Abstract

We have studied the dynamic evolution of stimulated cross-polarization scattering in a nematic liquid-crystal film. The effect is initiated by two-beam coupling between a cw incident polarized laser and its orthogonally polarized multifrequency noise components scattered by fluctuations in the director axis. Complex time- and intensity-dependent oscillations and energy exchanges among the pump and stimulated waves were observed. Imparting an ac modulation to the film further amplified the characteristic oscillations while it suppressed the background noise. The conditions for stimulated laser generation and the observed frequency spectra of the intensity oscillations are in good agreement with a quantitative theory that accounts for the temporal–spatial dependence of the wave mixing process.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzdkiewicz, and G. Assanto, "Nonlocal spatial soliton interactions in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 27, 1460-1462 (2002).
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  3. S. A. Jenekhe and X. L. Chen, "Self-assembled aggregates of rod-coil block copolymers and their solubilization and encapsulation of fullerenes," Science 279, 1903-1907 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. T. Arecchi, S. Boccaletti, and P. L. Ramazza, "Pattern formation and competition in nonlinear optics," Phys. Rep. 318, 1-83 (1999).
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  5. G. D'Alessandro and W. J. Firth, "Spontaneous hexagon formation in a nonlinear optical medium with feedback mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2597-2600 (1991).
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  8. N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zeldovich, and A. V. Sukhov, "Orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1-139 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, "Period-doubling cascades and chaos in a semiconductor laser with optical injection," Phys. Rev. A 51, 4181-4185 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. G. Odoulov, B. I. Sturman, S. Shamonina, and K. H. Ringhofer, "Stochastic photorefractive backscattering from LiNbO3 crystals," Opt. Lett. 21, 854-856 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Heurich, H. Pu, M. G. Moore, and P. Meystre, "Instabilities and self-oscillations in atomic four-wave mixing," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033605 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, "Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 19, 1723-1725 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, and W. V. Wood, "Optically induced space-charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 253-255 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. C. Khoo and Y. Liang, "Stimulated orientational and thermal scatterings and self-starting optical phase conjugation with nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 62, 6722-6733 (2000).
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  17. I. C. Khoo, J. Y. Hou, G. L. Din, Y. L. He, and D. F. Shi, "Laser-induced thermal, orientational, and density nonlinear optical effects in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 42, 1001-1004 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. I. C. Khoo, Y. Liang, and H. Li, "Observation of stimulated orientational scattering and cross-polarized self-starting phase conjugation in a nematic liquid-crystal film," Opt. Lett. 20, 130-132 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. V. Carbone, G. Cipparrone, C. Versace, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, "Multifractal structure and intermittency of laser-generated turbulence in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 54, 6948-6951 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Cipparrone, V. Carbone, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and F. Simoni, "Optically induced chaotic behavior in nematic liquid-crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 47, 3741-3744 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Russo, V. Carbone, and G. Cipparrone, "Nonlinear dynamics optically induced in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 62, 5036-5042 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V. Carbone, G. Cipparrone, and G. Russo, "Homoclinic gluing bifurcations during the light induced reorientation in nematic liquid-crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 63, 051701 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Demeter and L. Kramer, "Numerical investigation of optically induced director oscillations in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 64, 020701 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Demeter, "Complex nonlinear behavior in optically excited nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 61, 6678-6688 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Cipparone, G. Russo, C. Versace, G. Strangi, and V. Carbone, "Polarimetric study of the optically induced dynamical behaviour in nematic liquid crystal films," Opt. Commun. 173, 1-10 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. I. C. Khoo and A. Diaz, "Nonlinear dynamics in laser polarization conversion by stimulated scattering in nematic liquid crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 68, 042701 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. I. C. Khoo and J. Ding, "All-optical cw laser polarization conversion at 1.55 µm by two-beam coupling in nematic liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2496-2498 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. C. Hoppensteadt and E. M. Izhikevich, "Oscillatory neurocomputers with dynamic connectivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2983-2986 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

I. C. Khoo and A. Diaz, "Nonlinear dynamics in laser polarization conversion by stimulated scattering in nematic liquid crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 68, 042701 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

I. C. Khoo and J. Ding, "All-optical cw laser polarization conversion at 1.55 µm by two-beam coupling in nematic liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2496-2498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, K. A. Brzdkiewicz, and G. Assanto, "Nonlocal spatial soliton interactions in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 27, 1460-1462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

