Abstract

We report a two-photon quantum interference experiment in which the detected individual photons have quite different properties. The interference is observed even when no effort is made to mask the distinguishing features before the photons are detected. The results can be explained only in terms of indistinguishable two-photon amplitudes.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. P. Feynman, R. Leighton, and M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics , Vol. III (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1965).
  2. R. P. Feynman, QED The Strange Theory of Light and Matter (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1985).
  3. C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. This photon bunching effect can also be observed as a peak in the two-photon detection rate; see Ref. 5 .
  5. Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Observation of correlated-photon statistics using a single detector," Phys. Rev. A 67, 065802 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. This is sort of a quantum eraser operation. For discussions on quantum erasers, see Refs. 7 and 8 .
  7. M. O. Scully and K. Drühl, "Quantum eraser: a proposed photon correlation experiment concerning observation and 'delayed choice' in quantum mechanics," Phys. Rev. A 25, 2208-2213 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y.-H. Kim, R. Yu, S. P. Kulik, Y. Shih, and M. O. Scully, "Delayed choice quantum eraser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1-5 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, in Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Foundations of Quantum Mechanics in the Light of New Technology , M. Namiki, ed. (Physical Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1987).
  10. Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, "New type of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921-2924 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, "Violation of Bells inequality and classical probability in a two-photon correlation experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 50-53 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, and R. Y. Chiao, "Observation of a quantum eraser: a revival of coherence in a two-photon interference experiment," Phys. Rev. A 45, 7729-7739 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. V. Strekalov, T. B. Pittman, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "Postselection-free energy-time entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 54, R1-R4 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. B. Pittman, D. V. Strekalov, A. Migdall, M. H. Rubin, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "Can two-photon interference be considered the interference of two photons?" Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1917-1920 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y.-H. Kim, "Two-photon interference without bunching two photons," Phys. Lett. A 315, 352-357 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y.-H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, "Quantum interference by two temporally distinguishable pulses," Phys. Rev. A 60, R37-R40 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y.-H. Kim, "Measurement of one-photon and two-photon wave packets in spontaneous parametric downconversion," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1959-1966 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y.-H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, Y. Shih, and M. H. Rubin, "First-order interference of nonclassical light emitted spontaneously at different times," Phys. Rev. A 61, 051803 (R) (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y.-H. Kim, V. Berardi, M. V. Chekhova, A. Garuccio, and Y. Shih, "Temporal indistinguishability and quantum interference," Phys. Rev. A 62, 043820 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. This particular scheme can be used to prepare polarization entangled photons when the pump is cw; see Ref. 21 .
  21. P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. With ultrafast pumps, as in this paper, polarization entangled photons cannot be obtained in general. See Refs. 23 , 24 , and 25 .
  23. T. E. Keller and M. H. Rubin, "Theory of two-photon entanglement for spontaneous parametric down-conversion driven by a narrow pump pulse," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1534-1541 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. P. Grice and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral information and distinguishability in type-II down-conversion with a broadband pump," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1627-1634 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, M. H. Rubin, and Y. Shih, "Comment on 'Dispersion-Independent high-visibility quantum interference in ultrafast parametric downconversion'," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4710 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, M. V. Chekhova, W. P. Grice, and Y. Shih, "Experimental entanglement concentration and universal Bell-state synthesizer," Phys. Rev. A 67, 010301 (R) (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. L. Braunstein and A. Mann, "Measurement of the Bell operator and quantum teleportation," Phys. Rev. A 51, R1727-R1730 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Reliability of the beam-splitterbased Bell-state measurement," Phys. Rev. A 68, 062305 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Generation of pulsed polarization-entangled two-photon state via temporal and spectral engineering," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2309-2323 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. W. P. Grice, A. B. U'Ren, and I. A. Walmsley, "Eliminating frequency and space-time correlations in multiphoton states," Phys. Rev. A 64, 063815 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (5)

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Observation of correlated-photon statistics using a single detector," Phys. Rev. A 67, 065802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, "Two-photon interference without bunching two photons," Phys. Lett. A 315, 352-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, M. V. Chekhova, W. P. Grice, and Y. Shih, "Experimental entanglement concentration and universal Bell-state synthesizer," Phys. Rev. A 67, 010301 (R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Reliability of the beam-splitterbased Bell-state measurement," Phys. Rev. A 68, 062305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, "Measurement of one-photon and two-photon wave packets in spontaneous parametric downconversion," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1959-1966 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Generation of pulsed polarization-entangled two-photon state via temporal and spectral engineering," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2309-2323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

W. P. Grice, A. B. U'Ren, and I. A. Walmsley, "Eliminating frequency and space-time correlations in multiphoton states," Phys. Rev. A 64, 063815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, M. H. Rubin, and Y. Shih, "Comment on 'Dispersion-Independent high-visibility quantum interference in ultrafast parametric downconversion'," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4710 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

