Abstract

Crack-free polycrystalline BaTiO3 films of up to 1-µm thickness were grown on silicon and on silicon-on-sapphire (SoS) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The quality of films of different thickness was studied, particularly the onset of the formation of cracks. The crystallinity of the films was confirmed by x-ray diffraction measurements. The thickness and composition of the films were examined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The optical properties (index of refraction and damping) of planar BaTiO3 waveguides were determined with a prism coupling setup. The films showed an optical attenuation of less than 2 dB/cm and a birefringence of up to 0.01.

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  1. A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. S. Touloukian and C. Y. Ho, "Thermophysical properties of matter," in The TPRC Data Series Vol. 13: Thermal Expansion Nonmetallic Solids (Plenum, New York, 1977), p. 554.
  3. J. P. Nair and I. Lubomirsky, "Elastic deformation in thin freestanding ferroelectric films," Adv. Eng. Mater. 4, 604-607 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, J. R. Conner, E. D. Specht, and D. E. Zelmon, "Molecular beam epitaxy growth of epitaxial barium silicide, barium oxide, and barium titanate on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 782-784 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Niu, A. R. Teren, B. H. Hoerman, and B. W. Wessels, "Epitaxial ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films for microphotonic applications," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 637, E1.9.1-E1.9.6 (2001).
  6. S. B. Desu, "Influence of stresses on the properties of ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films," J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2981-2987 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. D. Cullity, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction , 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley Series in Metallurgy and Materials (Addison-Wesley Reading, Mass., 1978), p. 356.
  8. D. J. Towner, J. Ni, T. J. Marks, and B. W. Wessels, "Effects of two-stage deposition on the structure and properties of heteroepitaxial BaTiO3 thin films," J. Cryst. Growth 255, 107-113 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Ulrich and R. Torge, "Measurement of thin film parameters with a prism coupler," Appl. Opt. 12, 2901-2908 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, O. Trithaveesak, and Ch. Buchal, "Electro-optic Mach-Zehnder modulators with polycrystalline BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 748, U11.2.1-U11.2.6 (2003).
  11. L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, E. D. Specht, and K. B. Alexander, "The MBE growth and optical quality of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 341, 309-314 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, and B. W. Wessels, "Polarisation-insensitive Si3N4 strip-loaded BaTiO3 thin waveguide with low propagation losses," Electron. Lett. 39, 1651-1652 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. J. Towner, J. Ni, T. J. Marks, and B. W. Wessels, "Effects of two-stage deposition on the structure and properties of heteroepitaxial BaTiO3 thin films," J. Cryst. Growth 255, 107-113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, O. Trithaveesak, and Ch. Buchal, "Electro-optic Mach-Zehnder modulators with polycrystalline BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 748, U11.2.1-U11.2.6 (2003).

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, and B. W. Wessels, "Polarisation-insensitive Si3N4 strip-loaded BaTiO3 thin waveguide with low propagation losses," Electron. Lett. 39, 1651-1652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Nair and I. Lubomirsky, "Elastic deformation in thin freestanding ferroelectric films," Adv. Eng. Mater. 4, 604-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

F. Niu, A. R. Teren, B. H. Hoerman, and B. W. Wessels, "Epitaxial ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films for microphotonic applications," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 637, E1.9.1-E1.9.6 (2001).

1998 (1)

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, E. D. Specht, and K. B. Alexander, "The MBE growth and optical quality of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 341, 309-314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. B. Desu, "Influence of stresses on the properties of ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films," J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2981-2987 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, J. R. Conner, E. D. Specht, and D. E. Zelmon, "Molecular beam epitaxy growth of epitaxial barium silicide, barium oxide, and barium titanate on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 782-784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Alexander, K. B.

R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, E. D. Specht, and K. B. Alexander, "The MBE growth and optical quality of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 341, 309-314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, L.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buchal, Ch.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, O. Trithaveesak, and Ch. Buchal, "Electro-optic Mach-Zehnder modulators with polycrystalline BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 748, U11.2.1-U11.2.6 (2003).

