Abstract

We measured the concentration of Nd3+ in PbWO4 crystal by inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry and determined the segregation coefficient to be 0.688. The polarized absorption spectra, polarized fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence decay curves of both the as-grown and the annealed Nd3+:PbWO4 crystals were measured at room temperature. The effect of the annealing treatment on the spectroscopic properties of Nd3+:PbWO4 crystal was discussed. The experimental results show that the annealing treatment is an effective method for improvement of the spectroscopic and laser performances of Nd3+:PbWO4 crystal.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevich, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, and V. D. Legun, "Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHCEM calorimetry," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291-298 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. A. Kaminskii, C. L. McCray, H. R. Lee, S. W. Lee, D. A. Temple, T. H. Chyba, W. D. Marsh, J. C. Barnes, A. N. Annanenkov, V. D. Legun, H. J. Eichler, G. M. A. Gad, and K. Ueda, "High efficiency nanosecond Raman lasers based on tetragonal PbWO4 crystal," Opt. Commun. 183, 277-287 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. A. Kroger, Some Aspects of the Luminescence of Solids (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1948).
  4. A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichier, K. Ueda, N. V. Klassen, B. S. Redkin, L. E. Li, J. Findeisen, D. Jaque, J. Garcia-Sole, J. Fernandez, and R. Balda, "Properties of Nd3+-doped and undoped tetragonal PbWO4,NaY(WO4)2,CaWO4, and undoped monoclinic ZnWO4 and CdWO4 as laser-active and stimulated Raman scattering-active crystals," Appl. Opt. 38, 4533-4547 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Chen, Y. Inagawa, T. Omatsu, M. Tateda, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Usuki, "Diode-pumped, self-stimulating, passively Q-switched Nd3+:PbWO4 Raman laser," Opt. Commun. 194, 401-407 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Huang, X. Feng, Z. Xu, G. Zhao, G. Huang, and S. Li, "Growth and spectra properties of Nd3+-doped PbWO4 single crystal," Solid State Commun. 127, 1-5 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Zhu, X. Feng, Z. Wu, and Z. Man, "On the annealing mechanism in PbWO4 crystals," Physica B 324, 53-58 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, I. Dafinei, F. De Notaristefani, M. Diemoz, A. Festinesi, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Montecchi, and G. Organtini, "Ordinary and extraordinary complex refractive index of the lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 385, 209-214 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Lin, X. Feng, Zh. Man, Z. Shi, and Q. Zhang, "Formation of the 350 nm intrinsic color center in PbWO4 crystals," Phys. Status Solidi A 181, R1-R3 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Tanji, M. Ishii, Y. Usuki, M. Kobayashi, K. Hara, H. Takano, and N. Senguttuvan, "Crystal growth of PbWO4 by the vertical Bridgman method: effect of crucible thickness and melt composition," J. Cryst. Growth 204, 505-511 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Kim, H. Yang, K. Chang, H. Park, M. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Song, Y. Cho, and S. Lee, "Effects of pre-anneal treatment on the optical characteristics of lead tungstate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 201, 117-122 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. J. Zayhowski and A. Mooradian, "Single-frequency microchip Nd lasers," Opt. Lett. 14, 24-26 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J. Huignard, and J. P. Pocholle, "Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577-585 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. J. Alfrey, O. M. Stafsudd, B. Dunn, and D. L. Yang, "Analysis of the absorption spectrum of neodymium: sodium beta double prime alumina," J. Chem. Phys. 88, 707-716 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990).
  18. W. F. Krupke, "Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth-doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals," Phys. Rev. 145, 325-337 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electron energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+,Nd3+,Sm3+,Dy3+,Ho3+,Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, "Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements," Opt. Commun. 134, 415-422 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. A. Kaminskii, G. Boulon, M. Buoncristiani, B. D. Bartolo, A. Kornienko, and V. Mironov, "Spectroscopy of a new garnet Lu3Sc2Ga3O12:Nd3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 141, 471-494 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, "Vibronic interaction in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925-930 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized Raman spectra of the oriented NaY(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 single crystals," J. Mol. Struct. 555, 289-297 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. P. Singh, K. K. Sharma, and I. S. Minhas, "Analysis of the optical spectra of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in PbWO4 single crystal," J. Phys. C 19, 6655-6663 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. L. Zhu, X. Q. Feng, Y. L. Huang, Q. S. Lin, and Z. H. Wu, "Doping mechanism of heavily doped PbWO4:La3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 193, 211-216 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. DeShazer, "Vanadate crystals exploit diode-pumped technology," Laser Focus World 30, 88-90 , 92-93 (1994).
  27. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992).
  28. G. J. C. Bermadez, V. J. Pinto-Robledo, A. V. Kir'yanov, and M. J. Damzen, "The thermo-lensing effect in a grazing incidence, diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," Opt. Commun. 210, 75-82 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Huang, X. Feng, Z. Xu, G. Zhao, G. Huang, and S. Li, "Growth and spectra properties of Nd3+-doped PbWO4 single crystal," Solid State Commun. 127, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

