Abstract

By use of an imaging spectrometer we map the far-field (θ–λ) spectra of 200-fs optical pulses that have undergone beam collapse and filamentation in a Kerr medium. By studying the evolution of the spectra with increasing input power and by using a model based on an asymptotic linear superposition of stationary wave modes (rather than the exact instantaneous solution), we are able to trace a consistent model of optical beam collapse highlighting the interplay between conical emission, multiple pulse splitting, and other effects such as spatial chirp.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (6)

M. Kolesik, E. Wright, and J. Moloney, "Dynamic nonlinear X-waves for femtosecond pulse propagation in water," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, E. Gaizauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Light filaments without self-channeling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Three dimensional imaging of short pulses," Opt. Commun. 229, 381-390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, and A. Piskarskas, "Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X-waves," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Porras and P. Di Trapani, "Localized and stationary light wave modes in dispersive media," Phys. Rev. E 69, 066606-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Matijosius, J. Trull, P. Di Trapani, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Varanavicius, and A. Piskarskas, "Nonlinear space-time dynamics of ultrashort wave packets in water," Opt. Lett. 29, 1123-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (8)

A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, I. Diomin, and A. Varanavicius, "Self-guided propagation of femtosecond light pulses in water," Opt. Lett. 28, 1269-1271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bernstein, J. Diels, T. Luk, T. Nelson, A. McPherson, and S. Cameron, "Time resolved measurements of self focusing pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 28, 2354-2356 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, C. Conti, and S. Trillo, "Spontaneously generated X-shaped light bullets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, "Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, "Nonlinear X wavesin second harmonic generation: experimental results," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Red solitons: evidence of spatiotemporal instability in chi(2) spatial soliton dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 12390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. Kandidov, and S. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

2001 (3)

2000 (2)

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaeta, "Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582-3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

1998 (3)

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

1994 (3)

1992 (2)

1977 (1)

W. Smith, P. Liu, and N. Bloembergen, "Superbroadening in H2O and D2O by self focused picosecond pulses from a YAlG:Nd laser," Phys. Rev. A 15, 2396-2403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. Marburger, "Self-focusing: theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1965 (2)

P. L. Kelley, "Self-trapping of optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 1005-1008 (1965).
[CrossRef]

P. Lallemand and N. Bloembergen, "Self-focusing of laser beams and stimulated Raman gain in liquids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 1010-1012 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (2)

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, "Self focusing optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

M. Hercher, "Laser-induced damage in transparent media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 563 (1964).

Becker, A.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. Kandidov, and S. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bellanca, G.

Bergé, L.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and L. Bergé, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernstein, A.

Berzanskis, A.

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Red solitons: evidence of spatiotemporal instability in chi(2) spatial soliton dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 12390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blasi, G.

M. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Three dimensional imaging of short pulses," Opt. Commun. 229, 381-390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Red solitons: evidence of spatiotemporal instability in chi(2) spatial soliton dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 12390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

W. Smith, P. Liu, and N. Bloembergen, "Superbroadening in H2O and D2O by self focused picosecond pulses from a YAlG:Nd laser," Phys. Rev. A 15, 2396-2403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. Lallemand and N. Bloembergen, "Self-focusing of laser beams and stimulated Raman gain in liquids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 1010-1012 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Brodeur , A.

Brodeur, A.

Cameron, S.

Chen, C.

Chernev , P.

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, "Self focusing optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. Kandidov, and S. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. Chin, "Ultrafast white light continuum generation and self-focusing in transarent condensed media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637-650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Chen, and S. Chin, "Conical emission from laser-plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 1332-1334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clement, T.

Conti, C.

P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, C. Conti, and S. Trillo, "Spontaneously generated X-shaped light bullets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, "Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, "Nonlinear X wavesin second harmonic generation: experimental results," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. D. Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, "Coloured conical emission via second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 27, 1451-1453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

Couairon, A.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and L. Bergé, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S.

Curley, P.

Danielius, R.

