows that our double-well magnetic surface traps can be used to realize two-species magneto-optical traps (MOTs) above the surface of the wire plane. Under the approximation of low intensity, cold atomic samples with a captured number of 106atoms and a temperature of 270μK can be obtained in each Rb85 atomic MOT. Since each MOT in two-species MOTs can be prepared independently, our controllable double-well trap can be used to study the cold collisions between two different atomic samples.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, "Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631-2634 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Weiner, V. S. Bagnato, S. C. Zilio, and P. Julienne, "Experiments and theory in cold and ultracold collisions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1-85 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Prentiss, A. Cable, J. E. Bjorkholm, S. Chu, E. L. Raab, and D. E. Pritchard, "Atomic-density-dependent losses in an optical trap," Opt. Lett. 13, 452-454 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, and C. Weiman, "Collisional losses from a light-force atom trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961-964 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Kawanaka, K. Shimizu, H. Takuma, and F. Shimizu, "Quadratic collisional loss rate of a Li7 trap," Phys. Rev. A 48, R883-R885 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Suptiz, G. Wokurka, F. Strauch, P. Kohns, and W. Ertmer, "Simultaneous cooling and trapping of Rb85 and Rb87 in a magneto-optical trap," Opt. Lett. 19, 1571-1573 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemmming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, "Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340-R4343 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, "Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 59, R23-R27 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. P. Shaffer, W. Chapulpczak, and N. P. Bigelow, "Photoassociative ionization heteronuclear molecules in a novel two-species magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1124-1128 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, "Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions," Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403-044406 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. D. Telles, W. Garcia, L. G. Marcassa, V. S. Bagnato, D. Ciampini, M. Fazzi, J. H. Müller, D. Wilkowski, and E. Arimondo, "Trap loss in a two-species Rb-Cs magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033406-033410 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Bigelow, "Differential measurement of the ultracold Cs radiative escape and fine structure changing collision rates," Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 323-330 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Marinescu and H. R. Sadefhpour, "Long-range potentials for two-species alkali-metal atoms," Phys. Rev. A 59, 390-404 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, 721-730 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. Reichel, W. Hansel, and T. W. Hansch, "Atomic micromanipulation with magnetic surface traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3398-3401 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, C. E. Tanner, R. N. Watts, and C. I. Westbrook, "Optical molasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2084-2101 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Weiman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, "Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906-2908 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. U. Ernst, A. Marte, F. Schreck, J. Schuster, and G. Rempe, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a pure Ioffe-Pritchard field configuration," Europhys. Lett. 41, 1-6 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. V. Hau, B. D. Busch, C. Liu, Z. Dutton, M. M. Burns, and J. A. Golovchenko, "Near-resonant spatial images of confined Bose-Einstein condensates in a 4-Dee magnetic bottle," Phys. Rev. A 58, R54-R58 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. D. Telles, W. Garcia, L. G. Marcassa, V. S. Bagnato, D. Ciampini, M. Fazzi, J. H. Müller, D. Wilkowski, and E. Arimondo, "Trap loss in a two-species Rb-Cs magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033406-033410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, "Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions," Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403-044406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, 721-730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (6)

I. Reichel, W. Hansel, and T. W. Hansch, "Atomic micromanipulation with magnetic surface traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3398-3401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Bigelow, "Differential measurement of the ultracold Cs radiative escape and fine structure changing collision rates," Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 323-330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Marinescu and H. R. Sadefhpour, "Long-range potentials for two-species alkali-metal atoms," Phys. Rev. A 59, 390-404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Weiner, V. S. Bagnato, S. C. Zilio, and P. Julienne, "Experiments and theory in cold and ultracold collisions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, "Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 59, R23-R27 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chapulpczak, and N. P. Bigelow, "Photoassociative ionization heteronuclear molecules in a novel two-species magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1124-1128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, "Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906-2908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Ernst, A. Marte, F. Schreck, J. Schuster, and G. Rempe, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a pure Ioffe-Pritchard field configuration," Europhys. Lett. 41, 1-6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, B. D. Busch, C. Liu, Z. Dutton, M. M. Burns, and J. A. Golovchenko, "Near-resonant spatial images of confined Bose-Einstein condensates in a 4-Dee magnetic bottle," Phys. Rev. A 58, R54-R58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemmming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, "Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340-R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

J. Kawanaka, K. Shimizu, H. Takuma, and F. Shimizu, "Quadratic collisional loss rate of a Li7 trap," Phys. Rev. A 48, R883-R885 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Weiman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, and C. Weiman, "Collisional losses from a light-force atom trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961-964 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Lett, W. D. Phillips, S. L. Rolston, C. E. Tanner, R. N. Watts, and C. I. Westbrook, "Optical molasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2084-2101 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, "Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631-2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antunes, A.