W. Zhu, X. Feng, Z. Wu, and Z. Man, "On the annealing mechanism in PbWO4 crystals," Physica B 324, 53-58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Zhu, X. Q. Feng, Y. L. Huang, Q. S. Lin, and Z. H. Wu, "Doping mechanism of heavily doped PbWO4:La3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 193, 211-216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. J. C. Bermadez, V. J. Pinto-Robledo, A. V. Kir'yanov, and M. J. Damzen, "The thermo-lensing effect in a grazing incidence, diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," Opt. Commun. 210, 75-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

W. Chen, Y. Inagawa, T. Omatsu, M. Tateda, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Usuki, "Diode-pumped, self-stimulating, passively Q-switched Nd3+:PbWO4 Raman laser," Opt. Commun. 194, 401-407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Kim, H. Yang, K. Chang, H. Park, M. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Song, Y. Cho, and S. Lee, "Effects of pre-anneal treatment on the optical characteristics of lead tungstate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 201, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

A. A. Kaminskii, C. L. McCray, H. R. Lee, S. W. Lee, D. A. Temple, T. H. Chyba, W. D. Marsh, J. C. Barnes, A. N. Annanenkov, V. D. Legun, H. J. Eichler, G. M. A. Gad, and K. Ueda, "High efficiency nanosecond Raman lasers based on tetragonal PbWO4 crystal," Opt. Commun. 183, 277-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, X. Feng, Zh. Man, Z. Shi, and Q. Zhang, "Formation of the 350 nm intrinsic color center in PbWO4 crystals," Phys. Status Solidi A 181, R1-R3 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized Raman spectra of the oriented NaY(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 single crystals," J. Mol. Struct. 555, 289-297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J. Huignard, and J. P. Pocholle, "Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577-585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, "Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements," Opt. Commun. 134, 415-422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, I. Dafinei, F. De Notaristefani, M. Diemoz, A. Festinesi, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Montecchi, and G. Organtini, "Ordinary and extraordinary complex refractive index of the lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 385, 209-214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevich, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, and V. D. Legun, "Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHCEM calorimetry," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291-298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

A. A. Kaminskii, G. Boulon, M. Buoncristiani, B. D. Bartolo, A. Kornienko, and V. Mironov, "Spectroscopy of a new garnet Lu3Sc2Ga3O12:Nd3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 141, 471-494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. DeShazer, "Vanadate crystals exploit diode-pumped technology," Laser Focus World 30, 88-90 , 92-93 (1994).

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

A. J. Alfrey, O. M. Stafsudd, B. Dunn, and D. L. Yang, "Analysis of the absorption spectrum of neodymium: sodium beta double prime alumina," J. Chem. Phys. 88, 707-716 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

B. P. Singh, K. K. Sharma, and I. S. Minhas, "Analysis of the optical spectra of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in PbWO4 single crystal," J. Phys. C 19, 6655-6663 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, "Vibronic interaction in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925-930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electron energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+,Nd3+,Sm3+,Dy3+,Ho3+,Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

W. F. Krupke, "Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth-doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals," Phys. Rev. 145, 325-337 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Alfrey, A. J.

A. J. Alfrey, O. M. Stafsudd, B. Dunn, and D. L. Yang, "Analysis of the absorption spectrum of neodymium: sodium beta double prime alumina," J. Chem. Phys. 88, 707-716 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Annanenkov, A. N.

A. A. Kaminskii, C. L. McCray, H. R. Lee, S. W. Lee, D. A. Temple, T. H. Chyba, W. D. Marsh, J. C. Barnes, A. N. Annanenkov, V. D. Legun, H. J. Eichler, G. M. A. Gad, and K. Ueda, "High efficiency nanosecond Raman lasers based on tetragonal PbWO4 crystal," Opt. Commun. 183, 277-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevich, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, and V. D. Legun, "Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHCEM calorimetry," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291-298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Auffray, E.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevich, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, and V. D. Legun, "Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHCEM calorimetry," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291-298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aull , B. F.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, "Vibronic interaction in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925-930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Baccaro, S.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, I. Dafinei, F. De Notaristefani, M. Diemoz, A. Festinesi, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Montecchi, and G. Organtini, "Ordinary and extraordinary complex refractive index of the lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 385, 209-214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

Barnes, J. C.

A. A. Kaminskii, C. L. McCray, H. R. Lee, S. W. Lee, D. A. Temple, T. H. Chyba, W. D. Marsh, J. C. Barnes, A. N. Annanenkov, V. D. Legun, H. J. Eichler, G. M. A. Gad, and K. Ueda, "High efficiency nanosecond Raman lasers based on tetragonal PbWO4 crystal," Opt. Commun. 183, 277-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barone, L. M.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, I. Dafinei, F. De Notaristefani, M. Diemoz, A. Festinesi, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Montecchi, and G. Organtini, "Ordinary and extraordinary complex refractive index of the lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 385, 209-214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bartolo, B. D.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. Boulon, M. Buoncristiani, B. D. Bartolo, A. Kornienko, and V. Mironov, "Spectroscopy of a new garnet Lu3Sc2Ga3O12:Nd3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 141, 471-494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bermadez, G. J. C.