J. Heurich, H. Pu, M. G. Moore, and P. Meystre, "Instabilities and self-oscillations in atomic four-wave mixing," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Carbone, G. Cipparrone, and G. Russo, "Homoclinic gluing bifurcations during the light induced reorientation in nematic liquid-crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 63, 051701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Demeter and L. Kramer, "Numerical investigation of optically induced director oscillations in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 64, 020701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Sandfuchs, F. Kaiser, and M. R. Belic, "Self-organization and Fourier selection of optical patterns in a nonlinear photorefractive feedback system," Phys. Rev. A 64, 063809 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

I. C. Khoo and Y. Liang, "Stimulated orientational and thermal scatterings and self-starting optical phase conjugation with nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 62, 6722-6733 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Demeter, "Complex nonlinear behavior in optically excited nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 61, 6678-6688 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparone, G. Russo, C. Versace, G. Strangi, and V. Carbone, "Polarimetric study of the optically induced dynamical behaviour in nematic liquid crystal films," Opt. Commun. 173, 1-10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Russo, V. Carbone, and G. Cipparrone, "Nonlinear dynamics optically induced in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 62, 5036-5042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

F. C. Hoppensteadt and E. M. Izhikevich, "Oscillatory neurocomputers with dynamic connectivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2983-2986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. T. Arecchi, S. Boccaletti, and P. L. Ramazza, "Pattern formation and competition in nonlinear optics," Phys. Rep. 318, 1-83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. A. Jenekhe and X. L. Chen, "Self-assembled aggregates of rod-coil block copolymers and their solubilization and encapsulation of fullerenes," Science 279, 1903-1907 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, and W. V. Wood, "Optically induced space-charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 253-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. G. Odoulov, B. I. Sturman, S. Shamonina, and K. H. Ringhofer, "Stochastic photorefractive backscattering from LiNbO3 crystals," Opt. Lett. 21, 854-856 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Carbone, G. Cipparrone, C. Versace, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, "Multifractal structure and intermittency of laser-generated turbulence in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 54, 6948-6951 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, "Period-doubling cascades and chaos in a semiconductor laser with optical injection," Phys. Rev. A 51, 4181-4185 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, Y. Liang, and H. Li, "Observation of stimulated orientational scattering and cross-polarized self-starting phase conjugation in a nematic liquid-crystal film," Opt. Lett. 20, 130-132 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

G. Cipparrone, V. Carbone, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and F. Simoni, "Optically induced chaotic behavior in nematic liquid-crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 47, 3741-3744 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. D'Alessandro and W. J. Firth, "Spontaneous hexagon formation in a nonlinear optical medium with feedback mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2597-2600 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

I. C. Khoo, J. Y. Hou, G. L. Din, Y. L. He, and D. F. Shi, "Laser-induced thermal, orientational, and density nonlinear optical effects in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 42, 1001-1004 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zeldovich, and A. V. Sukhov, "Orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1-139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

B. Ya. Zeldovich, S. K. Merzlinkin, N. F. Pilipetskii, and A. V. Sukhov, "Observation of stimulated forward orientational light scattering in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 41, 514-517 (1985).

Alsing, P. M.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, "Period-doubling cascades and chaos in a semiconductor laser with optical injection," Phys. Rev. A 51, 4181-4185 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arecchi, F. T.

F. T. Arecchi, S. Boccaletti, and P. L. Ramazza, "Pattern formation and competition in nonlinear optics," Phys. Rep. 318, 1-83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

Bartolino, R.

V. Carbone, G. Cipparrone, C. Versace, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, "Multifractal structure and intermittency of laser-generated turbulence in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 54, 6948-6951 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, V. Carbone, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and F. Simoni, "Optically induced chaotic behavior in nematic liquid-crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 47, 3741-3744 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Belic, M. R.

O. Sandfuchs, F. Kaiser, and M. R. Belic, "Self-organization and Fourier selection of optical patterns in a nonlinear photorefractive feedback system," Phys. Rev. A 64, 063809 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boccaletti, S.

F. T. Arecchi, S. Boccaletti, and P. L. Ramazza, "Pattern formation and competition in nonlinear optics," Phys. Rep. 318, 1-83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brzdkiewicz, K. A.

Carbone, V.