G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, "Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 59, R23-R27 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

G. D. Telles, W. Garcia, L. G. Marcassa, V. S. Bagnato, D. Ciampini, M. Fazzi, J. H. Müller, D. Wilkowski, and E. Arimondo, "Trap loss in a two-species Rb-Cs magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033406-033410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bagnato, V. S.

G. D. Telles, W. Garcia, L. G. Marcassa, V. S. Bagnato, D. Ciampini, M. Fazzi, J. H. Müller, D. Wilkowski, and E. Arimondo, "Trap loss in a two-species Rb-Cs magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033406-033410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Weiner, V. S. Bagnato, S. C. Zilio, and P. Julienne, "Experiments and theory in cold and ultracold collisions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemmming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, "Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340-R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigelow, N. P.

Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, "Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions," Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403-044406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chapulpczak, and N. P. Bigelow, "Photoassociative ionization heteronuclear molecules in a novel two-species magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1124-1128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Bigelow, "Differential measurement of the ultracold Cs radiative escape and fine structure changing collision rates," Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 323-330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Burns, M. M.

L. V. Hau, B. D. Busch, C. Liu, Z. Dutton, M. M. Burns, and J. A. Golovchenko, "Near-resonant spatial images of confined Bose-Einstein condensates in a 4-Dee magnetic bottle," Phys. Rev. A 58, R54-R58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Busch, B. D.

L. V. Hau, B. D. Busch, C. Liu, Z. Dutton, M. M. Burns, and J. A. Golovchenko, "Near-resonant spatial images of confined Bose-Einstein condensates in a 4-Dee magnetic bottle," Phys. Rev. A 58, R54-R58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A.

M. Prentiss, A. Cable, J. E. Bjorkholm, S. Chu, E. L. Raab, and D. E. Pritchard, "Atomic-density-dependent losses in an optical trap," Opt. Lett. 13, 452-454 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, "Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631-2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calarco, T.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, 721-730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cassettari, D.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, 721-730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chalupczak, W.

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Bigelow, "Differential measurement of the ultracold Cs radiative escape and fine structure changing collision rates," Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 323-330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chapulpczak, W.

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chapulpczak, and N. P. Bigelow, "Photoassociative ionization heteronuclear molecules in a novel two-species magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1124-1128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chenet, A.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, 721-730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

M. Prentiss, A. Cable, J. E. Bjorkholm, S. Chu, E. L. Raab, and D. E. Pritchard, "Atomic-density-dependent losses in an optical trap," Opt. Lett. 13, 452-454 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, "Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631-2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciampini, D.

G. D. Telles, W. Garcia, L. G. Marcassa, V. S. Bagnato, D. Ciampini, M. Fazzi, J. H. Müller, D. Wilkowski, and E. Arimondo, "Trap loss in a two-species Rb-Cs magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033406-033410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Drndic, M.

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, "Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906-2908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, Z.

L. V. Hau, B. D. Busch, C. Liu, Z. Dutton, M. M. Burns, and J. A. Golovchenko, "Near-resonant spatial images of confined Bose-Einstein condensates in a 4-Dee magnetic bottle," Phys. Rev. A 58, R54-R58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ejnisman, R.

Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, "Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions," Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403-044406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ernst, U.

U. Ernst, A. Marte, F. Schreck, J. Schuster, and G. Rempe, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a pure Ioffe-Pritchard field configuration," Europhys. Lett. 41, 1-6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ertmer, W.

Fazzi, M.

G. D. Telles, W. Garcia, L. G. Marcassa, V. S. Bagnato, D. Ciampini, M. Fazzi, J. H. Müller, D. Wilkowski, and E. Arimondo, "Trap loss in a two-species Rb-Cs magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033406-033410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flemmming, J.

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemmming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, "Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340-R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Folman, R.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, 721-730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, A.

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, and C. Weiman, "Collisional losses from a light-force atom trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961-964 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, W.