G. J. C. Bermadez, V. J. Pinto-Robledo, A. V. Kir'yanov, and M. J. Damzen, "The thermo-lensing effect in a grazing incidence, diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," Opt. Commun. 210, 75-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borgia, B.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, I. Dafinei, F. De Notaristefani, M. Diemoz, A. Festinesi, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Montecchi, and G. Organtini, "Ordinary and extraordinary complex refractive index of the lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 385, 209-214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. Boulon, M. Buoncristiani, B. D. Bartolo, A. Kornienko, and V. Mironov, "Spectroscopy of a new garnet Lu3Sc2Ga3O12:Nd3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 141, 471-494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brignon, A.

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J. Huignard, and J. P. Pocholle, "Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577-585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buoncristiani, M.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. Boulon, M. Buoncristiani, B. D. Bartolo, A. Kornienko, and V. Mironov, "Spectroscopy of a new garnet Lu3Sc2Ga3O12:Nd3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 141, 471-494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electron energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+,Nd3+,Sm3+,Dy3+,Ho3+,Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Castelli, F.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, I. Dafinei, F. De Notaristefani, M. Diemoz, A. Festinesi, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Montecchi, and G. Organtini, "Ordinary and extraordinary complex refractive index of the lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 385, 209-214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cavallari, F.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, I. Dafinei, F. De Notaristefani, M. Diemoz, A. Festinesi, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Montecchi, and G. Organtini, "Ordinary and extraordinary complex refractive index of the lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 385, 209-214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K.

D. Kim, H. Yang, K. Chang, H. Park, M. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Song, Y. Cho, and S. Lee, "Effects of pre-anneal treatment on the optical characteristics of lead tungstate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 201, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, Y. Inagawa, T. Omatsu, M. Tateda, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Usuki, "Diode-pumped, self-stimulating, passively Q-switched Nd3+:PbWO4 Raman laser," Opt. Commun. 194, 401-407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, "Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements," Opt. Commun. 134, 415-422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.

D. Kim, H. Yang, K. Chang, H. Park, M. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Song, Y. Cho, and S. Lee, "Effects of pre-anneal treatment on the optical characteristics of lead tungstate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 201, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chyba, T. H.

A. A. Kaminskii, C. L. McCray, H. R. Lee, S. W. Lee, D. A. Temple, T. H. Chyba, W. D. Marsh, J. C. Barnes, A. N. Annanenkov, V. D. Legun, H. J. Eichler, G. M. A. Gad, and K. Ueda, "High efficiency nanosecond Raman lasers based on tetragonal PbWO4 crystal," Opt. Commun. 183, 277-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dafinei, I.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, I. Dafinei, F. De Notaristefani, M. Diemoz, A. Festinesi, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Montecchi, and G. Organtini, "Ordinary and extraordinary complex refractive index of the lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 385, 209-214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevich, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, and V. D. Legun, "Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHCEM calorimetry," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291-298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Damzen, M. J.

G. J. C. Bermadez, V. J. Pinto-Robledo, A. V. Kir'yanov, and M. J. Damzen, "The thermo-lensing effect in a grazing incidence, diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," Opt. Commun. 210, 75-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Notaristefani, F.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, I. Dafinei, F. De Notaristefani, M. Diemoz, A. Festinesi, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Montecchi, and G. Organtini, "Ordinary and extraordinary complex refractive index of the lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 385, 209-214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DeShazer, L.

L. DeShazer, "Vanadate crystals exploit diode-pumped technology," Laser Focus World 30, 88-90 , 92-93 (1994).

Diemoz, M.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, I. Dafinei, F. De Notaristefani, M. Diemoz, A. Festinesi, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Montecchi, and G. Organtini, "Ordinary and extraordinary complex refractive index of the lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 385, 209-214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, B.

A. J. Alfrey, O. M. Stafsudd, B. Dunn, and D. L. Yang, "Analysis of the absorption spectrum of neodymium: sodium beta double prime alumina," J. Chem. Phys. 88, 707-716 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Eichier, H. J.

Eichler, H. J.

A. A. Kaminskii, C. L. McCray, H. R. Lee, S. W. Lee, D. A. Temple, T. H. Chyba, W. D. Marsh, J. C. Barnes, A. N. Annanenkov, V. D. Legun, H. J. Eichler, G. M. A. Gad, and K. Ueda, "High efficiency nanosecond Raman lasers based on tetragonal PbWO4 crystal," Opt. Commun. 183, 277-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, A. A.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevich, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, and V. D. Legun, "Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHCEM calorimetry," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291-298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

Y. Huang, X. Feng, Z. Xu, G. Zhao, G. Huang, and S. Li, "Growth and spectra properties of Nd3+-doped PbWO4 single crystal," Solid State Commun. 127, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhu, X. Feng, Z. Wu, and Z. Man, "On the annealing mechanism in PbWO4 crystals," Physica B 324, 53-58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, X. Feng, Zh. Man, Z. Shi, and Q. Zhang, "Formation of the 350 nm intrinsic color center in PbWO4 crystals," Phys. Status Solidi A 181, R1-R3 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X. Q.

