Abstract

We have measured the absolute wave numbers of 39 transitions of Te2130 spanning the spectral region of 420.9–464.6 nm to an accuracy of better than 2 parts in 109 by use of saturation spectroscopy and Fabry–Pérot interferometry. These measurements provide a set of convenient and accurate transfer standards for laser wavelength calibration spanning the entire Stilbene-420 dye-tuning curve.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  3. W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1560-1630-nm carbon monoxide wavelength-calibration lines," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2461-2467 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Dennis, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. L. Gilbert, "Wavelength references for 1300-nm wavelength-division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 804-810 (2002).
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  8. S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule d'Iode entre 19700-20035 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1983).
  9. S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, and A. Raynal, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule de Brome entre 11600-19600 cm^-1, Volume I et II (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1985).
  10. J. Cariou and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule de Tellure. 5: 21100-23800 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1980).
  11. J. Cariou and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule de Tellure. 2: 18500-21200 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1980).
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  14. D. Shiner, J. M. Gilligan, B. M. Cook, and W. Lichten, "H2,D2, and HD ionization potentials by accurate calibration of several iodine lines," Phys. Rev. A 47, 4042-4045 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Grieser, G. Bönsch, S. Dickopf, G. Huber, R. Klein, P. Merz, A. Nicolaus, and H. Schnatz, "Precision measurement of two iodine lines at 585 nm and 549 nm," Z. Phys. A 342, 147-150 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, "A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-655 nm," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B. Bodermann, H. Knöcke, and E. Tiemann, "Widely usable interpolation formulae for hyperfine splittings in the I2127 spectrum," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 31-44 (2002), and references therein.
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  18. T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre (1997)," Metrologia 36, 211-244 (1999).
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  19. I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, "A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571-596 nm," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21-27 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. A. Palmer and R. Engleman, Jr., "Atlas of the thorium spectrum," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Rep. LA-9615 (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., 1983).
  21. B. A. Palmer, R. A. Keller, and R. Engleman, Jr., "An atlas of uranium emission intensities in a hollow cathode discharge," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Rep. LA-8251-MS (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., 1980).
  22. J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, A. I. Ferguson, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, W. R. C. Rowley, and R. C. Thompson, "Interferometric frequency measurements of Te2130 transitions at 486 nm," Opt. Commun. 54, 217-221 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. H. McIntyre and T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute calibration to the Te2130 reference line for positronium 1S13-2S13 spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 34, 4504-4507 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. H. McIntyre and T. W. Hänsch, "Interferometric frequency measurement of a Te2130 reference line for muonium 1S-2S spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 36, 4115-4118 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. H. McIntyre, W. M. Fairbank, Jr., S. A. Lee, T. W. Hänsch, and E. Riis, "Interferometric frequency measurement of Te2130 reference transitions at 486 nm," Phys. Rev. A 41, 4632-4635 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, J. L. Flowers, and B. W. Petley, "Interferometric measurements of Te2130 reference frequencies for 1S-2S transitions in hydrogenlike atoms," Phys. Rev. A 43, 4783-4790 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Ph. Courteille, L. S. Ma, W. Neuhauser, and R. Blatt, "Frequency measurement of Te2130 resonances near 467 nm," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 187-193 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. Cancio and D. Bermejo, "Absolute wavelengths in Te2130: new reference lines for laser spectroscopy coinciding with emissions of the Ar+ laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1305-1311 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. D. Gillaspy and C. J. Sansonetti, "Absolute wavelength determinations in molecular tellurium: new reference lines for precision laser spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2414-2419 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. J. Scholl, S. J. Rehse, R. A. Holt, and S. D. Rosner, "A broadband precision wavelength meter based on a scanning Fabry-Pérot interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3318-3326 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. C. J. Sansonetti, "Precise laser wavelength measurements: what can we learn from classical spectroscopy?" in Advances in Laser Science IV, J.L.Gole, D.F.Heller, M.Lapp, and W.C.Stwalley, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1988), pp. 548-553.
  32. M. S. Sorem and A. L. Schawlow, "Saturation spectroscopy in molecular iodine by intermodulated fluorescence," Opt. Commun. 5, 148-151 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  33. R. E. Machol and E. R. Westrum, Jr., "Vapor pressure of liquid tellurium," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2950-2952 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. M. Bennett, "Precise method for measuring the absolute phase change on reflection," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 612-624 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  35. W. Lichten, "Precise wavelength measurements and optical phase shifts. I. General theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1869-1876 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  36. K. W. Meissner, "Interference spectroscopy. Part I," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 405-427 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  37. R. Benoit, "Application des phénomènes d'interférence a des déterminations métrologiques," J. Phys., 3rd Series , 7, 57-68 (1898).
  38. H. Buisson and Ch. Fabry, "Mesures de longueurs d'onde pour l'établissement d'un système de repères spectroscopiques," J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 169-195 (1908).
  39. S. E. Park, H. S. Lee, T. Y. Kwon, and H. Cho, "Dispersion-like signals in velocity-selective saturated-absorption spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 192, 49-55 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. J. Scholl, S. J. Rehse, R. A. Holt, and S. D. Rosner, "A broadband precision wavelength meter based on a scanning Fabry-Pérot interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3318-3326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1560-1630-nm carbon monoxide wavelength-calibration lines," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2461-2467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Dennis, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. L. Gilbert, "Wavelength references for 1300-nm wavelength-division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 804-810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Bodermann, H. Knöcke, and E. Tiemann, "Widely usable interpolation formulae for hyperfine splittings in the I2127 spectrum," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 31-44 (2002), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. E. Park, H. S. Lee, T. Y. Kwon, and H. Cho, "Dispersion-like signals in velocity-selective saturated-absorption spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 192, 49-55 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, "A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-655 nm," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre (1997)," Metrologia 36, 211-244 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, "A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571-596 nm," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21-27 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