G. D. Telles, W. Garcia, L. G. Marcassa, V. S. Bagnato, D. Ciampini, M. Fazzi, J. H. Müller, D. Wilkowski, and E. Arimondo, "Trap loss in a two-species Rb-Cs magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033406-033410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Golovchenko, J. A.

L. V. Hau, B. D. Busch, C. Liu, Z. Dutton, M. M. Burns, and J. A. Golovchenko, "Near-resonant spatial images of confined Bose-Einstein condensates in a 4-Dee magnetic bottle," Phys. Rev. A 58, R54-R58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, T. W.

I. Reichel, W. Hansel, and T. W. Hansch, "Atomic micromanipulation with magnetic surface traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3398-3401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hansel, W.

I. Reichel, W. Hansel, and T. W. Hansch, "Atomic micromanipulation with magnetic surface traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3398-3401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hau, L. V.

L. V. Hau, B. D. Busch, C. Liu, Z. Dutton, M. M. Burns, and J. A. Golovchenko, "Near-resonant spatial images of confined Bose-Einstein condensates in a 4-Dee magnetic bottle," Phys. Rev. A 58, R54-R58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Helmerson, K.

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemmming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, "Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340-R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hessmo, B.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, 721-730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. S.

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, "Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906-2908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Julienne, P.

J. Weiner, V. S. Bagnato, S. C. Zilio, and P. Julienne, "Experiments and theory in cold and ultracold collisions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawanaka, J.

J. Kawanaka, K. Shimizu, H. Takuma, and F. Shimizu, "Quadratic collisional loss rate of a Li7 trap," Phys. Rev. A 48, R883-R885 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kohns, P.

Kruger, P.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, 721-730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lett, P. D.

Liu, C.

L. V. Hau, B. D. Busch, C. Liu, Z. Dutton, M. M. Burns, and J. A. Golovchenko, "Near-resonant spatial images of confined Bose-Einstein condensates in a 4-Dee magnetic bottle," Phys. Rev. A 58, R54-R58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maier, T.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, 721-730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marcassa, L. G.

G. D. Telles, W. Garcia, L. G. Marcassa, V. S. Bagnato, D. Ciampini, M. Fazzi, J. H. Müller, D. Wilkowski, and E. Arimondo, "Trap loss in a two-species Rb-Cs magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033406-033410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, "Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 59, R23-R27 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemmming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, "Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340-R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marinescu, M.

M. Marinescu and H. R. Sadefhpour, "Long-range potentials for two-species alkali-metal atoms," Phys. Rev. A 59, 390-404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marte, A.

U. Ernst, A. Marte, F. Schreck, J. Schuster, and G. Rempe, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a pure Ioffe-Pritchard field configuration," Europhys. Lett. 41, 1-6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miranda, S. G.

G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, "Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 59, R23-R27 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, C.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Weiman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, and C. Weiman, "Collisional losses from a light-force atom trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961-964 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, J. H.

G. D. Telles, W. Garcia, L. G. Marcassa, V. S. Bagnato, D. Ciampini, M. Fazzi, J. H. Müller, D. Wilkowski, and E. Arimondo, "Trap loss in a two-species Rb-Cs magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033406-033410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Muniz, S. R.

G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, "Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 59, R23-R27 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nussenzveig, P.

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemmming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, "Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340-R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, W. D.

Prentiss, M.

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, "Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906-2908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Prentiss, A. Cable, J. E. Bjorkholm, S. Chu, E. L. Raab, and D. E. Pritchard, "Atomic-density-dependent losses in an optical trap," Opt. Lett. 13, 452-454 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, "Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631-2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

M. Prentiss, A. Cable, J. E. Bjorkholm, S. Chu, E. L. Raab, and D. E. Pritchard, "Atomic-density-dependent losses in an optical trap," Opt. Lett. 13, 452-454 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, "Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631-2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raab, E. L.

M. Prentiss, A. Cable, J. E. Bjorkholm, S. Chu, E. L. Raab, and D. E. Pritchard, "Atomic-density-dependent losses in an optical trap," Opt. Lett. 13, 452-454 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, "Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631-2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichel, I.

I. Reichel, W. Hansel, and T. W. Hansch, "Atomic micromanipulation with magnetic surface traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3398-3401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rempe, G.

