Abstract

Recent measurements of transmission versus fluence for a methanol-solvated asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like (APPC) cadmium complex, [(C6H4APPC)Cd]Cl, showed the limitations of current energy-level models in predicting the transmission behavior of organic reverse saturable absorbers at fluences greater than 1 J/cm2. A new model has been developed that incorporates higher-order triplet processes and accurately fits both nanosecond and picosecond transmission-versus-fluence data. This model has provided the first known determination of a higher triplet excited-state absorption cross section and lifetime for an APPC complex and also described a previously unreported feature in the transmission-versus-fluence data. The intersystem crossing rate and the previously neglected higher triplet excited-state absorption cross section are shown to govern the excited-state population dynamics of methanol-solvated [(C6H4APPC)Cd]Cl most strongly at more-practical device energies.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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2004 (1)

C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, W. Sun, T. M. Nordlund, C. M. Lawson, and G. M. Gray, "Excited state lifetime and intersystem crossing rate of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5174-5176 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

T. D. Mody and J. L. Sessler, "Texaphyrins: a new approach to drug development," J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 5, 134-142 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of an expanded porphyrin cadmium complex," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1759-1761 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Third-order susceptibilities of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3254-3256 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, "Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl," in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107-116 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167-1169 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Relationship between chemical structures and optical limiting properties of penta-azadentate porphyrinlike metal complexes," in Nonlinear Optical Liquids for Power Limiting and Imaging, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3472, 127-134 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Jasat and D. Dolphin, "Expanded porphyrins and their heterologs," Chem. Rev. 97, 2267-2340 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

W. Sun and D. Wang, "Excited-state properties of asymmetric pentaazadentate expanded porphyrins," Science in China B 39, 509-518 (1996).

1994 (6)

W. Sun and D. Wang, "The synthesis and characterization of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Chin. J. Org. Chem. 14, 34-38 (1994).

Q. Gong, Y. Wang, S.-C. Yang, Z. Xia, Y. H. Zou, W. Sun, S. Dong, and D. Wang, "Third-order optical nonlinearities of new two-dimensional pi-conjugated metal-coordinated complexes," J. Phys. D 27, 911-913 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear absorption in metallo-porphyrin-like," Opt. Commun. 109, 487-491 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083-3085 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. Mansour, P. D. Fuqua, S. R. Marder, B. S. Dunn, and J. W. Perry, "Solid state optical limiting materials based on phthalocyanine-containing polymers and organically-modified sol-gels," in Organic, Metallo-Organic, and Polymeric Materials for Nonlinear Optical Applications, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, eds., Proc. SPIE 2143, 239-250 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinherdt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third and fifth order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (3)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, "A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerines, and semicinductors and other materials," Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
[Crossref]

W. Sun and D. Wang, "The synthesis and characterization of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Chin. Chem. Lett. 4, 225-228 (1993).

K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, Jr., K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Dynamics of optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines," in Organic and Biological Optoelectronics, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE 1853, 132-141 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

T. H. Wie, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, and D. R. Coulter, "Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solution of phthalocyanines," Appl. Phys. B 54, 46-51 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

B. G. Maiya, T. E. Mallouk, G. Hemmi, and J. L. Sessler, "Effects of substituents on the spectral and redox properties of cadmium(II) texaphyrins," Inorg. Chem. 29, 3738-3745 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

B. G. Maiya, A. Harriman, J. L. Sessler, G. Hemmi, T. Murai, and T. E. Mallouk, "Ground- and excited-state spectral and redox properties of cadmium(II) texaphyrin," J. Phys. Chem. 93, 8111-8115 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

J. L. Sessler, M. R. Johnson, and V. J. Lynch, "Synthesis and crystal structure of a novel tripyrrane-containing porphyrinogen-like macrocycle," J. Org. Chem. 52, 4394-4397 (1987).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

D. J. Harter, M. L. Shand, and Y. B. Band, "Power/energy limiter using reverse saturable absorption," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 865-868 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

S. M. Jensen, "The nonlinear coherent coupler," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580-1583 (1982).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

C. R. Giuliano and L. D. Hess, "Nonlinear absorption of light: optical saturation of electronic transitions in organic molecules with high intensity laser radiation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 358-367 (1967).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, D.