R. Grieser, G. Bönsch, S. Dickopf, G. Huber, R. Klein, P. Merz, A. Nicolaus, and H. Schnatz, "Precision measurement of two iodine lines at 585 nm and 549 nm," Z. Phys. A 342, 147-150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Courteille, L. S. Ma, W. Neuhauser, and R. Blatt, "Frequency measurement of Te2130 resonances near 467 nm," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 187-193 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. Shiner, J. M. Gilligan, B. M. Cook, and W. Lichten, "H2,D2, and HD ionization potentials by accurate calibration of several iodine lines," Phys. Rev. A 47, 4042-4045 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, J. L. Flowers, and B. W. Petley, "Interferometric measurements of Te2130 reference frequencies for 1S-2S transitions in hydrogenlike atoms," Phys. Rev. A 43, 4783-4790 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Gillaspy and C. J. Sansonetti, "Absolute wavelength determinations in molecular tellurium: new reference lines for precision laser spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2414-2419 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

D. H. McIntyre, W. M. Fairbank, Jr., S. A. Lee, T. W. Hänsch, and E. Riis, "Interferometric frequency measurement of Te2130 reference transitions at 486 nm," Phys. Rev. A 41, 4632-4635 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

D. H. McIntyre and T. W. Hänsch, "Interferometric frequency measurement of a Te2130 reference line for muonium 1S-2S spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 36, 4115-4118 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

D. H. McIntyre and T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute calibration to the Te2130 reference line for positronium 1S13-2S13 spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 34, 4504-4507 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, A. I. Ferguson, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, W. R. C. Rowley, and R. C. Thompson, "Interferometric frequency measurements of Te2130 transitions at 486 nm," Opt. Commun. 54, 217-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. Lichten, "Precise wavelength measurements and optical phase shifts. I. General theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1869-1876 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1976 (1)

G. Guelachvili, "Absolute wavenumber measurements of 1-0, 2-0, HF and 2-0, H35Cl,H37Cl absorption bands," Opt. Commun. 19, 150-154 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

M. S. Sorem and A. L. Schawlow, "Saturation spectroscopy in molecular iodine by intermodulated fluorescence," Opt. Commun. 5, 148-151 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

1958 (1)

R. E. Machol and E. R. Westrum, Jr., "Vapor pressure of liquid tellurium," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2950-2952 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1941 (1)

1908 (1)

H. Buisson and Ch. Fabry, "Mesures de longueurs d'onde pour l'établissement d'un système de repères spectroscopiques," J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 169-195 (1908).