V. Carbone, G. Cipparrone, and G. Russo, "Homoclinic gluing bifurcations during the light induced reorientation in nematic liquid-crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 63, 051701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparone, G. Russo, C. Versace, G. Strangi, and V. Carbone, "Polarimetric study of the optically induced dynamical behaviour in nematic liquid crystal films," Opt. Commun. 173, 1-10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Russo, V. Carbone, and G. Cipparrone, "Nonlinear dynamics optically induced in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 62, 5036-5042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Carbone, G. Cipparrone, C. Versace, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, "Multifractal structure and intermittency of laser-generated turbulence in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 54, 6948-6951 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, V. Carbone, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and F. Simoni, "Optically induced chaotic behavior in nematic liquid-crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 47, 3741-3744 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. L.

S. A. Jenekhe and X. L. Chen, "Self-assembled aggregates of rod-coil block copolymers and their solubilization and encapsulation of fullerenes," Science 279, 1903-1907 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cipparone, G.

G. Cipparone, G. Russo, C. Versace, G. Strangi, and V. Carbone, "Polarimetric study of the optically induced dynamical behaviour in nematic liquid crystal films," Opt. Commun. 173, 1-10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

V. Carbone, G. Cipparrone, and G. Russo, "Homoclinic gluing bifurcations during the light induced reorientation in nematic liquid-crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 63, 051701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Russo, V. Carbone, and G. Cipparrone, "Nonlinear dynamics optically induced in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 62, 5036-5042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Carbone, G. Cipparrone, C. Versace, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, "Multifractal structure and intermittency of laser-generated turbulence in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 54, 6948-6951 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, V. Carbone, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and F. Simoni, "Optically induced chaotic behavior in nematic liquid-crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 47, 3741-3744 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D'Alessandro , G.

G. D'Alessandro and W. J. Firth, "Spontaneous hexagon formation in a nonlinear optical medium with feedback mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2597-2600 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demeter , G.

G. Demeter and L. Kramer, "Numerical investigation of optically induced director oscillations in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 64, 020701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Demeter, G.

G. Demeter, "Complex nonlinear behavior in optically excited nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 61, 6678-6688 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, A.

I. C. Khoo and A. Diaz, "Nonlinear dynamics in laser polarization conversion by stimulated scattering in nematic liquid crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 68, 042701 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Din, G. L.

I. C. Khoo, J. Y. Hou, G. L. Din, Y. L. He, and D. F. Shi, "Laser-induced thermal, orientational, and density nonlinear optical effects in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 42, 1001-1004 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, J.

I. C. Khoo and J. Ding, "All-optical cw laser polarization conversion at 1.55 µm by two-beam coupling in nematic liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2496-2498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Firth, W. J.

G. D'Alessandro and W. J. Firth, "Spontaneous hexagon formation in a nonlinear optical medium with feedback mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2597-2600 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gavrielides, A.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, "Period-doubling cascades and chaos in a semiconductor laser with optical injection," Phys. Rev. A 51, 4181-4185 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guenther, B. D.

He, Y. L.

I. C. Khoo, J. Y. Hou, G. L. Din, Y. L. He, and D. F. Shi, "Laser-induced thermal, orientational, and density nonlinear optical effects in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 42, 1001-1004 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heurich, J.

J. Heurich, H. Pu, M. G. Moore, and P. Meystre, "Instabilities and self-oscillations in atomic four-wave mixing," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hoppensteadt , F. C.

F. C. Hoppensteadt and E. M. Izhikevich, "Oscillatory neurocomputers with dynamic connectivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2983-2986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hou, J. Y.

I. C. Khoo, J. Y. Hou, G. L. Din, Y. L. He, and D. F. Shi, "Laser-induced thermal, orientational, and density nonlinear optical effects in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 42, 1001-1004 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izhikevich, E. M.

F. C. Hoppensteadt and E. M. Izhikevich, "Oscillatory neurocomputers with dynamic connectivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2983-2986 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jenekhe , S. A.

S. A. Jenekhe and X. L. Chen, "Self-assembled aggregates of rod-coil block copolymers and their solubilization and encapsulation of fullerenes," Science 279, 1903-1907 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaiser, F.

O. Sandfuchs, F. Kaiser, and M. R. Belic, "Self-organization and Fourier selection of optical patterns in a nonlinear photorefractive feedback system," Phys. Rev. A 64, 063809 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khoo , I. C.