K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, Jr., K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Dynamics of optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines," in Organic and Biological Optoelectronics, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE 1853, 132-141 (1993).
[Crossref]

Band, Y. B.

D. J. Harter, M. L. Shand, and Y. B. Band, "Power/energy limiter using reverse saturable absorption," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 865-868 (1984).
[Crossref]

Boggess, T. F.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, "A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerines, and semicinductors and other materials," Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bunning, T. J.

Byeon, C. C.

C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, W. Sun, T. M. Nordlund, C. M. Lawson, and G. M. Gray, "Excited state lifetime and intersystem crossing rate of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5174-5176 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of an expanded porphyrin cadmium complex," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1759-1761 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, "Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl," in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107-116 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Third-order susceptibilities of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3254-3256 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167-1169 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Relationship between chemical structures and optical limiting properties of penta-azadentate porphyrinlike metal complexes," in Nonlinear Optical Liquids for Power Limiting and Imaging, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3472, 127-134 (1998).
[Crossref]

Choong, I.

K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, Jr., K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Dynamics of optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines," in Organic and Biological Optoelectronics, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE 1853, 132-141 (1993).
[Crossref]

Coulter, D. R.

T. H. Wie, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, and D. R. Coulter, "Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solution of phthalocyanines," Appl. Phys. B 54, 46-51 (1992).
[Crossref]

Crane, R. L.

Dillard, A. G.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinherdt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third and fifth order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dolphin, D.

A. Jasat and D. Dolphin, "Expanded porphyrins and their heterologs," Chem. Rev. 97, 2267-2340 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dong, S.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, "Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl," in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107-116 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear absorption in metallo-porphyrin-like," Opt. Commun. 109, 487-491 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083-3085 (1994).
[Crossref]

Q. Gong, Y. Wang, S.-C. Yang, Z. Xia, Y. H. Zou, W. Sun, S. Dong, and D. Wang, "Third-order optical nonlinearities of new two-dimensional pi-conjugated metal-coordinated complexes," J. Phys. D 27, 911-913 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dunn, B. S.

K. Mansour, P. D. Fuqua, S. R. Marder, B. S. Dunn, and J. W. Perry, "Solid state optical limiting materials based on phthalocyanine-containing polymers and organically-modified sol-gels," in Organic, Metallo-Organic, and Polymeric Materials for Nonlinear Optical Applications, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, eds., Proc. SPIE 2143, 239-250 (1994).
[Crossref]

Epling, B. L.

Fuqua, P. D.

K. Mansour, P. D. Fuqua, S. R. Marder, B. S. Dunn, and J. W. Perry, "Solid state optical limiting materials based on phthalocyanine-containing polymers and organically-modified sol-gels," in Organic, Metallo-Organic, and Polymeric Materials for Nonlinear Optical Applications, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, eds., Proc. SPIE 2143, 239-250 (1994).
[Crossref]

Giuliano , C. R.

C. R. Giuliano and L. D. Hess, "Nonlinear absorption of light: optical saturation of electronic transitions in organic molecules with high intensity laser radiation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 358-367 (1967).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

Q. Gong, Y. Wang, S.-C. Yang, Z. Xia, Y. H. Zou, W. Sun, S. Dong, and D. Wang, "Third-order optical nonlinearities of new two-dimensional pi-conjugated metal-coordinated complexes," J. Phys. D 27, 911-913 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gray, G. M.

C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, W. Sun, T. M. Nordlund, C. M. Lawson, and G. M. Gray, "Excited state lifetime and intersystem crossing rate of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5174-5176 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of an expanded porphyrin cadmium complex," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1759-1761 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, "Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl," in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107-116 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Third-order susceptibilities of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3254-3256 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Relationship between chemical structures and optical limiting properties of penta-azadentate porphyrinlike metal complexes," in Nonlinear Optical Liquids for Power Limiting and Imaging, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3472, 127-134 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167-1169 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hagan, D. J.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinherdt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third and fifth order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. H. Wie, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, and D. R. Coulter, "Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solution of phthalocyanines," Appl. Phys. B 54, 46-51 (1992).
[Crossref]

Harriman, A.