W. L. Zhu, X. Q. Feng, Y. L. Huang, Q. S. Lin, and Z. H. Wu, "Doping mechanism of heavily doped PbWO4:La3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 193, 211-216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, J.

Festinesi, A.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, I. Dafinei, F. De Notaristefani, M. Diemoz, A. Festinesi, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Montecchi, and G. Organtini, "Ordinary and extraordinary complex refractive index of the lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 385, 209-214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feugnet, G.

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J. Huignard, and J. P. Pocholle, "Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577-585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electron energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+,Nd3+,Sm3+,Dy3+,Ho3+,Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Findeisen, J.

Gad, G. M. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, C. L. McCray, H. R. Lee, S. W. Lee, D. A. Temple, T. H. Chyba, W. D. Marsh, J. C. Barnes, A. N. Annanenkov, V. D. Legun, H. J. Eichler, G. M. A. Gad, and K. Ueda, "High efficiency nanosecond Raman lasers based on tetragonal PbWO4 crystal," Opt. Commun. 183, 277-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Sole, J.

Hanuza, J.

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized Raman spectra of the oriented NaY(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 single crystals," J. Mol. Struct. 555, 289-297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hara, K.

K. Tanji, M. Ishii, Y. Usuki, M. Kobayashi, K. Hara, H. Takano, and N. Senguttuvan, "Crystal growth of PbWO4 by the vertical Bridgman method: effect of crucible thickness and melt composition," J. Cryst. Growth 204, 505-511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

Y. Huang, X. Feng, Z. Xu, G. Zhao, G. Huang, and S. Li, "Growth and spectra properties of Nd3+-doped PbWO4 single crystal," Solid State Commun. 127, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, X. Feng, Z. Xu, G. Zhao, G. Huang, and S. Li, "Growth and spectra properties of Nd3+-doped PbWO4 single crystal," Solid State Commun. 127, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. L.

W. L. Zhu, X. Q. Feng, Y. L. Huang, Q. S. Lin, and Z. H. Wu, "Doping mechanism of heavily doped PbWO4:La3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 193, 211-216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J.

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J. Huignard, and J. P. Pocholle, "Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577-585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Inagawa, Y.

W. Chen, Y. Inagawa, T. Omatsu, M. Tateda, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Usuki, "Diode-pumped, self-stimulating, passively Q-switched Nd3+:PbWO4 Raman laser," Opt. Commun. 194, 401-407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, M.

K. Tanji, M. Ishii, Y. Usuki, M. Kobayashi, K. Hara, H. Takano, and N. Senguttuvan, "Crystal growth of PbWO4 by the vertical Bridgman method: effect of crucible thickness and melt composition," J. Cryst. Growth 204, 505-511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

Jenssen, H. P.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, "Vibronic interaction in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925-930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized Raman spectra of the oriented NaY(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 single crystals," J. Mol. Struct. 555, 289-297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, C. L. McCray, H. R. Lee, S. W. Lee, D. A. Temple, T. H. Chyba, W. D. Marsh, J. C. Barnes, A. N. Annanenkov, V. D. Legun, H. J. Eichler, G. M. A. Gad, and K. Ueda, "High efficiency nanosecond Raman lasers based on tetragonal PbWO4 crystal," Opt. Commun. 183, 277-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichier, K. Ueda, N. V. Klassen, B. S. Redkin, L. E. Li, J. Findeisen, D. Jaque, J. Garcia-Sole, J. Fernandez, and R. Balda, "Properties of Nd3+-doped and undoped tetragonal PbWO4,NaY(WO4)2,CaWO4, and undoped monoclinic ZnWO4 and CdWO4 as laser-active and stimulated Raman scattering-active crystals," Appl. Opt. 38, 4533-4547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, G. Boulon, M. Buoncristiani, B. D. Bartolo, A. Kornienko, and V. Mironov, "Spectroscopy of a new garnet Lu3Sc2Ga3O12:Nd3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 141, 471-494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

D. Kim, H. Yang, K. Chang, H. Park, M. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Song, Y. Cho, and S. Lee, "Effects of pre-anneal treatment on the optical characteristics of lead tungstate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 201, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kir'yanov, A. V.

G. J. C. Bermadez, V. J. Pinto-Robledo, A. V. Kir'yanov, and M. J. Damzen, "The thermo-lensing effect in a grazing incidence, diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," Opt. Commun. 210, 75-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klassen, N. V.

Kobayashi, M.