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, and A. Piskarskas, "Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X-waves," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Mikalauskas, A. Dubietis, and R. Danielius, "Observation of light filaments induced in air by visible picosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 75, 899-902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Di Trapani, P.

M. Porras and P. Di Trapani, "Localized and stationary light wave modes in dispersive media," Phys. Rev. E 69, 066606-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, and A. Piskarskas, "Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X-waves," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Three dimensional imaging of short pulses," Opt. Commun. 229, 381-390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, E. Gaizauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Light filaments without self-channeling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Matijosius, J. Trull, P. Di Trapani, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Varanavicius, and A. Piskarskas, "Nonlinear space-time dynamics of ultrashort wave packets in water," Opt. Lett. 29, 1123-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, "Nonlinear X wavesin second harmonic generation: experimental results," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Red solitons: evidence of spatiotemporal instability in chi(2) spatial soliton dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 12390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, "Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, C. Conti, and S. Trillo, "Spontaneously generated X-shaped light bullets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S.

Diddams, S. A.

Diels, J.

Diomin, I.

Dorrer , C.

Dorrer, C.

Du, D.

Dubietis, A.

A. Dubietis, E. Gaizauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Light filaments without self-channeling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Matijosius, J. Trull, P. Di Trapani, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Varanavicius, and A. Piskarskas, "Nonlinear space-time dynamics of ultrashort wave packets in water," Opt. Lett. 29, 1123-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, I. Diomin, and A. Varanavicius, "Self-guided propagation of femtosecond light pulses in water," Opt. Lett. 28, 1269-1271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mikalauskas, A. Dubietis, and R. Danielius, "Observation of light filaments induced in air by visible picosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 75, 899-902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, H.

Franco, M.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and L. Bergé, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nibbering, P. Curley, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Conical emission from self guided femtosecond pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 21, 62-64 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A.

Gaizauskas, E.

A. Dubietis, E. Gaizauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Light filaments without self-channeling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallmann, L.

Garmire, E.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, "Self focusing optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Golubtsov, I.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. Kandidov, and S. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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W. Liu, S. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
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M. Hercher, "Laser-induced damage in transparent media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 563 (1964).

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Ippen, E.

Iwasaki, A.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. Kandidov, and S. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 76, 215-229 (2003).
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J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, and A. Piskarskas, "Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X-waves," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, C. Conti, and S. Trillo, "Spontaneously generated X-shaped light bullets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, "Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
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O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, "Nonlinear X wavesin second harmonic generation: experimental results," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. D. Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, "Coloured conical emission via second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 27, 1451-1453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. Kandidov, and S. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 76, 215-229 (2003).
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W. Liu, S. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
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O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Chen, and S. Chin, "Conical emission from laser-plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 1332-1334 (1997).
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M. Kolesik, E. Wright, and J. Moloney, "Dynamic nonlinear X-waves for femtosecond pulse propagation in water," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253901 (2004).
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Kosareva, O.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. Kandidov, and S. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Kosareva, V. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Chen, and S. Chin, "Conical emission from laser-plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 1332-1334 (1997).
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Kosik, E.

Kucinskas, E.

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, and A. Piskarskas, "Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X-waves," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
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W. Smith, P. Liu, and N. Bloembergen, "Superbroadening in H2O and D2O by self focused picosecond pulses from a YAlG:Nd laser," Phys. Rev. A 15, 2396-2403 (1977).
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Liu, W.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. Kandidov, and S. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
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J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, and A. Piskarskas, "Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X-waves," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
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A. Matijosius, J. Trull, P. Di Trapani, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Varanavicius, and A. Piskarskas, "Nonlinear space-time dynamics of ultrashort wave packets in water," Opt. Lett. 29, 1123-1125 (2004).
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McPherson, A.

Mikalauskas, D.

D. Mikalauskas, A. Dubietis, and R. Danielius, "Observation of light filaments induced in air by visible picosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 75, 899-902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Minardi, S.

M. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Three dimensional imaging of short pulses," Opt. Commun. 229, 381-390 (2004).
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S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Red solitons: evidence of spatiotemporal instability in chi(2) spatial soliton dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 12390 (2003).
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Mlejnek, M.