Y.-H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, Y. Shih, and M. H. Rubin, "First-order interference of nonclassical light emitted spontaneously at different times," Phys. Rev. A 61, 051803 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, V. Berardi, M. V. Chekhova, A. Garuccio, and Y. Shih, "Temporal indistinguishability and quantum interference," Phys. Rev. A 62, 043820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, R. Yu, S. P. Kulik, Y. Shih, and M. O. Scully, "Delayed choice quantum eraser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1-5 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

Y.-H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, "Quantum interference by two temporally distinguishable pulses," Phys. Rev. A 60, R37-R40 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

T. E. Keller and M. H. Rubin, "Theory of two-photon entanglement for spontaneous parametric down-conversion driven by a narrow pump pulse," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1534-1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Grice and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral information and distinguishability in type-II down-conversion with a broadband pump," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1627-1634 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

D. V. Strekalov, T. B. Pittman, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "Postselection-free energy-time entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 54, R1-R4 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Pittman, D. V. Strekalov, A. Migdall, M. H. Rubin, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "Can two-photon interference be considered the interference of two photons?" Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1917-1920 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

S. L. Braunstein and A. Mann, "Measurement of the Bell operator and quantum teleportation," Phys. Rev. A 51, R1727-R1730 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, and R. Y. Chiao, "Observation of a quantum eraser: a revival of coherence in a two-photon interference experiment," Phys. Rev. A 45, 7729-7739 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, "New type of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921-2924 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, "Violation of Bells inequality and classical probability in a two-photon correlation experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 50-53 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

M. O. Scully and K. Drühl, "Quantum eraser: a proposed photon correlation experiment concerning observation and 'delayed choice' in quantum mechanics," Phys. Rev. A 25, 2208-2213 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alley, C. O.

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, "New type of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921-2924 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berardi, V.

Y.-H. Kim, V. Berardi, M. V. Chekhova, A. Garuccio, and Y. Shih, "Temporal indistinguishability and quantum interference," Phys. Rev. A 62, 043820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Braunstein , S. L.

S. L. Braunstein and A. Mann, "Measurement of the Bell operator and quantum teleportation," Phys. Rev. A 51, R1727-R1730 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chekhova, M. V.

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, M. V. Chekhova, W. P. Grice, and Y. Shih, "Experimental entanglement concentration and universal Bell-state synthesizer," Phys. Rev. A 67, 010301 (R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, V. Berardi, M. V. Chekhova, A. Garuccio, and Y. Shih, "Temporal indistinguishability and quantum interference," Phys. Rev. A 62, 043820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, Y. Shih, and M. H. Rubin, "First-order interference of nonclassical light emitted spontaneously at different times," Phys. Rev. A 61, 051803 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, "Quantum interference by two temporally distinguishable pulses," Phys. Rev. A 60, R37-R40 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiao, R. Y.

P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, and R. Y. Chiao, "Observation of a quantum eraser: a revival of coherence in a two-photon interference experiment," Phys. Rev. A 45, 7729-7739 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drühl, K.

M. O. Scully and K. Drühl, "Quantum eraser: a proposed photon correlation experiment concerning observation and 'delayed choice' in quantum mechanics," Phys. Rev. A 25, 2208-2213 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Garuccio, A.

Y.-H. Kim, V. Berardi, M. V. Chekhova, A. Garuccio, and Y. Shih, "Temporal indistinguishability and quantum interference," Phys. Rev. A 62, 043820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grice, W. P.

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, M. V. Chekhova, W. P. Grice, and Y. Shih, "Experimental entanglement concentration and universal Bell-state synthesizer," Phys. Rev. A 67, 010301 (R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Observation of correlated-photon statistics using a single detector," Phys. Rev. A 67, 065802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Reliability of the beam-splitterbased Bell-state measurement," Phys. Rev. A 68, 062305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Generation of pulsed polarization-entangled two-photon state via temporal and spectral engineering," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2309-2323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Grice, A. B. U'Ren, and I. A. Walmsley, "Eliminating frequency and space-time correlations in multiphoton states," Phys. Rev. A 64, 063815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grice , W. P.

W. P. Grice and I. A. Walmsley, "Spectral information and distinguishability in type-II down-conversion with a broadband pump," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1627-1634 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. K.

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller , T. E.