K. Tanji, M. Ishii, Y. Usuki, M. Kobayashi, K. Hara, H. Takano, and N. Senguttuvan, "Crystal growth of PbWO4 by the vertical Bridgman method: effect of crucible thickness and melt composition," J. Cryst. Growth 204, 505-511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kornienko, A.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. Boulon, M. Buoncristiani, B. D. Bartolo, A. Kornienko, and V. Mironov, "Spectroscopy of a new garnet Lu3Sc2Ga3O12:Nd3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 141, 471-494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Korzhik, M. V.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevich, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, and V. D. Legun, "Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHCEM calorimetry," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291-298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kostylev, V. L.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevich, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, and V. D. Legun, "Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHCEM calorimetry," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291-298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

W. F. Krupke, "Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth-doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals," Phys. Rev. 145, 325-337 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Lecoq, P.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevich, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, and V. D. Legun, "Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHCEM calorimetry," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291-298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. R.

A. A. Kaminskii, C. L. McCray, H. R. Lee, S. W. Lee, D. A. Temple, T. H. Chyba, W. D. Marsh, J. C. Barnes, A. N. Annanenkov, V. D. Legun, H. J. Eichler, G. M. A. Gad, and K. Ueda, "High efficiency nanosecond Raman lasers based on tetragonal PbWO4 crystal," Opt. Commun. 183, 277-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

D. Kim, H. Yang, K. Chang, H. Park, M. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Song, Y. Cho, and S. Lee, "Effects of pre-anneal treatment on the optical characteristics of lead tungstate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 201, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

D. Kim, H. Yang, K. Chang, H. Park, M. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Song, Y. Cho, and S. Lee, "Effects of pre-anneal treatment on the optical characteristics of lead tungstate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 201, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

D. Kim, H. Yang, K. Chang, H. Park, M. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Song, Y. Cho, and S. Lee, "Effects of pre-anneal treatment on the optical characteristics of lead tungstate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 201, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. W.

A. A. Kaminskii, C. L. McCray, H. R. Lee, S. W. Lee, D. A. Temple, T. H. Chyba, W. D. Marsh, J. C. Barnes, A. N. Annanenkov, V. D. Legun, H. J. Eichler, G. M. A. Gad, and K. Ueda, "High efficiency nanosecond Raman lasers based on tetragonal PbWO4 crystal," Opt. Commun. 183, 277-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Legun, V. D.

A. A. Kaminskii, C. L. McCray, H. R. Lee, S. W. Lee, D. A. Temple, T. H. Chyba, W. D. Marsh, J. C. Barnes, A. N. Annanenkov, V. D. Legun, H. J. Eichler, G. M. A. Gad, and K. Ueda, "High efficiency nanosecond Raman lasers based on tetragonal PbWO4 crystal," Opt. Commun. 183, 277-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevich, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, and V. D. Legun, "Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHCEM calorimetry," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291-298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leonardi, E.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, I. Dafinei, F. De Notaristefani, M. Diemoz, A. Festinesi, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Montecchi, and G. Organtini, "Ordinary and extraordinary complex refractive index of the lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 385, 209-214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. E.

Li, S.

Y. Huang, X. Feng, Z. Xu, G. Zhao, G. Huang, and S. Li, "Growth and spectra properties of Nd3+-doped PbWO4 single crystal," Solid State Commun. 127, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Q. Lin, X. Feng, Zh. Man, Z. Shi, and Q. Zhang, "Formation of the 350 nm intrinsic color center in PbWO4 crystals," Phys. Status Solidi A 181, R1-R3 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q. S.

W. L. Zhu, X. Q. Feng, Y. L. Huang, Q. S. Lin, and Z. H. Wu, "Doping mechanism of heavily doped PbWO4:La3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 193, 211-216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Longo, E.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, I. Dafinei, F. De Notaristefani, M. Diemoz, A. Festinesi, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Montecchi, and G. Organtini, "Ordinary and extraordinary complex refractive index of the lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 385, 209-214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z.

Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, "Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements," Opt. Commun. 134, 415-422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Macalik, L.

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized Raman spectra of the oriented NaY(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 single crystals," J. Mol. Struct. 555, 289-297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Man, Z.

W. Zhu, X. Feng, Z. Wu, and Z. Man, "On the annealing mechanism in PbWO4 crystals," Physica B 324, 53-58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Man, Zh.

Q. Lin, X. Feng, Zh. Man, Z. Shi, and Q. Zhang, "Formation of the 350 nm intrinsic color center in PbWO4 crystals," Phys. Status Solidi A 181, R1-R3 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, W. D.

A. A. Kaminskii, C. L. McCray, H. R. Lee, S. W. Lee, D. A. Temple, T. H. Chyba, W. D. Marsh, J. C. Barnes, A. N. Annanenkov, V. D. Legun, H. J. Eichler, G. M. A. Gad, and K. Ueda, "High efficiency nanosecond Raman lasers based on tetragonal PbWO4 crystal," Opt. Commun. 183, 277-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McCray, C. L.

A. A. Kaminskii, C. L. McCray, H. R. Lee, S. W. Lee, D. A. Temple, T. H. Chyba, W. D. Marsh, J. C. Barnes, A. N. Annanenkov, V. D. Legun, H. J. Eichler, G. M. A. Gad, and K. Ueda, "High efficiency nanosecond Raman lasers based on tetragonal PbWO4 crystal," Opt. Commun. 183, 277-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Minhas, I. S.