I. C. Khoo and A. Diaz, "Nonlinear dynamics in laser polarization conversion by stimulated scattering in nematic liquid crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 68, 042701 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo and J. Ding, "All-optical cw laser polarization conversion at 1.55 µm by two-beam coupling in nematic liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2496-2498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo and Y. Liang, "Stimulated orientational and thermal scatterings and self-starting optical phase conjugation with nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 62, 6722-6733 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

Kovanis, V.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, "Period-doubling cascades and chaos in a semiconductor laser with optical injection," Phys. Rev. A 51, 4181-4185 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kramer, L.

G. Demeter and L. Kramer, "Numerical investigation of optically induced director oscillations in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 64, 020701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Liang, Y.

Liu, J. M.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, "Period-doubling cascades and chaos in a semiconductor laser with optical injection," Phys. Rev. A 51, 4181-4185 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merzlinkin, S. K.

B. Ya. Zeldovich, S. K. Merzlinkin, N. F. Pilipetskii, and A. V. Sukhov, "Observation of stimulated forward orientational light scattering in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 41, 514-517 (1985).

Meystre, P.

J. Heurich, H. Pu, M. G. Moore, and P. Meystre, "Instabilities and self-oscillations in atomic four-wave mixing," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moore, M. G.

J. Heurich, H. Pu, M. G. Moore, and P. Meystre, "Instabilities and self-oscillations in atomic four-wave mixing," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Odoulov, S. G.

Peccianti, M.

Pilipetskii, N. F.

B. Ya. Zeldovich, S. K. Merzlinkin, N. F. Pilipetskii, and A. V. Sukhov, "Observation of stimulated forward orientational light scattering in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 41, 514-517 (1985).

Pu, H.

J. Heurich, H. Pu, M. G. Moore, and P. Meystre, "Instabilities and self-oscillations in atomic four-wave mixing," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ramazza, P. L.

F. T. Arecchi, S. Boccaletti, and P. L. Ramazza, "Pattern formation and competition in nonlinear optics," Phys. Rep. 318, 1-83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ringhofer, K. H.

Russo, G.

V. Carbone, G. Cipparrone, and G. Russo, "Homoclinic gluing bifurcations during the light induced reorientation in nematic liquid-crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 63, 051701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Russo, V. Carbone, and G. Cipparrone, "Nonlinear dynamics optically induced in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 62, 5036-5042 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparone, G. Russo, C. Versace, G. Strangi, and V. Carbone, "Polarimetric study of the optically induced dynamical behaviour in nematic liquid crystal films," Opt. Commun. 173, 1-10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sandfuchs, O.

O. Sandfuchs, F. Kaiser, and M. R. Belic, "Self-organization and Fourier selection of optical patterns in a nonlinear photorefractive feedback system," Phys. Rev. A 64, 063809 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shamonina, S.

Shi, D. F.

I. C. Khoo, J. Y. Hou, G. L. Din, Y. L. He, and D. F. Shi, "Laser-induced thermal, orientational, and density nonlinear optical effects in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. A 42, 1001-1004 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simoni, F.

G. Cipparrone, V. Carbone, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and F. Simoni, "Optically induced chaotic behavior in nematic liquid-crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 47, 3741-3744 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, T. B.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, "Period-doubling cascades and chaos in a semiconductor laser with optical injection," Phys. Rev. A 51, 4181-4185 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slussarenko, S.

Strangi, G.

G. Cipparone, G. Russo, C. Versace, G. Strangi, and V. Carbone, "Polarimetric study of the optically induced dynamical behaviour in nematic liquid crystal films," Opt. Commun. 173, 1-10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sturman, B. I.

Sukhov, A. V.

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zeldovich, and A. V. Sukhov, "Orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1-139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. Ya. Zeldovich, S. K. Merzlinkin, N. F. Pilipetskii, and A. V. Sukhov, "Observation of stimulated forward orientational light scattering in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 41, 514-517 (1985).

Tabiryan, N. V.

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zeldovich, and A. V. Sukhov, "Orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1-139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

V. Carbone, G. Cipparrone, C. Versace, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, "Multifractal structure and intermittency of laser-generated turbulence in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 54, 6948-6951 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, V. Carbone, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and F. Simoni, "Optically induced chaotic behavior in nematic liquid-crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 47, 3741-3744 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Versace, C.

G. Cipparone, G. Russo, C. Versace, G. Strangi, and V. Carbone, "Polarimetric study of the optically induced dynamical behaviour in nematic liquid crystal films," Opt. Commun. 173, 1-10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Carbone, G. Cipparrone, C. Versace, C. Umeton, and R. Bartolino, "Multifractal structure and intermittency of laser-generated turbulence in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 54, 6948-6951 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, V. Carbone, C. Versace, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and F. Simoni, "Optically induced chaotic behavior in nematic liquid-crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 47, 3741-3744 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wood, W. V.