U. Ernst, A. Marte, F. Schreck, J. Schuster, and G. Rempe, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a pure Ioffe-Pritchard field configuration," Europhys. Lett. 41, 1-6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, H.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Weiman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolston, S. L.

Sadefhpour, H. R.

M. Marinescu and H. R. Sadefhpour, "Long-range potentials for two-species alkali-metal atoms," Phys. Rev. A 59, 390-404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Santos, M. S.

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemmming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, "Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340-R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmiedmayer, J.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, 721-730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, S.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, 721-730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schreck, F.

U. Ernst, A. Marte, F. Schreck, J. Schuster, and G. Rempe, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a pure Ioffe-Pritchard field configuration," Europhys. Lett. 41, 1-6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, J.

U. Ernst, A. Marte, F. Schreck, J. Schuster, and G. Rempe, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a pure Ioffe-Pritchard field configuration," Europhys. Lett. 41, 1-6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sesko, D.

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, and C. Weiman, "Collisional losses from a light-force atom trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961-964 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaffer, J. P.

Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, "Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions," Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403-044406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chapulpczak, and N. P. Bigelow, "Photoassociative ionization heteronuclear molecules in a novel two-species magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1124-1128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Bigelow, "Differential measurement of the ultracold Cs radiative escape and fine structure changing collision rates," Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 323-330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, F.

J. Kawanaka, K. Shimizu, H. Takuma, and F. Shimizu, "Quadratic collisional loss rate of a Li7 trap," Phys. Rev. A 48, R883-R885 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, K.

J. Kawanaka, K. Shimizu, H. Takuma, and F. Shimizu, "Quadratic collisional loss rate of a Li7 trap," Phys. Rev. A 48, R883-R885 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Strauch, F.

Suptiz, W.

Swann, W.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Weiman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takuma, H.

J. Kawanaka, K. Shimizu, H. Takuma, and F. Shimizu, "Quadratic collisional loss rate of a Li7 trap," Phys. Rev. A 48, R883-R885 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, C. E.

Telles, G. D.

G. D. Telles, W. Garcia, L. G. Marcassa, V. S. Bagnato, D. Ciampini, M. Fazzi, J. H. Müller, D. Wilkowski, and E. Arimondo, "Trap loss in a two-species Rb-Cs magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033406-033410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tells, G. D.

G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, "Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 59, R23-R27 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thywissen, J. H.

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, "Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906-2908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walker, T.

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, and C. Weiman, "Collisional losses from a light-force atom trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961-964 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watts, R. N.

Weetervelt, R. M.

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, "Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906-2908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weiman, C.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Weiman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, and C. Weiman, "Collisional losses from a light-force atom trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961-964 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, J.

J. Weiner, V. S. Bagnato, S. C. Zilio, and P. Julienne, "Experiments and theory in cold and ultracold collisions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, C. I.

Wilkowski, D.

G. D. Telles, W. Garcia, L. G. Marcassa, V. S. Bagnato, D. Ciampini, M. Fazzi, J. H. Müller, D. Wilkowski, and E. Arimondo, "Trap loss in a two-species Rb-Cs magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033406-033410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wokurka, G.

Young, Y. E.

Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, "Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions," Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403-044406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zilio, S. C.

J. Weiner, V. S. Bagnato, S. C. Zilio, and P. Julienne, "Experiments and theory in cold and ultracold collisions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemmming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, "Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340-R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, "Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 70, 721-730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, "Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906-2908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Bigelow, "Differential measurement of the ultracold Cs radiative escape and fine structure changing collision rates," Eur. Phys. J. D 7, 323-330 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

U. Ernst, A. Marte, F. Schreck, J. Schuster, and G. Rempe, "Bose-Einstein condensation in a pure Ioffe-Pritchard field configuration," Europhys. Lett. 41, 1-6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (7)