1898 (1)

R. Benoit, "Application des phénomènes d'interférence a des déterminations métrologiques," J. Phys., 3rd Series , 7, 57-68 (1898).

Awaji, Y.

Barr, J. R. M.

J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, A. I. Ferguson, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, W. R. C. Rowley, and R. C. Thompson, "Interferometric frequency measurements of Te2130 transitions at 486 nm," Opt. Commun. 54, 217-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Barwood, G. P.

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, J. L. Flowers, and B. W. Petley, "Interferometric measurements of Te2130 reference frequencies for 1S-2S transitions in hydrogenlike atoms," Phys. Rev. A 43, 4783-4790 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, A. I. Ferguson, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, W. R. C. Rowley, and R. C. Thompson, "Interferometric frequency measurements of Te2130 transitions at 486 nm," Opt. Commun. 54, 217-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Benoit, R.

R. Benoit, "Application des phénomènes d'interférence a des déterminations métrologiques," J. Phys., 3rd Series , 7, 57-68 (1898).

Bermejo, D.

Blatt, R.

Ph. Courteille, L. S. Ma, W. Neuhauser, and R. Blatt, "Frequency measurement of Te2130 resonances near 467 nm," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 187-193 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bodermann, B.

B. Bodermann, H. Knöcke, and E. Tiemann, "Widely usable interpolation formulae for hyperfine splittings in the I2127 spectrum," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 31-44 (2002), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Bönsch, G.

R. Grieser, G. Bönsch, S. Dickopf, G. Huber, R. Klein, P. Merz, A. Nicolaus, and H. Schnatz, "Precision measurement of two iodine lines at 585 nm and 549 nm," Z. Phys. A 342, 147-150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Buisson, H.

H. Buisson and Ch. Fabry, "Mesures de longueurs d'onde pour l'établissement d'un système de repères spectroscopiques," J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 169-195 (1908).

Cancio, P.

Cariou, J.

J. Cariou and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule de Tellure. 5: 21100-23800 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1980).

J. Cariou and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule de Tellure. 2: 18500-21200 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1980).

Cho, H.

S. E. Park, H. S. Lee, T. Y. Kwon, and H. Cho, "Dispersion-like signals in velocity-selective saturated-absorption spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 192, 49-55 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cook, B. M.

D. Shiner, J. M. Gilligan, B. M. Cook, and W. Lichten, "H2,D2, and HD ionization potentials by accurate calibration of several iodine lines," Phys. Rev. A 47, 4042-4045 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courteille, Ph.

Ph. Courteille, L. S. Ma, W. Neuhauser, and R. Blatt, "Frequency measurement of Te2130 resonances near 467 nm," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 187-193 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, E. A.

T. Dennis, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. L. Gilbert, "Wavelength references for 1300-nm wavelength-division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 804-810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Labachelerie, M.

Dennis, T.

T. Dennis, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. L. Gilbert, "Wavelength references for 1300-nm wavelength-division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 804-810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dickopf, S.

R. Grieser, G. Bönsch, S. Dickopf, G. Huber, R. Klein, P. Merz, A. Nicolaus, and H. Schnatz, "Precision measurement of two iodine lines at 585 nm and 549 nm," Z. Phys. A 342, 147-150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Engleman, R.

B. A. Palmer, R. A. Keller, and R. Engleman, Jr., "An atlas of uranium emission intensities in a hollow cathode discharge," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Rep. LA-8251-MS (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., 1980).

B. A. Palmer and R. Engleman, Jr., "Atlas of the thorium spectrum," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Rep. LA-9615 (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., 1983).