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Conner, J. R.

R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, J. R. Conner, E. D. Specht, and D. E. Zelmon, "Molecular beam epitaxy growth of epitaxial barium silicide, barium oxide, and barium titanate on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 782-784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Desu, S. B.

S. B. Desu, "Influence of stresses on the properties of ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films," J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2981-2987 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eckau, A.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hoerman, B. H.

F. Niu, A. R. Teren, B. H. Hoerman, and B. W. Wessels, "Epitaxial ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films for microphotonic applications," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 637, E1.9.1-E1.9.6 (2001).

Leinenbach, P.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lubomirsky, I.

J. P. Nair and I. Lubomirsky, "Elastic deformation in thin freestanding ferroelectric films," Adv. Eng. Mater. 4, 604-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marks, T. J.

D. J. Towner, J. Ni, T. J. Marks, and B. W. Wessels, "Effects of two-stage deposition on the structure and properties of heteroepitaxial BaTiO3 thin films," J. Cryst. Growth 255, 107-113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McKee, R. A.

R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, E. D. Specht, and K. B. Alexander, "The MBE growth and optical quality of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 341, 309-314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, J. R. Conner, E. D. Specht, and D. E. Zelmon, "Molecular beam epitaxy growth of epitaxial barium silicide, barium oxide, and barium titanate on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 782-784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Meier, A. L.

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, and B. W. Wessels, "Polarisation-insensitive Si3N4 strip-loaded BaTiO3 thin waveguide with low propagation losses," Electron. Lett. 39, 1651-1652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nair , J. P.

J. P. Nair and I. Lubomirsky, "Elastic deformation in thin freestanding ferroelectric films," Adv. Eng. Mater. 4, 604-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ni, J.

D. J. Towner, J. Ni, T. J. Marks, and B. W. Wessels, "Effects of two-stage deposition on the structure and properties of heteroepitaxial BaTiO3 thin films," J. Cryst. Growth 255, 107-113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Niu, F.

F. Niu, A. R. Teren, B. H. Hoerman, and B. W. Wessels, "Epitaxial ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films for microphotonic applications," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 637, E1.9.1-E1.9.6 (2001).

Petraru, A.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, O. Trithaveesak, and Ch. Buchal, "Electro-optic Mach-Zehnder modulators with polycrystalline BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 748, U11.2.1-U11.2.6 (2003).

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, M.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, O. Trithaveesak, and Ch. Buchal, "Electro-optic Mach-Zehnder modulators with polycrystalline BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 748, U11.2.1-U11.2.6 (2003).

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, J.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, O. Trithaveesak, and Ch. Buchal, "Electro-optic Mach-Zehnder modulators with polycrystalline BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 748, U11.2.1-U11.2.6 (2003).

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Specht, E. D.

R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, E. D. Specht, and K. B. Alexander, "The MBE growth and optical quality of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 341, 309-314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, J. R. Conner, E. D. Specht, and D. E. Zelmon, "Molecular beam epitaxy growth of epitaxial barium silicide, barium oxide, and barium titanate on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 782-784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tang, P.

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, and B. W. Wessels, "Polarisation-insensitive Si3N4 strip-loaded BaTiO3 thin waveguide with low propagation losses," Electron. Lett. 39, 1651-1652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Teren, A. R.

F. Niu, A. R. Teren, B. H. Hoerman, and B. W. Wessels, "Epitaxial ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films for microphotonic applications," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 637, E1.9.1-E1.9.6 (2001).

Torge, R.

Towner, D. J.

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, and B. W. Wessels, "Polarisation-insensitive Si3N4 strip-loaded BaTiO3 thin waveguide with low propagation losses," Electron. Lett. 39, 1651-1652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Towner, J. Ni, T. J. Marks, and B. W. Wessels, "Effects of two-stage deposition on the structure and properties of heteroepitaxial BaTiO3 thin films," J. Cryst. Growth 255, 107-113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trithaveesak, O.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, O. Trithaveesak, and Ch. Buchal, "Electro-optic Mach-Zehnder modulators with polycrystalline BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 748, U11.2.1-U11.2.6 (2003).