B. G. Maiya, A. Harriman, J. L. Sessler, G. Hemmi, T. Murai, and T. E. Mallouk, "Ground- and excited-state spectral and redox properties of cadmium(II) texaphyrin," J. Phys. Chem. 93, 8111-8115 (1989).
[Crossref]

Harter, D. J.

D. J. Harter, M. L. Shand, and Y. B. Band, "Power/energy limiter using reverse saturable absorption," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 865-868 (1984).
[Crossref]

Hemmi, G.

B. G. Maiya, T. E. Mallouk, G. Hemmi, and J. L. Sessler, "Effects of substituents on the spectral and redox properties of cadmium(II) texaphyrins," Inorg. Chem. 29, 3738-3745 (1990).
[Crossref]

B. G. Maiya, A. Harriman, J. L. Sessler, G. Hemmi, T. Murai, and T. E. Mallouk, "Ground- and excited-state spectral and redox properties of cadmium(II) texaphyrin," J. Phys. Chem. 93, 8111-8115 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hess, L. D.

C. R. Giuliano and L. D. Hess, "Nonlinear absorption of light: optical saturation of electronic transitions in organic molecules with high intensity laser radiation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 358-367 (1967).
[Crossref]

Jasat , A.

A. Jasat and D. Dolphin, "Expanded porphyrins and their heterologs," Chem. Rev. 97, 2267-2340 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jensen, S. M.

S. M. Jensen, "The nonlinear coherent coupler," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580-1583 (1982).
[Crossref]

Johnson, M. R.

J. L. Sessler, M. R. Johnson, and V. J. Lynch, "Synthesis and crystal structure of a novel tripyrrane-containing porphyrinogen-like macrocycle," J. Org. Chem. 52, 4394-4397 (1987).
[Crossref]

Lawson, C. M.

C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, W. Sun, T. M. Nordlund, C. M. Lawson, and G. M. Gray, "Excited state lifetime and intersystem crossing rate of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5174-5176 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of an expanded porphyrin cadmium complex," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1759-1761 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, "Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl," in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107-116 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Third-order susceptibilities of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3254-3256 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Relationship between chemical structures and optical limiting properties of penta-azadentate porphyrinlike metal complexes," in Nonlinear Optical Liquids for Power Limiting and Imaging, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3472, 127-134 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167-1169 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083-3085 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear absorption in metallo-porphyrin-like," Opt. Commun. 109, 487-491 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lynch, V. J.

J. L. Sessler, M. R. Johnson, and V. J. Lynch, "Synthesis and crystal structure of a novel tripyrrane-containing porphyrinogen-like macrocycle," J. Org. Chem. 52, 4394-4397 (1987).
[Crossref]

Maiya, B. G.

B. G. Maiya, T. E. Mallouk, G. Hemmi, and J. L. Sessler, "Effects of substituents on the spectral and redox properties of cadmium(II) texaphyrins," Inorg. Chem. 29, 3738-3745 (1990).
[Crossref]

B. G. Maiya, A. Harriman, J. L. Sessler, G. Hemmi, T. Murai, and T. E. Mallouk, "Ground- and excited-state spectral and redox properties of cadmium(II) texaphyrin," J. Phys. Chem. 93, 8111-8115 (1989).
[Crossref]

Mallouk, T. E.

B. G. Maiya, T. E. Mallouk, G. Hemmi, and J. L. Sessler, "Effects of substituents on the spectral and redox properties of cadmium(II) texaphyrins," Inorg. Chem. 29, 3738-3745 (1990).
[Crossref]

B. G. Maiya, A. Harriman, J. L. Sessler, G. Hemmi, T. Murai, and T. E. Mallouk, "Ground- and excited-state spectral and redox properties of cadmium(II) texaphyrin," J. Phys. Chem. 93, 8111-8115 (1989).
[Crossref]

Mansour, K.

K. Mansour, P. D. Fuqua, S. R. Marder, B. S. Dunn, and J. W. Perry, "Solid state optical limiting materials based on phthalocyanine-containing polymers and organically-modified sol-gels," in Organic, Metallo-Organic, and Polymeric Materials for Nonlinear Optical Applications, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, eds., Proc. SPIE 2143, 239-250 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, Jr., K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Dynamics of optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines," in Organic and Biological Optoelectronics, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE 1853, 132-141 (1993).
[Crossref]

Marder, S. R.