Etzel, S. M.

S. L. Gilbert, S. M. Etzel, and W. C. Swann, "Wavelength accuracy in WDM: techniques and standards for component characterization," in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 391-393.

Fabry, Ch.

H. Buisson and Ch. Fabry, "Mesures de longueurs d'onde pour l'établissement d'un système de repères spectroscopiques," J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 169-195 (1908).

Fairbank, W. M.

D. H. McIntyre, W. M. Fairbank, Jr., S. A. Lee, T. W. Hänsch, and E. Riis, "Interferometric frequency measurement of Te2130 reference transitions at 486 nm," Phys. Rev. A 41, 4632-4635 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hlousek and W. M. Fairbank, Jr., "High-accuracy wavenumber measurements in molecular iodine," Opt. Lett. 8, 322-323 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, A. I.

J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, A. I. Ferguson, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, W. R. C. Rowley, and R. C. Thompson, "Interferometric frequency measurements of Te2130 transitions at 486 nm," Opt. Commun. 54, 217-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Flowers, J. L.

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, J. L. Flowers, and B. W. Petley, "Interferometric measurements of Te2130 reference frequencies for 1S-2S transitions in hydrogenlike atoms," Phys. Rev. A 43, 4783-4790 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerstenkorn, S.

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, and A. Raynal, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule de Brome entre 11600-19600 cm^-1, Volume I et II (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1985).

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule d'Iode entre 14000-15600 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1978).

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule d'Iode entre 19700-20035 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1983).

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule d'Iode entre 14800-20000 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1978).

Gilbert, S. L.

T. Dennis, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. L. Gilbert, "Wavelength references for 1300-nm wavelength-division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 804-810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1560-1630-nm carbon monoxide wavelength-calibration lines," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2461-2467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Gilbert, S. M. Etzel, and W. C. Swann, "Wavelength accuracy in WDM: techniques and standards for component characterization," in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 391-393.

Gill, P.

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, J. L. Flowers, and B. W. Petley, "Interferometric measurements of Te2130 reference frequencies for 1S-2S transitions in hydrogenlike atoms," Phys. Rev. A 43, 4783-4790 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, A. I. Ferguson, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, W. R. C. Rowley, and R. C. Thompson, "Interferometric frequency measurements of Te2130 transitions at 486 nm," Opt. Commun. 54, 217-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gillaspy, J. D.

Gilligan, J. M.

D. Shiner, J. M. Gilligan, B. M. Cook, and W. Lichten, "H2,D2, and HD ionization potentials by accurate calibration of several iodine lines," Phys. Rev. A 47, 4042-4045 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girkin, J. M.

J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, A. I. Ferguson, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, W. R. C. Rowley, and R. C. Thompson, "Interferometric frequency measurements of Te2130 transitions at 486 nm," Opt. Commun. 54, 217-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Grieser, R.

R. Grieser, G. Bönsch, S. Dickopf, G. Huber, R. Klein, P. Merz, A. Nicolaus, and H. Schnatz, "Precision measurement of two iodine lines at 585 nm and 549 nm," Z. Phys. A 342, 147-150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Guelachvili, G.

G. Guelachvili, "Absolute wavenumber measurements of 1-0, 2-0, HF and 2-0, H35Cl,H37Cl absorption bands," Opt. Commun. 19, 150-154 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

D. H. McIntyre, W. M. Fairbank, Jr., S. A. Lee, T. W. Hänsch, and E. Riis, "Interferometric frequency measurement of Te2130 reference transitions at 486 nm," Phys. Rev. A 41, 4632-4635 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. McIntyre and T. W. Hänsch, "Interferometric frequency measurement of a Te2130 reference line for muonium 1S-2S spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 36, 4115-4118 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. McIntyre and T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute calibration to the Te2130 reference line for positronium 1S13-2S13 spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 34, 4504-4507 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hlousek, L.

Hogervorst, W.