Ya. Zeldovich, B.

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zeldovich, and A. V. Sukhov, "Orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1-139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zeldovich, B. Ya.

B. Ya. Zeldovich, S. K. Merzlinkin, N. F. Pilipetskii, and A. V. Sukhov, "Observation of stimulated forward orientational light scattering in a planar nematic liquid crystal," JETP Lett. 41, 514-517 (1985).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. C. Khoo and J. Ding, "All-optical cw laser polarization conversion at 1.55 µm by two-beam coupling in nematic liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2496-2498 (2002).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

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Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

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Opt. Commun. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic depiction of the multifrequency scattering noise components of a linearly polarized laser incident upon a nematic liquid crystal. (b) Vector matching condition for the optical waves and the grating wave vector in the forward direction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for a stimulated orientation scattering effect.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Typical measured (average) output pump and generated waves versus input power. Sample thickness, 250 µm; laser wavelength, 532 nm; focal spot diameter, 40 µm. (b) Chart recorder traces of output pump and generated waves versus input power, showing oscillatory intensities at a fixed input intensity. Sample thickness, 250 µm; laser wavelength, 1550 nm; focal spot diameter, 40 µm. (c) Calculated output e and o waves as a function of input field. The input laser is an e wave in (b). Similar results hold for visible wavelengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Phase diagram of director angle coefficients Ai [mrad] for an input e wave of 3.8×105 V/m. Laser wavelength, 532 nm; sample thickness, 200 µm; laser spot diameter, 40 µm. (b) Output field dynamics and Fourier transform for an input e wave of 3.8×105 V/m. The behavior is quasi-periodic, with a well-defined oscillation frequency of ∼32 Hz. (c) Simultaneous oscilloscope traces of output pump and generated waves, showing the oscillatory energy exchanges between the two beams. Pump laser power, 60 mW; laser wavelength, 532 nm; sample thickness, 250 µm; laser spot diameter, 40 µm. (d) Total output power, measured with the output polarizing beam splitter removed, showing the linear dependence on input power. (e) Measured Fourier spectrum of the output e wave, showing a sharp spike at the characteristic frequency Γ=32 Hz. Pump laser power, 60 mW; laser wavelength, 532 nm; sample thickness, 250 µm; laser spot diameter, 40 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Fourier spectrum of the output e wave, showing a spike at the expected characteristic frequency, Γ=4 Hz. Pump laser power, 180 mW; laser wavelength, 1550 nm; sample thickness, 250 µm; laser spot diameter, 100 µm. Fourier spectra of the output e wave at pump laser powers of (b) 270, (c) 410, and (d) 680 mW.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Dependence of the observed average generated output power on the applied ac modulation frequency, showing the enhanced stimulated scattering efficiency when the applied ac field amplitude is comparable to the optical field. Laser wavelength, 532 nm; sample thickness, 250 µm; input laser power, 28.9 mW mW; laser focal spot diameter, 40 µm. (b) At modulation ac frequency 30 Hz, distinctive peaks occur at harmonics of ac frequency of 30, 60, and 90 Hz and at the characteristic frequency of 32 Hz. (c) At modulation ac frequency 35 Hz, distinctive peaks occur at harmonics of the ac frequency of 35 and 70 and at the characteristic frequency of 32 Hz and its harmonic of 64 Hz. (d) At modulation ac frequency 40 Hz, distinctive peaks occur at harmonics of the ac frequency of 40 and 80 and at the characteristic frequency of 32 Hz and its harmonic of 64 Hz.

Equations (5)

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η dθdt-K2 2θ(z, t)z2
=a2 (sin(2θ)(|Ey|2-|Ex|2)+cos(2θ){ExEy* exp[i(qz-Ωt)]+Ex*Ey exp[-i(qz-Ωt)]}),
Exdz=-i akx4x|θs|2Ex+i μaωy24kxθsEy,
Eydz=i aky4y|θs|2Ey+i μaωx24kyθs*Ex.
dAndt=iΩ-K2η q2+nπL2An+aηL 0Lθs sinnπzL×(|Ey|2-|Ex|2)dz+aηL 0L sinnπzL×ExEy*-12θs2Ex*Ey-|θs|2ExEy*dz.

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