Moloney, J.

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and L. Bergé, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
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E. Nibbering, P. Curley, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Conical emission from self guided femtosecond pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 21, 62-64 (1996).
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Nelson, T.

Newell, A.

Nibbering, E.

Niedermeier, S.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 71, 573-580 (2000).
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Piskarskas, A.

M. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Three dimensional imaging of short pulses," Opt. Commun. 229, 381-390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, and A. Piskarskas, "Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X-waves," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Matijosius, J. Trull, P. Di Trapani, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Varanavicius, and A. Piskarskas, "Nonlinear space-time dynamics of ultrashort wave packets in water," Opt. Lett. 29, 1123-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Red solitons: evidence of spatiotemporal instability in chi(2) spatial soliton dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 12390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, "Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, "Nonlinear X wavesin second harmonic generation: experimental results," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, C. Conti, and S. Trillo, "Spontaneously generated X-shaped light bullets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piskarskas, R.

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M. Porras and P. Di Trapani, "Localized and stationary light wave modes in dispersive media," Phys. Rev. E 69, 066606-1 (2004).
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Potenza, M.

M. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Three dimensional imaging of short pulses," Opt. Commun. 229, 381-390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and L. Bergé, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Nibbering, P. Curley, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Conical emission from self guided femtosecond pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 21, 62-64 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rairoux, P.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ranka , J.

Rodriguez, M.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ronneberger, F.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rothenberg, J.

Rupp, T.

Salerno, D.

M. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Three dimensional imaging of short pulses," Opt. Commun. 229, 381-390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

Sauerbrey, R.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schillinger, H.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W.

W. Smith, P. Liu, and N. Bloembergen, "Superbroadening in H2O and D2O by self focused picosecond pulses from a YAlG:Nd laser," Phys. Rev. A 15, 2396-2403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

Stegeman, G.

Stein, B.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

Strickland , D.

Sudrie, L.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and L. Bergé, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutter, D.

Tamosauskas, G.

A. Dubietis, E. Gaizauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Light filaments without self-channeling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
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A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, I. Diomin, and A. Varanavicius, "Self-guided propagation of femtosecond light pulses in water," Opt. Lett. 28, 1269-1271 (2003).
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R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, "Self focusing optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
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Trapani, P. D.

Trillo, S.

P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, C. Conti, and S. Trillo, "Spontaneously generated X-shaped light bullets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, "Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, "Nonlinear X wavesin second harmonic generation: experimental results," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. D. Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, "Coloured conical emission via second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 27, 1451-1453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trull, J.

A. Matijosius, J. Trull, P. Di Trapani, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Varanavicius, and A. Piskarskas, "Nonlinear space-time dynamics of ultrashort wave packets in water," Opt. Lett. 29, 1123-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, and A. Piskarskas, "Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X-waves," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Three dimensional imaging of short pulses," Opt. Commun. 229, 381-390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, "Nonlinear X wavesin second harmonic generation: experimental results," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, "Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, C. Conti, and S. Trillo, "Spontaneously generated X-shaped light bullets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. D. Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, "Coloured conical emission via second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 27, 1451-1453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and L. Bergé, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valiulis, G.

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, and A. Piskarskas, "Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X-waves," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, C. Conti, and S. Trillo, "Spontaneously generated X-shaped light bullets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 093904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, C. Conti, S. Trillo, and P. Di Trapani, "Nonlinear X wavesin second harmonic generation: experimental results," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026610 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, S. Trillo, P. Di Trapani, G. Valiulis, A. Piskarskas, O. Jedrkiewicz, and J. Trull, "Nonlinear electromagnetic X waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 170406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Red solitons: evidence of spatiotemporal instability in chi(2) spatial soliton dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 12390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. D. Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, "Coloured conical emission via second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 27, 1451-1453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Varanavicius, A.