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, "A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-655 nm," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, "A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571-596 nm," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21-27 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

T. Dennis, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. L. Gilbert, "Wavelength references for 1300-nm wavelength-division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 804-810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holt, R. A.

T. J. Scholl, S. J. Rehse, R. A. Holt, and S. D. Rosner, "A broadband precision wavelength meter based on a scanning Fabry-Pérot interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3318-3326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

R. Grieser, G. Bönsch, S. Dickopf, G. Huber, R. Klein, P. Merz, A. Nicolaus, and H. Schnatz, "Precision measurement of two iodine lines at 585 nm and 549 nm," Z. Phys. A 342, 147-150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Keller, R. A.

B. A. Palmer, R. A. Keller, and R. Engleman, Jr., "An atlas of uranium emission intensities in a hollow cathode discharge," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Rep. LA-8251-MS (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., 1980).

Klein, R.

R. Grieser, G. Bönsch, S. Dickopf, G. Huber, R. Klein, P. Merz, A. Nicolaus, and H. Schnatz, "Precision measurement of two iodine lines at 585 nm and 549 nm," Z. Phys. A 342, 147-150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Knöcke, H.

B. Bodermann, H. Knöcke, and E. Tiemann, "Widely usable interpolation formulae for hyperfine splittings in the I2127 spectrum," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 31-44 (2002), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

Kwon, T. Y.

S. E. Park, H. S. Lee, T. Y. Kwon, and H. Cho, "Dispersion-like signals in velocity-selective saturated-absorption spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 192, 49-55 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

S. E. Park, H. S. Lee, T. Y. Kwon, and H. Cho, "Dispersion-like signals in velocity-selective saturated-absorption spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 192, 49-55 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. A.

D. H. McIntyre, W. M. Fairbank, Jr., S. A. Lee, T. W. Hänsch, and E. Riis, "Interferometric frequency measurement of Te2130 reference transitions at 486 nm," Phys. Rev. A 41, 4632-4635 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lichten, W.

D. Shiner, J. M. Gilligan, B. M. Cook, and W. Lichten, "H2,D2, and HD ionization potentials by accurate calibration of several iodine lines," Phys. Rev. A 47, 4042-4045 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lichten, "Precise wavelength measurements and optical phase shifts. I. General theory," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1869-1876 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Luc, P.

J. Cariou and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule de Tellure. 2: 18500-21200 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1980).

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule d'Iode entre 19700-20035 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1983).

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule d'Iode entre 14000-15600 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1978).

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, and A. Raynal, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule de Brome entre 11600-19600 cm^-1, Volume I et II (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1985).

J. Cariou and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule de Tellure. 5: 21100-23800 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1980).

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule d'Iode entre 14800-20000 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1978).

Ma, L. S.

Ph. Courteille, L. S. Ma, W. Neuhauser, and R. Blatt, "Frequency measurement of Te2130 resonances near 467 nm," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 187-193 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Machol, R. E.

R. E. Machol and E. R. Westrum, Jr., "Vapor pressure of liquid tellurium," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2950-2952 (1958).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, D. H.

D. H. McIntyre, W. M. Fairbank, Jr., S. A. Lee, T. W. Hänsch, and E. Riis, "Interferometric frequency measurement of Te2130 reference transitions at 486 nm," Phys. Rev. A 41, 4632-4635 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. McIntyre and T. W. Hänsch, "Interferometric frequency measurement of a Te2130 reference line for muonium 1S-2S spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 36, 4115-4118 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. McIntyre and T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute calibration to the Te2130 reference line for positronium 1S13-2S13 spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 34, 4504-4507 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meissner, K. W.

Merz, P.

R. Grieser, G. Bönsch, S. Dickopf, G. Huber, R. Klein, P. Merz, A. Nicolaus, and H. Schnatz, "Precision measurement of two iodine lines at 585 nm and 549 nm," Z. Phys. A 342, 147-150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

Neuhauser, W.