K. Mansour, P. D. Fuqua, S. R. Marder, B. S. Dunn, and J. W. Perry, "Solid state optical limiting materials based on phthalocyanine-containing polymers and organically-modified sol-gels," in Organic, Metallo-Organic, and Polymeric Materials for Nonlinear Optical Applications, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, eds., Proc. SPIE 2143, 239-250 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, Jr., K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Dynamics of optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines," in Organic and Biological Optoelectronics, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE 1853, 132-141 (1993).
[Crossref]

McKerns, M. M.

C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, W. Sun, T. M. Nordlund, C. M. Lawson, and G. M. Gray, "Excited state lifetime and intersystem crossing rate of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5174-5176 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, "Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl," in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107-116 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167-1169 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Relationship between chemical structures and optical limiting properties of penta-azadentate porphyrinlike metal complexes," in Nonlinear Optical Liquids for Power Limiting and Imaging, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3472, 127-134 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mody , T. D.

T. D. Mody and J. L. Sessler, "Texaphyrins: a new approach to drug development," J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 5, 134-142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Murai, T.

B. G. Maiya, A. Harriman, J. L. Sessler, G. Hemmi, T. Murai, and T. E. Mallouk, "Ground- and excited-state spectral and redox properties of cadmium(II) texaphyrin," J. Phys. Chem. 93, 8111-8115 (1989).
[Crossref]

Natarajan, L. V.

Nordlund, T. M.

C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, W. Sun, T. M. Nordlund, C. M. Lawson, and G. M. Gray, "Excited state lifetime and intersystem crossing rate of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5174-5176 (2004).
[Crossref]

Perry, J. W.

K. Mansour, P. D. Fuqua, S. R. Marder, B. S. Dunn, and J. W. Perry, "Solid state optical limiting materials based on phthalocyanine-containing polymers and organically-modified sol-gels," in Organic, Metallo-Organic, and Polymeric Materials for Nonlinear Optical Applications, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, eds., Proc. SPIE 2143, 239-250 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, Jr., K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Dynamics of optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines," in Organic and Biological Optoelectronics, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE 1853, 132-141 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. H. Wie, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, and D. R. Coulter, "Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solution of phthalocyanines," Appl. Phys. B 54, 46-51 (1992).
[Crossref]

Perry, K. J.

K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, Jr., K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Dynamics of optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines," in Organic and Biological Optoelectronics, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE 1853, 132-141 (1993).
[Crossref]

Reinherdt, B. A.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinherdt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third and fifth order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[Crossref]

Roderer, P.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinherdt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third and fifth order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[Crossref]

Said, A. A.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinherdt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third and fifth order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, M. G.

Sence, M. J.

T. H. Wie, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, and D. R. Coulter, "Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solution of phthalocyanines," Appl. Phys. B 54, 46-51 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sessler, J. L.

T. D. Mody and J. L. Sessler, "Texaphyrins: a new approach to drug development," J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 5, 134-142 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. G. Maiya, T. E. Mallouk, G. Hemmi, and J. L. Sessler, "Effects of substituents on the spectral and redox properties of cadmium(II) texaphyrins," Inorg. Chem. 29, 3738-3745 (1990).
[Crossref]

B. G. Maiya, A. Harriman, J. L. Sessler, G. Hemmi, T. Murai, and T. E. Mallouk, "Ground- and excited-state spectral and redox properties of cadmium(II) texaphyrin," J. Phys. Chem. 93, 8111-8115 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. L. Sessler, M. R. Johnson, and V. J. Lynch, "Synthesis and crystal structure of a novel tripyrrane-containing porphyrinogen-like macrocycle," J. Org. Chem. 52, 4394-4397 (1987).
[Crossref]

Shand, M. L.

D. J. Harter, M. L. Shand, and Y. B. Band, "Power/energy limiter using reverse saturable absorption," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 865-868 (1984).
[Crossref]

Si, J.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear absorption in metallo-porphyrin-like," Opt. Commun. 109, 487-491 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083-3085 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sun, W.