B. P. Singh, K. K. Sharma, and I. S. Minhas, "Analysis of the optical spectra of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in PbWO4 single crystal," J. Phys. C 19, 6655-6663 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mironov, V.

A. A. Kaminskii, G. Boulon, M. Buoncristiani, B. D. Bartolo, A. Kornienko, and V. Mironov, "Spectroscopy of a new garnet Lu3Sc2Ga3O12:Nd3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 141, 471-494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Missevich, O. W.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevich, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, and V. D. Legun, "Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHCEM calorimetry," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291-298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Montecchi, M.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, I. Dafinei, F. De Notaristefani, M. Diemoz, A. Festinesi, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Montecchi, and G. Organtini, "Ordinary and extraordinary complex refractive index of the lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 385, 209-214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Omatsu, T.

W. Chen, Y. Inagawa, T. Omatsu, M. Tateda, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Usuki, "Diode-pumped, self-stimulating, passively Q-switched Nd3+:PbWO4 Raman laser," Opt. Commun. 194, 401-407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Organtini, G.

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, I. Dafinei, F. De Notaristefani, M. Diemoz, A. Festinesi, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Montecchi, and G. Organtini, "Ordinary and extraordinary complex refractive index of the lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 385, 209-214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

D. Kim, H. Yang, K. Chang, H. Park, M. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Song, Y. Cho, and S. Lee, "Effects of pre-anneal treatment on the optical characteristics of lead tungstate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 201, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pinto-Robledo, V. J.

G. J. C. Bermadez, V. J. Pinto-Robledo, A. V. Kir'yanov, and M. J. Damzen, "The thermo-lensing effect in a grazing incidence, diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," Opt. Commun. 210, 75-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pocholle, J. P.

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J. Huignard, and J. P. Pocholle, "Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577-585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Polenko, U. B.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevich, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, and V. D. Legun, "Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHCEM calorimetry," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291-298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electron energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+,Nd3+,Sm3+,Dy3+,Ho3+,Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Redkin, B. S.

Schneegans, M.

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevich, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, and V. D. Legun, "Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHCEM calorimetry," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291-298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Senguttuvan, N.

K. Tanji, M. Ishii, Y. Usuki, M. Kobayashi, K. Hara, H. Takano, and N. Senguttuvan, "Crystal growth of PbWO4 by the vertical Bridgman method: effect of crucible thickness and melt composition," J. Cryst. Growth 204, 505-511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, K. K.

B. P. Singh, K. K. Sharma, and I. S. Minhas, "Analysis of the optical spectra of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in PbWO4 single crystal," J. Phys. C 19, 6655-6663 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

Q. Lin, X. Feng, Zh. Man, Z. Shi, and Q. Zhang, "Formation of the 350 nm intrinsic color center in PbWO4 crystals," Phys. Status Solidi A 181, R1-R3 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Singh, B. P.

B. P. Singh, K. K. Sharma, and I. S. Minhas, "Analysis of the optical spectra of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in PbWO4 single crystal," J. Phys. C 19, 6655-6663 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

D. Kim, H. Yang, K. Chang, H. Park, M. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Song, Y. Cho, and S. Lee, "Effects of pre-anneal treatment on the optical characteristics of lead tungstate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 201, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stafsudd, O. M.

A. J. Alfrey, O. M. Stafsudd, B. Dunn, and D. L. Yang, "Analysis of the absorption spectrum of neodymium: sodium beta double prime alumina," J. Chem. Phys. 88, 707-716 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Takano, H.

K. Tanji, M. Ishii, Y. Usuki, M. Kobayashi, K. Hara, H. Takano, and N. Senguttuvan, "Crystal growth of PbWO4 by the vertical Bridgman method: effect of crucible thickness and melt composition," J. Cryst. Growth 204, 505-511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, N.

W. Chen, Y. Inagawa, T. Omatsu, M. Tateda, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Usuki, "Diode-pumped, self-stimulating, passively Q-switched Nd3+:PbWO4 Raman laser," Opt. Commun. 194, 401-407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanji, K.

K. Tanji, M. Ishii, Y. Usuki, M. Kobayashi, K. Hara, H. Takano, and N. Senguttuvan, "Crystal growth of PbWO4 by the vertical Bridgman method: effect of crucible thickness and melt composition," J. Cryst. Growth 204, 505-511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tateda, M.