Ph. Courteille, L. S. Ma, W. Neuhauser, and R. Blatt, "Frequency measurement of Te2130 resonances near 467 nm," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 187-193 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaus, A.

R. Grieser, G. Bönsch, S. Dickopf, G. Huber, R. Klein, P. Merz, A. Nicolaus, and H. Schnatz, "Precision measurement of two iodine lines at 585 nm and 549 nm," Z. Phys. A 342, 147-150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

T. Dennis, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. L. Gilbert, "Wavelength references for 1300-nm wavelength-division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 804-810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, B. A.

B. A. Palmer and R. Engleman, Jr., "Atlas of the thorium spectrum," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Rep. LA-9615 (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., 1983).

B. A. Palmer, R. A. Keller, and R. Engleman, Jr., "An atlas of uranium emission intensities in a hollow cathode discharge," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Rep. LA-8251-MS (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., 1980).

Park, S. E.

S. E. Park, H. S. Lee, T. Y. Kwon, and H. Cho, "Dispersion-like signals in velocity-selective saturated-absorption spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 192, 49-55 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petley, B. W.

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, J. L. Flowers, and B. W. Petley, "Interferometric measurements of Te2130 reference frequencies for 1S-2S transitions in hydrogenlike atoms," Phys. Rev. A 43, 4783-4790 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre (1997)," Metrologia 36, 211-244 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raynal, A.

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, and A. Raynal, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule de Brome entre 11600-19600 cm^-1, Volume I et II (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1985).

Rehse, S. J.

T. J. Scholl, S. J. Rehse, R. A. Holt, and S. D. Rosner, "A broadband precision wavelength meter based on a scanning Fabry-Pérot interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3318-3326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Riis, E.

D. H. McIntyre, W. M. Fairbank, Jr., S. A. Lee, T. W. Hänsch, and E. Riis, "Interferometric frequency measurement of Te2130 reference transitions at 486 nm," Phys. Rev. A 41, 4632-4635 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosner, S. D.

T. J. Scholl, S. J. Rehse, R. A. Holt, and S. D. Rosner, "A broadband precision wavelength meter based on a scanning Fabry-Pérot interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3318-3326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rowley, W. R. C.

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, J. L. Flowers, and B. W. Petley, "Interferometric measurements of Te2130 reference frequencies for 1S-2S transitions in hydrogenlike atoms," Phys. Rev. A 43, 4783-4790 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, A. I. Ferguson, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, W. R. C. Rowley, and R. C. Thompson, "Interferometric frequency measurements of Te2130 transitions at 486 nm," Opt. Commun. 54, 217-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sansonetti, C. J.

C. J. Sansonetti, "Precise measurements of hyperfine components in the spectrum of molecular iodine," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1913-1920 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Gillaspy and C. J. Sansonetti, "Absolute wavelength determinations in molecular tellurium: new reference lines for precision laser spectroscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2414-2419 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Sansonetti, "Precise laser wavelength measurements: what can we learn from classical spectroscopy?" in Advances in Laser Science IV, J.L.Gole, D.F.Heller, M.Lapp, and W.C.Stwalley, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1988), pp. 548-553.

Schawlow, A. L.

M. S. Sorem and A. L. Schawlow, "Saturation spectroscopy in molecular iodine by intermodulated fluorescence," Opt. Commun. 5, 148-151 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schnatz, H.

R. Grieser, G. Bönsch, S. Dickopf, G. Huber, R. Klein, P. Merz, A. Nicolaus, and H. Schnatz, "Precision measurement of two iodine lines at 585 nm and 549 nm," Z. Phys. A 342, 147-150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scholl, T. J.

T. J. Scholl, S. J. Rehse, R. A. Holt, and S. D. Rosner, "A broadband precision wavelength meter based on a scanning Fabry-Pérot interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3318-3326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shiner, D.

D. Shiner, J. M. Gilligan, B. M. Cook, and W. Lichten, "H2,D2, and HD ionization potentials by accurate calibration of several iodine lines," Phys. Rev. A 47, 4042-4045 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorem, M. S.