C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, W. Sun, T. M. Nordlund, C. M. Lawson, and G. M. Gray, "Excited state lifetime and intersystem crossing rate of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5174-5176 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of an expanded porphyrin cadmium complex," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1759-1761 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Third-order susceptibilities of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3254-3256 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, "Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl," in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107-116 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167-1169 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Relationship between chemical structures and optical limiting properties of penta-azadentate porphyrinlike metal complexes," in Nonlinear Optical Liquids for Power Limiting and Imaging, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3472, 127-134 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sun , W.

W. Sun and D. Wang, "Excited-state properties of asymmetric pentaazadentate expanded porphyrins," Science in China B 39, 509-518 (1996).

Sun, W.

Q. Gong, Y. Wang, S.-C. Yang, Z. Xia, Y. H. Zou, W. Sun, S. Dong, and D. Wang, "Third-order optical nonlinearities of new two-dimensional pi-conjugated metal-coordinated complexes," J. Phys. D 27, 911-913 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083-3085 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sun , W.

W. Sun and D. Wang, "The synthesis and characterization of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Chin. J. Org. Chem. 14, 34-38 (1994).

Sun, W.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear absorption in metallo-porphyrin-like," Opt. Commun. 109, 487-491 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sun , W.

W. Sun and D. Wang, "The synthesis and characterization of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Chin. Chem. Lett. 4, 225-228 (1993).

Tutt , L. W.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, "A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerines, and semicinductors and other materials," Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinherdt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third and fifth order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. H. Wie, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, and D. R. Coulter, "Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solution of phthalocyanines," Appl. Phys. B 54, 46-51 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wamsley, C.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinherdt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third and fifth order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of an expanded porphyrin cadmium complex," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1759-1761 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, "Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl," in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107-116 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Third-order susceptibilities of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3254-3256 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Relationship between chemical structures and optical limiting properties of penta-azadentate porphyrinlike metal complexes," in Nonlinear Optical Liquids for Power Limiting and Imaging, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3472, 127-134 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167-1169 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Sun and D. Wang, "Excited-state properties of asymmetric pentaazadentate expanded porphyrins," Science in China B 39, 509-518 (1996).

Q. Gong, Y. Wang, S.-C. Yang, Z. Xia, Y. H. Zou, W. Sun, S. Dong, and D. Wang, "Third-order optical nonlinearities of new two-dimensional pi-conjugated metal-coordinated complexes," J. Phys. D 27, 911-913 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083-3085 (1994).
[Crossref]

W. Sun and D. Wang, "The synthesis and characterization of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Chin. J. Org. Chem. 14, 34-38 (1994).

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear absorption in metallo-porphyrin-like," Opt. Commun. 109, 487-491 (1994).
[Crossref]

W. Sun and D. Wang, "The synthesis and characterization of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Chin. Chem. Lett. 4, 225-228 (1993).

Wang, Y.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear absorption in metallo-porphyrin-like," Opt. Commun. 109, 487-491 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083-3085 (1994).
[Crossref]

Q. Gong, Y. Wang, S.-C. Yang, Z. Xia, Y. H. Zou, W. Sun, S. Dong, and D. Wang, "Third-order optical nonlinearities of new two-dimensional pi-conjugated metal-coordinated complexes," J. Phys. D 27, 911-913 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wie, T. H.

T. H. Wie, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, and D. R. Coulter, "Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solution of phthalocyanines," Appl. Phys. B 54, 46-51 (1992).
[Crossref]

Xia, Z.

Q. Gong, Y. Wang, S.-C. Yang, Z. Xia, Y. H. Zou, W. Sun, S. Dong, and D. Wang, "Third-order optical nonlinearities of new two-dimensional pi-conjugated metal-coordinated complexes," J. Phys. D 27, 911-913 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yang, M.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083-3085 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear absorption in metallo-porphyrin-like," Opt. Commun. 109, 487-491 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.-C.

Q. Gong, Y. Wang, S.-C. Yang, Z. Xia, Y. H. Zou, W. Sun, S. Dong, and D. Wang, "Third-order optical nonlinearities of new two-dimensional pi-conjugated metal-coordinated complexes," J. Phys. D 27, 911-913 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear absorption in metallo-porphyrin-like," Opt. Commun. 109, 487-491 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083-3085 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y. H.