A. Matijosius, J. Trull, P. Di Trapani, A. Dubietis, R. Piskarskas, A. Varanavicius, and A. Piskarskas, "Nonlinear space-time dynamics of ultrashort wave packets in water," Opt. Lett. 29, 1123-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Three dimensional imaging of short pulses," Opt. Commun. 229, 381-390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Trull, O. Jedrkiewicz, P. Di Trapani, A. Matijosius, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, R. Danielius, E. Kucinskas, and A. Piskarskas, "Spatiotemporal three-dimensional mapping of nonlinear X-waves," Phys. Rev. E 69, 026607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Red solitons: evidence of spatiotemporal instability in chi(2) spatial soliton dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 12390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, I. Diomin, and A. Varanavicius, "Self-guided propagation of femtosecond light pulses in water," Opt. Lett. 28, 1269-1271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waite, D.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I.

Wedekind, C.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wille, H.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilson , K.

Wöste, L.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E.

Yakovlev, V.

Yoshino, F.

Yu, J.

S. Minardi, J. Yu, G. Blasi, A. Varanavicius, G. Valiulis, A. Berzanskis, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Red solitons: evidence of spatiotemporal instability in chi(2) spatial soliton dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 12390 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ziener, C.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zozulya , A.

Zozulya, A.

Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. (3)

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Mikalauskas, A. Dubietis, and R. Danielius, "Observation of light filaments induced in air by visible picosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 75, 899-902 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. Kandidov, and S. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

M. Hercher, "Laser-induced damage in transparent media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 563 (1964).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Opt. Commun. (2)

W. Liu, S. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Potenza, S. Minardi, J. Trull, G. Blasi, D. Salerno, A. Varanavicius, A. Piskarskas, and P. Di Trapani, "Three dimensional imaging of short pulses," Opt. Commun. 229, 381-390 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (18)

C. Dorrer, E. Kosik, and I. Walmsley, "Direct space-time characterization of the electric fields of ultrashort optical pulses," Opt. Lett. 27, 548-550 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Trillo, C. Conti, P. D. Trapani, O. Jedrkiewicz, J. Trull, G. Valiulis, and G. Bellanca, "Coloured conical emission via second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 27, 1451-1453 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental layout of the imaging monocromator used for the measurements. T1 and T2 are the toroidal mirrors that image the input slit onto the output plane where the CCD camera is placed. M is a plane mirror, and the lens is placed at a distance f from the entrance slit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output beam diameter for varying input pulse energy. All measurements reported in this work were performed in the energy interval 2–5.6 µJ, where single filamentation was observed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two examples of pulse-filamentation far-field spectra taken for two different materials: (a) in 15 mm of water, P2Pcrit (λ ranges from 550 to 650 nm) and (b) in 15 mm of LBO, P1Pcrit. (b) was obtained from three separate images, each one spanning a different wavelength range (420–510 nm, 510–540 nm, 540–650 nm). θ ranges from -10 deg to +10 deg in each figure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stokes component of the measured far-field spectra. (a) Input pulse energy Ein=2 µJ; in the inset we show another spectrum taken for a slightly smaller Ein that highlights the modulation fringes. The total spectrum is shown in Fig. 3. (b) Ein=3 µJ; in the inset we show the total recorded spectrum. (c) Ein=4.8 µJ. Note the different modulation patterns in the three measurements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated far-field spectra of stationary linear states. (a) A Gaussian pulse with spatial chirp αs=-2 and temporally delayed by +200 fs, with respect to an X wave, (b) two equal-intensity spatially chirped Gaussian pulses temporally shifted with respect to an X wave by -220 fs (αs=+2) and +220 fs (αs=-2) and (c) three equal-intensity spatially chirped Gaussian pulses temporally shifted by -300 (αs=+2), -200 (αs=+2), and +300 fs (αs=-2), with an X wave in t=0. All Gaussian radial diameters are 25 µm at 1/e2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Autocorrelation trace of the ouput pulse filament showing that the pulse has split into three subpulses with a delay of ∼600 fs between the most external ones. Ein4 µJ.

Equations (1)

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Pcrit=3.77λ28πn0n2,

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