M. S. Sorem and A. L. Schawlow, "Saturation spectroscopy in molecular iodine by intermodulated fluorescence," Opt. Commun. 5, 148-151 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W. C.

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1560-1630-nm carbon monoxide wavelength-calibration lines," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2461-2467 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Gilbert, S. M. Etzel, and W. C. Swann, "Wavelength accuracy in WDM: techniques and standards for component characterization," in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 391-393.

Thompson, R. C.

J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, A. I. Ferguson, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, W. R. C. Rowley, and R. C. Thompson, "Interferometric frequency measurements of Te2130 transitions at 486 nm," Opt. Commun. 54, 217-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tiemann, E.

B. Bodermann, H. Knöcke, and E. Tiemann, "Widely usable interpolation formulae for hyperfine splittings in the I2127 spectrum," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 31-44 (2002), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Ubachs, W.

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, "A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-655 nm," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, "A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571-596 nm," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21-27 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Dierendonck, R.

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, "A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-655 nm," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, "A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571-596 nm," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21-27 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velchev, I.

I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, "A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571-596 nm," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21-27 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westrum, E. R.

R. E. Machol and E. R. Westrum, Jr., "Vapor pressure of liquid tellurium," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2950-2952 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S. C.

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, "A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-655 nm," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

Ph. Courteille, L. S. Ma, W. Neuhauser, and R. Blatt, "Frequency measurement of Te2130 resonances near 467 nm," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 59, 187-193 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

B. Bodermann, H. Knöcke, and E. Tiemann, "Widely usable interpolation formulae for hyperfine splittings in the I2127 spectrum," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 31-44 (2002), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

R. E. Machol and E. R. Westrum, Jr., "Vapor pressure of liquid tellurium," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2950-2952 (1958).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. Dennis, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. L. Gilbert, "Wavelength references for 1300-nm wavelength-division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 804-810 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (2)

S. C. Xu, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, "A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595-655 nm," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256-266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Velchev, R. van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, "A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 571-596 nm," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 187, 21-27 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

J. Phys. (Paris) (1)

H. Buisson and Ch. Fabry, "Mesures de longueurs d'onde pour l'établissement d'un système de repères spectroscopiques," J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 169-195 (1908).

J. Phys., 3rd Series (1)

R. Benoit, "Application des phénomènes d'interférence a des déterminations métrologiques," J. Phys., 3rd Series , 7, 57-68 (1898).

Metrologia (1)

T. J. Quinn, "Practical realization of the definition of the metre (1997)," Metrologia 36, 211-244 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

J. R. M. Barr, J. M. Girkin, A. I. Ferguson, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, W. R. C. Rowley, and R. C. Thompson, "Interferometric frequency measurements of Te2130 transitions at 486 nm," Opt. Commun. 54, 217-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Guelachvili, "Absolute wavenumber measurements of 1-0, 2-0, HF and 2-0, H35Cl,H37Cl absorption bands," Opt. Commun. 19, 150-154 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Park, H. S. Lee, T. Y. Kwon, and H. Cho, "Dispersion-like signals in velocity-selective saturated-absorption spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 192, 49-55 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Sorem and A. L. Schawlow, "Saturation spectroscopy in molecular iodine by intermodulated fluorescence," Opt. Commun. 5, 148-151 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (5)

D. Shiner, J. M. Gilligan, B. M. Cook, and W. Lichten, "H2,D2, and HD ionization potentials by accurate calibration of several iodine lines," Phys. Rev. A 47, 4042-4045 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. McIntyre and T. W. Hänsch, "Absolute calibration to the Te2130 reference line for positronium 1S13-2S13 spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 34, 4504-4507 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. McIntyre and T. W. Hänsch, "Interferometric frequency measurement of a Te2130 reference line for muonium 1S-2S spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 36, 4115-4118 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. McIntyre, W. M. Fairbank, Jr., S. A. Lee, T. W. Hänsch, and E. Riis, "Interferometric frequency measurement of Te2130 reference transitions at 486 nm," Phys. Rev. A 41, 4632-4635 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, J. L. Flowers, and B. W. Petley, "Interferometric measurements of Te2130 reference frequencies for 1S-2S transitions in hydrogenlike atoms," Phys. Rev. A 43, 4783-4790 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. J. Scholl, S. J. Rehse, R. A. Holt, and S. D. Rosner, "A broadband precision wavelength meter based on a scanning Fabry-Pérot interferometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3318-3326 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. A (1)