Q. Gong, Y. Wang, S.-C. Yang, Z. Xia, Y. H. Zou, W. Sun, S. Dong, and D. Wang, "Third-order optical nonlinearities of new two-dimensional pi-conjugated metal-coordinated complexes," J. Phys. D 27, 911-913 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. H. Wie, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Sence, E. W. Van Stryland, J. W. Perry, and D. R. Coulter, "Direct measurements of nonlinear absorption and refraction in solution of phthalocyanines," Appl. Phys. B 54, 46-51 (1992).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, W. Sun, T. M. Nordlund, C. M. Lawson, and G. M. Gray, "Excited state lifetime and intersystem crossing rate of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5174-5176 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083-3085 (1994).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167-1169 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Third-order susceptibilities of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3254-3256 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of an expanded porphyrin cadmium complex," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1759-1761 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinherdt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Third and fifth order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

A. Jasat and D. Dolphin, "Expanded porphyrins and their heterologs," Chem. Rev. 97, 2267-2340 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chin. Chem. Lett. (1)

W. Sun and D. Wang, "The synthesis and characterization of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Chin. Chem. Lett. 4, 225-228 (1993).

Chin. J. Org. Chem. (1)

W. Sun and D. Wang, "The synthesis and characterization of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like metal complexes," Chin. J. Org. Chem. 14, 34-38 (1994).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. R. Giuliano and L. D. Hess, "Nonlinear absorption of light: optical saturation of electronic transitions in organic molecules with high intensity laser radiation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 358-367 (1967).
[Crossref]

S. M. Jensen, "The nonlinear coherent coupler," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580-1583 (1982).
[Crossref]

Inorg. Chem. (1)

B. G. Maiya, T. E. Mallouk, G. Hemmi, and J. L. Sessler, "Effects of substituents on the spectral and redox properties of cadmium(II) texaphyrins," Inorg. Chem. 29, 3738-3745 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. J. Harter, M. L. Shand, and Y. B. Band, "Power/energy limiter using reverse saturable absorption," J. Appl. Phys. 56, 865-868 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Org. Chem. (1)

J. L. Sessler, M. R. Johnson, and V. J. Lynch, "Synthesis and crystal structure of a novel tripyrrane-containing porphyrinogen-like macrocycle," J. Org. Chem. 52, 4394-4397 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

B. G. Maiya, A. Harriman, J. L. Sessler, G. Hemmi, T. Murai, and T. E. Mallouk, "Ground- and excited-state spectral and redox properties of cadmium(II) texaphyrin," J. Phys. Chem. 93, 8111-8115 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D (1)

Q. Gong, Y. Wang, S.-C. Yang, Z. Xia, Y. H. Zou, W. Sun, S. Dong, and D. Wang, "Third-order optical nonlinearities of new two-dimensional pi-conjugated metal-coordinated complexes," J. Phys. D 27, 911-913 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines (1)

T. D. Mody and J. L. Sessler, "Texaphyrins: a new approach to drug development," J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 5, 134-142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, and W. Sun, "Nonlinear absorption in metallo-porphyrin-like," Opt. Commun. 109, 487-491 (1994).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (4)

K. Mansour, P. D. Fuqua, S. R. Marder, B. S. Dunn, and J. W. Perry, "Solid state optical limiting materials based on phthalocyanine-containing polymers and organically-modified sol-gels," in Organic, Metallo-Organic, and Polymeric Materials for Nonlinear Optical Applications, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, eds., Proc. SPIE 2143, 239-250 (1994).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, "Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl," in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107-116 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, "Relationship between chemical structures and optical limiting properties of penta-azadentate porphyrinlike metal complexes," in Nonlinear Optical Liquids for Power Limiting and Imaging, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3472, 127-134 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Mansour, D. Alvarez, Jr., K. J. Perry, I. Choong, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Dynamics of optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines," in Organic and Biological Optoelectronics, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE 1853, 132-141 (1993).
[Crossref]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, "A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerines, and semicinductors and other materials," Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
[Crossref]

Science in China B (1)

W. Sun and D. Wang, "Excited-state properties of asymmetric pentaazadentate expanded porphyrins," Science in China B 39, 509-518 (1996).