W. Chen, Y. Inagawa, T. Omatsu, M. Tateda, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Usuki, "Diode-pumped, self-stimulating, passively Q-switched Nd3+:PbWO4 Raman laser," Opt. Commun. 194, 401-407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Temple, D. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, C. L. McCray, H. R. Lee, S. W. Lee, D. A. Temple, T. H. Chyba, W. D. Marsh, J. C. Barnes, A. N. Annanenkov, V. D. Legun, H. J. Eichler, G. M. A. Gad, and K. Ueda, "High efficiency nanosecond Raman lasers based on tetragonal PbWO4 crystal," Opt. Commun. 183, 277-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

A. A. Kaminskii, C. L. McCray, H. R. Lee, S. W. Lee, D. A. Temple, T. H. Chyba, W. D. Marsh, J. C. Barnes, A. N. Annanenkov, V. D. Legun, H. J. Eichler, G. M. A. Gad, and K. Ueda, "High efficiency nanosecond Raman lasers based on tetragonal PbWO4 crystal," Opt. Commun. 183, 277-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichier, K. Ueda, N. V. Klassen, B. S. Redkin, L. E. Li, J. Findeisen, D. Jaque, J. Garcia-Sole, J. Fernandez, and R. Balda, "Properties of Nd3+-doped and undoped tetragonal PbWO4,NaY(WO4)2,CaWO4, and undoped monoclinic ZnWO4 and CdWO4 as laser-active and stimulated Raman scattering-active crystals," Appl. Opt. 38, 4533-4547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Usuki, Y.

W. Chen, Y. Inagawa, T. Omatsu, M. Tateda, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Usuki, "Diode-pumped, self-stimulating, passively Q-switched Nd3+:PbWO4 Raman laser," Opt. Commun. 194, 401-407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanji, M. Ishii, Y. Usuki, M. Kobayashi, K. Hara, H. Takano, and N. Senguttuvan, "Crystal growth of PbWO4 by the vertical Bridgman method: effect of crucible thickness and melt composition," J. Cryst. Growth 204, 505-511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

W. Zhu, X. Feng, Z. Wu, and Z. Man, "On the annealing mechanism in PbWO4 crystals," Physica B 324, 53-58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. H.

W. L. Zhu, X. Q. Feng, Y. L. Huang, Q. S. Lin, and Z. H. Wu, "Doping mechanism of heavily doped PbWO4:La3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 193, 211-216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Y. Huang, X. Feng, Z. Xu, G. Zhao, G. Huang, and S. Li, "Growth and spectra properties of Nd3+-doped PbWO4 single crystal," Solid State Commun. 127, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. L.

A. J. Alfrey, O. M. Stafsudd, B. Dunn, and D. L. Yang, "Analysis of the absorption spectrum of neodymium: sodium beta double prime alumina," J. Chem. Phys. 88, 707-716 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

D. Kim, H. Yang, K. Chang, H. Park, M. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Song, Y. Cho, and S. Lee, "Effects of pre-anneal treatment on the optical characteristics of lead tungstate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 201, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zayhowski , J. J.

Zhang, Q.

Q. Lin, X. Feng, Zh. Man, Z. Shi, and Q. Zhang, "Formation of the 350 nm intrinsic color center in PbWO4 crystals," Phys. Status Solidi A 181, R1-R3 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, G.

Y. Huang, X. Feng, Z. Xu, G. Zhao, G. Huang, and S. Li, "Growth and spectra properties of Nd3+-doped PbWO4 single crystal," Solid State Commun. 127, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, T.

Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, "Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements," Opt. Commun. 134, 415-422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, W.

W. Zhu, X. Feng, Z. Wu, and Z. Man, "On the annealing mechanism in PbWO4 crystals," Physica B 324, 53-58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, W. L.

W. L. Zhu, X. Q. Feng, Y. L. Huang, Q. S. Lin, and Z. H. Wu, "Doping mechanism of heavily doped PbWO4:La3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 193, 211-216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J. Huignard, and J. P. Pocholle, "Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577-585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, "Vibronic interaction in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925-930 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Alfrey, O. M. Stafsudd, B. Dunn, and D. L. Yang, "Analysis of the absorption spectrum of neodymium: sodium beta double prime alumina," J. Chem. Phys. 88, 707-716 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electron energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+,Nd3+,Sm3+,Dy3+,Ho3+,Er3+, and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

K. Tanji, M. Ishii, Y. Usuki, M. Kobayashi, K. Hara, H. Takano, and N. Senguttuvan, "Crystal growth of PbWO4 by the vertical Bridgman method: effect of crucible thickness and melt composition," J. Cryst. Growth 204, 505-511 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Kim, H. Yang, K. Chang, H. Park, M. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Song, Y. Cho, and S. Lee, "Effects of pre-anneal treatment on the optical characteristics of lead tungstate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 201, 117-122 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. A. Kaminskii, "Polarized Raman spectra of the oriented NaY(WO4)2 and KY(WO4)2 single crystals," J. Mol. Struct. 555, 289-297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C (1)

B. P. Singh, K. K. Sharma, and I. S. Minhas, "Analysis of the optical spectra of Nd3+ and Pr3+ in PbWO4 single crystal," J. Phys. C 19, 6655-6663 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus World (1)

L. DeShazer, "Vanadate crystals exploit diode-pumped technology," Laser Focus World 30, 88-90 , 92-93 (1994).

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (2)