Ulrich , R.

Walker, F. J.

R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, E. D. Specht, and K. B. Alexander, "The MBE growth and optical quality of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 341, 309-314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, J. R. Conner, E. D. Specht, and D. E. Zelmon, "Molecular beam epitaxy growth of epitaxial barium silicide, barium oxide, and barium titanate on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 782-784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, B. W.

D. J. Towner, J. Ni, T. J. Marks, and B. W. Wessels, "Effects of two-stage deposition on the structure and properties of heteroepitaxial BaTiO3 thin films," J. Cryst. Growth 255, 107-113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, and B. W. Wessels, "Polarisation-insensitive Si3N4 strip-loaded BaTiO3 thin waveguide with low propagation losses," Electron. Lett. 39, 1651-1652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Niu, A. R. Teren, B. H. Hoerman, and B. W. Wessels, "Epitaxial ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films for microphotonic applications," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 637, E1.9.1-E1.9.6 (2001).

Zander, W.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zelmon, D. E.

R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, J. R. Conner, E. D. Specht, and D. E. Zelmon, "Molecular beam epitaxy growth of epitaxial barium silicide, barium oxide, and barium titanate on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 782-784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ziesmann, J.

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Eng. Mater. (1)

J. P. Nair and I. Lubomirsky, "Elastic deformation in thin freestanding ferroelectric films," Adv. Eng. Mater. 4, 604-607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, J. R. Conner, E. D. Specht, and D. E. Zelmon, "Molecular beam epitaxy growth of epitaxial barium silicide, barium oxide, and barium titanate on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 782-784 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and Ch. Buchal, "Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1375-1377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, and B. W. Wessels, "Polarisation-insensitive Si3N4 strip-loaded BaTiO3 thin waveguide with low propagation losses," Electron. Lett. 39, 1651-1652 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Beckers, J. Schubert, W. Zander, J. Ziesmann, A. Eckau, P. Leinenbach, and Ch. Buchal, "Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial waveguiding BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3305-3310 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

D. J. Towner, J. Ni, T. J. Marks, and B. W. Wessels, "Effects of two-stage deposition on the structure and properties of heteroepitaxial BaTiO3 thin films," J. Cryst. Growth 255, 107-113 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

S. B. Desu, "Influence of stresses on the properties of ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films," J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 2981-2987 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (3)

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, O. Trithaveesak, and Ch. Buchal, "Electro-optic Mach-Zehnder modulators with polycrystalline BaTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 748, U11.2.1-U11.2.6 (2003).

F. Niu, A. R. Teren, B. H. Hoerman, and B. W. Wessels, "Epitaxial ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films for microphotonic applications," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 637, E1.9.1-E1.9.6 (2001).

R. A. McKee, F. J. Walker, E. D. Specht, and K. B. Alexander, "The MBE growth and optical quality of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 thin films on MgO," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 341, 309-314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Y. S. Touloukian and C. Y. Ho, "Thermophysical properties of matter," in The TPRC Data Series Vol. 13: Thermal Expansion Nonmetallic Solids (Plenum, New York, 1977), p. 554.

B. D. Cullity, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction , 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley Series in Metallurgy and Materials (Addison-Wesley Reading, Mass., 1978), p. 356.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental data for the critical film thickness (onset of crack formation) as a function of the growth temperature for BaTiO3 films on SiO2/Si substrates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated values for the thermally induced strain generated during cooling from the denoted starting growth temperature to room temperature for BaTiO3 films deposited on SiO2, Si and Al2O3 substrates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

θ–2θ XRD spectra of polycrystalline BaTiO3 films on Al2O3/SoS substrates grown at 450 °C (top) and 500 °C (bottom); substrate peaks are denoted by*.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

m-line spectra of a 1-µm-thick BaTiO3 film on Al2O3/SoS measured at 632.8-nm wavelength.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Experimental Results from BaTiO3 Filmsa

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