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemmming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, "Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340-R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, "Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 59, R23-R27 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Marinescu and H. R. Sadefhpour, "Long-range potentials for two-species alkali-metal atoms," Phys. Rev. A 59, 390-404 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, "Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions," Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403-044406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Telles, W. Garcia, L. G. Marcassa, V. S. Bagnato, D. Ciampini, M. Fazzi, J. H. Müller, D. Wilkowski, and E. Arimondo, "Trap loss in a two-species Rb-Cs magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033406-033410 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, B. D. Busch, C. Liu, Z. Dutton, M. M. Burns, and J. A. Golovchenko, "Near-resonant spatial images of confined Bose-Einstein condensates in a 4-Dee magnetic bottle," Phys. Rev. A 58, R54-R58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kawanaka, K. Shimizu, H. Takuma, and F. Shimizu, "Quadratic collisional loss rate of a Li7 trap," Phys. Rev. A 48, R883-R885 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Weiman, "Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571-1574 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Reichel, W. Hansel, and T. W. Hansch, "Atomic micromanipulation with magnetic surface traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3398-3401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chapulpczak, and N. P. Bigelow, "Photoassociative ionization heteronuclear molecules in a novel two-species magneto-optical trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1124-1128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Sesko, T. Walker, C. Monroe, A. Gallagher, and C. Weiman, "Collisional losses from a light-force atom trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 961-964 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, A. Cable, S. Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, "Trapping of neutral sodium atoms with radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631-2634 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. Weiner, V. S. Bagnato, S. C. Zilio, and P. Julienne, "Experiments and theory in cold and ultracold collisions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of two double-well wire traps as described in the text. (a) A double-well U-Z-shaped wire trap and (b) a double-well U-U-shaped wire trap.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Magnetic field contours on the plane parallel to the x, y plane from a double-well U-Z-shaped wire layout for (a) I 1 = I 2 = 600 A , B bias = 40 G , and z 0 = 0.96 cm ; (b) I 1 = 600 A , I 2 = 300 A , B bias = 40 G , and z 0 = 0.65 cm ; (c) I 1 = 600 A , I 2 = 0 , B bias = 40 G , and z 0 = 0 ; (d) relationship between the distance d of the two magnetic-well centers and the current I 2 in the straight wire.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Magnetic field contours on the plane parallel to the x, y plane from a double-well U-U-shaped wire layout for (a) I 1 = I 2 = 600 A , B bias = 40 G , and z 0 = 0.68 cm ; (b) I 1 = 600 A , I 2 = 300 A , B bias = 40 G , and z 0 = 0.65 cm ; (c) I 1 = 600 A , I 2 = 0 , B bias = 40 G , and z 0 = 0 ; (d) relationship between the distance d of the two magnetic-well centers and the current I 2 in the inner U-shaped wire.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distributions of the magnetic fields and gradients of a single magnetic well at the trap center ( x 0 = 1.28 cm , y 0 = 2.34 cm , and z 0 = 0.96 cm ) in the (a) x, (b) y, and z directions in a double-well U-Z-shaped wire trap.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Distributions of the magnetic fields and gradients of a single magnetic-well at the trap center ( x 0 = 1.38 cm , y 0 = 1.79 cm , and z 0 = 0.68 cm ) in the (a) x, (b) y, and (c) z directions in a double-well U-U-shaped wire trap.

Equations (5)

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B = μ 0 I 1 4 π { b 0 ( y + a ) i + x j [ x 2 + ( y + a ) 2 + ( z z ) 2 ] 3 2 d z + 0 b ( y a ) i + x j [ x 2 + ( y a ) 2 + ( z z ) 2 ] 3 2 d z + a a z i x k [ x 2 + ( y y ) 2 + z 2 ] 3 2 d y } + μ 0 I 2 4 π × b b y i x j [ x 2 + y 2 + ( z z ) 2 ] 3 2 d z .
d = A 1 A 2 1 + exp ( I 2 + I 0 I ) + A 2 ,
B 1 = μ 0 I 1 4 π { 6 a 0 ( y + 3 a ) i x j [ x 2 + ( y + 3 a ) 2 + ( z z ) 2 ] 3 2 d z + 0 6 a ( y 3 a ) i + x j [ x 2 + ( y 3 a ) 2 + ( z z ) 2 ] 3 2 d z + 3 a 3 a z i x k [ x 2 + ( y y ) 2 + z 2 ] 3 2 d y } ,
B 2 = μ 0 I 2 4 π { 0 6 a ( y + a ) i + x j [ x 2 + ( y + a ) 2 + ( z z ) 2 ] 3 2 d z + 6 a 0 ( y a ) i x j [ x 2 + ( y a ) 2 + ( z z ) 2 ] 3 2 d z + a a z i x k [ x 2 + ( y y ) 2 + z 2 ] 3 2 d y } ,
B = B 1 + B 2 .

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