S. Baccaro, L. M. Barone, B. Borgia, F. Castelli, F. Cavallari, I. Dafinei, F. De Notaristefani, M. Diemoz, A. Festinesi, E. Leonardi, E. Longo, M. Montecchi, and G. Organtini, "Ordinary and extraordinary complex refractive index of the lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystal," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 385, 209-214 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Lecoq, I. Dafinei, E. Auffray, M. Schneegans, M. V. Korzhik, O. W. Missevich, U. B. Polenko, A. A. Fedorov, A. N. Annanenkov, V. L. Kostylev, and V. D. Legun, "Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHCEM calorimetry," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 365, 291-298 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

A. A. Kaminskii, C. L. McCray, H. R. Lee, S. W. Lee, D. A. Temple, T. H. Chyba, W. D. Marsh, J. C. Barnes, A. N. Annanenkov, V. D. Legun, H. J. Eichler, G. M. A. Gad, and K. Ueda, "High efficiency nanosecond Raman lasers based on tetragonal PbWO4 crystal," Opt. Commun. 183, 277-287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, Y. Inagawa, T. Omatsu, M. Tateda, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Usuki, "Diode-pumped, self-stimulating, passively Q-switched Nd3+:PbWO4 Raman laser," Opt. Commun. 194, 401-407 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, "Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements," Opt. Commun. 134, 415-422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. C. Bermadez, V. J. Pinto-Robledo, A. V. Kir'yanov, and M. J. Damzen, "The thermo-lensing effect in a grazing incidence, diode-side-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser," Opt. Commun. 210, 75-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (2)

W. F. Krupke, "Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth-doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals," Phys. Rev. 145, 325-337 (1966).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (3)

A. A. Kaminskii, G. Boulon, M. Buoncristiani, B. D. Bartolo, A. Kornienko, and V. Mironov, "Spectroscopy of a new garnet Lu3Sc2Ga3O12:Nd3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 141, 471-494 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, X. Feng, Zh. Man, Z. Shi, and Q. Zhang, "Formation of the 350 nm intrinsic color center in PbWO4 crystals," Phys. Status Solidi A 181, R1-R3 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Zhu, X. Q. Feng, Y. L. Huang, Q. S. Lin, and Z. H. Wu, "Doping mechanism of heavily doped PbWO4:La3+," Phys. Status Solidi A 193, 211-216 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Physica B (1)

W. Zhu, X. Feng, Z. Wu, and Z. Man, "On the annealing mechanism in PbWO4 crystals," Physica B 324, 53-58 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

Y. Huang, X. Feng, Z. Xu, G. Zhao, G. Huang, and S. Li, "Growth and spectra properties of Nd3+-doped PbWO4 single crystal," Solid State Commun. 127, 1-5 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

F. A. Kroger, Some Aspects of the Luminescence of Solids (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1948).

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990).

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Room-temperature polarized absorption spectra of the as-grown (solid curve) and annealed (dash curve) Nd3+:PbWO4 crystals.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Room-temperature polarized fluorescence spectra of the as-grown (solid curve) and annealed (dash curve) Nd3+:PbWO4 crystals. The exciting wavelength is 803 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Room-temperature fluorescence decay curves of the as-grown and annealed Nd3+:PbWO4 crystals at 1060 nm while it is excited at 803 nm. The fitting results of single exponential decay are 121 and 132 µs for the as-grown and annealed crystals, respectively.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mean Absorption Wavelengths and Measured and Fitted Line Strengths of the As-Grown and Annealed Nd3+:PbWO4 Crystals for Room-Temperature Polarized Absorption Spectra

Tables Icon

Table 2 Judd–Ofelt Intensity Parameters with Different Polarizations of the As-Grown and Annealed Nd3+:PbWO4 Crystals

Tables Icon

Table 3 Polarized Spontaneous Emission Probabilities and Fluorescence Branching Ratios for the  4F3/24IJ Transitions of the As-Grown and Annealed Nd3+:PbWO4 Crystals

Tables Icon

Table 4 Absorption Cross Sections σabs at Peak Absorption Wavelengths λabs and Stimulated-Emission Cross Sections σem at Peak Fluorescence Wavelengths λem with Different Polarizations for the As-Grown and Annealed Nd3+:PbWO4 Crystals

Tables Icon

Table 5 Comparison of the Spectroscopic Parameters of Nd3+:PbWO4, Nd3+:YAG, and Nd3+:YVO4 Crystals

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

no2=4.724+0.087λ2-0.073,
ne2=4.522+0.052λ2-0.071.
Sqmea(JJ)=3hc(2J+1)8π3e2λ¯abs 9nq(nq2+2)2 σqabs(λ)dλ,
Sqcal(JJ)=t=2,4,6Ωtq|4fn[αSL]JU(t)4fn[αSL]J|2,
Aq(JJ)=64π4e23h(2J+1)λ¯em3 nq(nq2+2)29×t=2,4,6Ωtq|4F3/2U(t)4IJ|2,
βq(JJ)=Aq(JJ)JAq(JJ).
σqem(λ)=λ5Aq(JJ)Iq(λ)8πcnq2λIq(λ)dλ,

Metrics