Other (6)

J. Si, "Excited state optical nonlinearity in metallo-porphyrin-like and its applications," Ph.D. dissertation (Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China, 1994).

J. W. Perry, "Organic and metal-containing reverse saturable absorbers for optical limiters," in Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers , H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 813-840.

M. M. McKerns, "Characterization of molecular structure, excited-state absorption, and nonlinear optical response of metallotexaphyrin complexes," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Ala., 2002).

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).

N. J. Turro, Modern Molecular Photochemistry (University Science, Sausalito, Calif., 1991).

R. A. Hann and D. Bloor, Organic Materials for Nonlinear Optics (Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1989).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structure of [(C6H4APPC)Cd]Cl and linear absorption spectrum of a 4.33×10-4 mol/L methanol solution of [(C6H4APPC)Cd]Cl in a 2-mm cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Seven-state energy-level model of nonlinear absorption. Each of the electronic energy levels has a manifold of vibrational and rotational sublevels associated with it; however, for metal-organic reverse saturable absorbing molecules these sublevels have negligible effect. Single- and two-photon absorption cross sections [σij and σik(2)] or decay rates (kji) shown are representative of the labeled energy-level transition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission versus incident fluence at 532 nm for a 4.33×10-4 mol/L methanol solution of [(C6H4APPC)Cd]Cl for two pulse durations. The extension of the measured fluence to greater than 1 J/cm2 compelled the addition of higher-order triplet transitions to permit more-accurate modeling of methanol-solvated [(C6H4APPC)Cd]Cl at these more-practical device energies.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dynamics of population density at 5 ns and 532 nm for a 4.33×10-4 mol/L methanol solution of [(C6H4APPC)Cd]Cl. Normalized incident pulse intensity (Iin) and normalized population density are shown for each electronic energy level and for four input fluences Fin.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dynamics of population density at 40 ps and 532 nm for a 4.33×10-4 mol/L methanol solution of [(C6H4APPC)Cd]Cl. Normalized incident pulse intensity (Iin) and normalized population density are shown for each electronic energy level and for four input fluences Fin.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dynamics of absorbed energy at 5 ns and 532 nm for a 4.33×10-4 mol/L methanol solution of [(C6H4APPC)Cd]Cl. Normalized absorbed energies (Eij=σijNiI) are shown for four input fluences Fin.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dynamics of absorbed energy at 40 ps and 532 nm for a 4.33×10-4 mol/L methanol solution of [(C6H4APPC)Cd]Cl. Normalized absorbed energies (Eij=σijNiI) are shown for four input fluences Fin. Because the product σ56N5I is fairly large at high fluences, the second excited triplet state T2 plays a much greater role in the dynamics than expected.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

As indicated, current six-state energy-level models do not adequately predict the transmission behavior of [(C6H4APPC)Cd]Cl at high fluences. Without the inclusion of σ56 and k53, the best fit to (a) the 5-ns transmission curve saturates near 0.5 J/cm2, and values of σ35 are accordingly inflated. The deficiency of a six-level model is most dramatically illustrated by (b) replotting of the data as incident versus output fluence.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Absorption Cross Sections for [(C6H4APPC)Cd]Cl in Methanol

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Table 2 Decay Rates for [(C6H4APPC)Cd]Cl in Methanol

Equations (9)

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dNdt=RˆN,
N=|N0 N1 N2 N3 N4 N5 N6|.
Rˆ=-σ01Φk100k30000σ01Φ-k10-k13-σ12Φk2100000σ12Φ-k21-σ24Φ00000k130-k30-σ35Φ0k53000σ24Φ0000000σ35Φ0-k53-σ56Φ000000σ56Φ0+R,
R=-σ02(2)ΦI0000000-σ14(2)ΦI000k510σ02(2)ΦI0-k250k4200000-σ36(2)ΦI0000σ14(2)ΦI00-k420000k2500-k51k65000σ36(2)ΦI00-k65
N=i=06Ni(t),
Ni(t=-, z)=Nδ0i,
dIdz=-αI-βI2,
α=σ01N0+σ12N1+σ24N2+σ35N3+σ56N5,
β=[σ02(2)N0+σ14(2)N1+σ36(2)N3]/hν,

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