R. Grieser, G. Bönsch, S. Dickopf, G. Huber, R. Klein, P. Merz, A. Nicolaus, and H. Schnatz, "Precision measurement of two iodine lines at 585 nm and 549 nm," Z. Phys. A 342, 147-150 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

S. L. Gilbert, S. M. Etzel, and W. C. Swann, "Wavelength accuracy in WDM: techniques and standards for component characterization," in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 70 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 391-393.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule d'Iode entre 14800-20000 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1978).

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule d'Iode entre 14000-15600 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1978).

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule d'Iode entre 19700-20035 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1983).

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, and A. Raynal, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule de Brome entre 11600-19600 cm^-1, Volume I et II (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1985).

J. Cariou and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule de Tellure. 5: 21100-23800 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1980).

J. Cariou and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d'Absorption de la Molécule de Tellure. 2: 18500-21200 cm^-1 (Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1980).

C. J. Sansonetti, "Precise laser wavelength measurements: what can we learn from classical spectroscopy?" in Advances in Laser Science IV, J.L.Gole, D.F.Heller, M.Lapp, and W.C.Stwalley, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1988), pp. 548-553.

B. A. Palmer and R. Engleman, Jr., "Atlas of the thorium spectrum," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Rep. LA-9615 (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., 1983).

B. A. Palmer, R. A. Keller, and R. Engleman, Jr., "An atlas of uranium emission intensities in a hollow cathode discharge," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Rep. LA-8251-MS (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M., 1980).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic apparatus diagram. (a) A major portion of the light from a single-frequency cw dye laser is split into separate pump and probe beams modulated by a dual-frequency chopping wheel and overlapped in a heated Te 2 cell. Feedback from the sum-frequency signal detected by a lock-in amplifier is used to lock the frequency of the dye laser to the saturated absorption signal. (b) The remaining dye laser light is directed to a Fabry–Pérot wavelength meter and to a Michelson wavelength meter (for coarse wavelength measurement). Light from the dye laser and a He–Ne laser offset locked to an I 2 -stabilized He–Ne laser alternately illuminates the etalon, producing interference ring patterns on a photodiode array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Doppler-free saturated-absorption profile of the Te 2 line at 22 634 cm 1 . The linewidth (FWHM) is 17 MHz. The cell temperature was 502°C corresponding to a vapor pressure of 91 Pa, and the pump beam and probe beam powers were approximately 100 mW and 10 mW, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wave-number-dependent phase correction δ ( σ ) resulting from reflections at the FP etalon mirrors, measured previously[30] by use of the method of virtual mirrors for seven different spacings. The results for δ ( σ ) measured at 10 different wave numbers have been fitted to a straight line for interpolation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Residuals for all wave-number measurements calculated by comparison of individual measurements with their weighted means. The standard deviation of the resulting histogram of 457 measurements is 0.97 MHz. This estimate of the measurement reproducibility is the dominant contribution to the final measurement uncertainty.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Wave Numbers and Approximate Air Wavelengths for Doppler-free Transitions in Te 2 130 at a Temperature of 502(6)°C Corresponding to a Vapor Pressure of 91(13) Pa. a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Systematic and Statistical Measurement Uncertainties (One Standard Deviation)

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

p P + ϵ = 2 t σ ,
σ = P + ϵ P ref + ϵ ref σ ref .
P + ϵ + δ ( σ ) = 2 t σ .
σ = σ meas + δ ( σ ) 2 t .
r j 2 = s ( j 1 + ϵ ) .

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