T. E. Keller and M. H. Rubin, "Theory of two-photon entanglement for spontaneous parametric down-conversion driven by a narrow pump pulse," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1534-1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim , Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Observation of correlated-photon statistics using a single detector," Phys. Rev. A 67, 065802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, M. V. Chekhova, W. P. Grice, and Y. Shih, "Experimental entanglement concentration and universal Bell-state synthesizer," Phys. Rev. A 67, 010301 (R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, "Measurement of one-photon and two-photon wave packets in spontaneous parametric downconversion," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1959-1966 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim , Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Reliability of the beam-splitterbased Bell-state measurement," Phys. Rev. A 68, 062305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kim, "Two-photon interference without bunching two photons," Phys. Lett. A 315, 352-357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim , Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kim and W. P. Grice, "Generation of pulsed polarization-entangled two-photon state via temporal and spectral engineering," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2309-2323 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, M. H. Rubin, and Y. Shih, "Comment on 'Dispersion-Independent high-visibility quantum interference in ultrafast parametric downconversion'," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4710 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, Y. Shih, and M. H. Rubin, "First-order interference of nonclassical light emitted spontaneously at different times," Phys. Rev. A 61, 051803 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, V. Berardi, M. V. Chekhova, A. Garuccio, and Y. Shih, "Temporal indistinguishability and quantum interference," Phys. Rev. A 62, 043820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, R. Yu, S. P. Kulik, Y. Shih, and M. O. Scully, "Delayed choice quantum eraser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1-5 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, "Quantum interference by two temporally distinguishable pulses," Phys. Rev. A 60, R37-R40 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kulik, S. P.

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, M. V. Chekhova, W. P. Grice, and Y. Shih, "Experimental entanglement concentration and universal Bell-state synthesizer," Phys. Rev. A 67, 010301 (R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, M. H. Rubin, and Y. Shih, "Comment on 'Dispersion-Independent high-visibility quantum interference in ultrafast parametric downconversion'," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4710 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, Y. Shih, and M. H. Rubin, "First-order interference of nonclassical light emitted spontaneously at different times," Phys. Rev. A 61, 051803 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, R. Yu, S. P. Kulik, Y. Shih, and M. O. Scully, "Delayed choice quantum eraser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1-5 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, "Quantum interference by two temporally distinguishable pulses," Phys. Rev. A 60, R37-R40 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P. G.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, and R. Y. Chiao, "Observation of a quantum eraser: a revival of coherence in a two-photon interference experiment," Phys. Rev. A 45, 7729-7739 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandel, L.

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, "Violation of Bells inequality and classical probability in a two-photon correlation experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 50-53 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mann, A.

S. L. Braunstein and A. Mann, "Measurement of the Bell operator and quantum teleportation," Phys. Rev. A 51, R1727-R1730 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattle, K.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Migdall, A.

T. B. Pittman, D. V. Strekalov, A. Migdall, M. H. Rubin, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "Can two-photon interference be considered the interference of two photons?" Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1917-1920 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ou , Z. Y.

Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, "Violation of Bells inequality and classical probability in a two-photon correlation experiment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 50-53 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ou, Z. Y.

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, "Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044-2046 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pittman, T. B.

D. V. Strekalov, T. B. Pittman, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "Postselection-free energy-time entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 54, R1-R4 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Pittman, D. V. Strekalov, A. Migdall, M. H. Rubin, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "Can two-photon interference be considered the interference of two photons?" Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1917-1920 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, M. H.

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, M. H. Rubin, and Y. Shih, "Comment on 'Dispersion-Independent high-visibility quantum interference in ultrafast parametric downconversion'," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4710 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, Y. Shih, and M. H. Rubin, "First-order interference of nonclassical light emitted spontaneously at different times," Phys. Rev. A 61, 051803 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Keller and M. H. Rubin, "Theory of two-photon entanglement for spontaneous parametric down-conversion driven by a narrow pump pulse," Phys. Rev. A 56, 1534-1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, D. V. Strekalov, A. Migdall, M. H. Rubin, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "Can two-photon interference be considered the interference of two photons?" Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1917-1920 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

Y.-H. Kim, R. Yu, S. P. Kulik, Y. Shih, and M. O. Scully, "Delayed choice quantum eraser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1-5 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scully , M. O.

M. O. Scully and K. Drühl, "Quantum eraser: a proposed photon correlation experiment concerning observation and 'delayed choice' in quantum mechanics," Phys. Rev. A 25, 2208-2213 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A. V.

D. V. Strekalov, T. B. Pittman, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "Postselection-free energy-time entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 54, R1-R4 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Pittman, D. V. Strekalov, A. Migdall, M. H. Rubin, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "Can two-photon interference be considered the interference of two photons?" Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1917-1920 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, Y.

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, M. V. Chekhova, W. P. Grice, and Y. Shih, "Experimental entanglement concentration and universal Bell-state synthesizer," Phys. Rev. A 67, 010301 (R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, M. H. Rubin, and Y. Shih, "Comment on 'Dispersion-Independent high-visibility quantum interference in ultrafast parametric downconversion'," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4710 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, Y. Shih, and M. H. Rubin, "First-order interference of nonclassical light emitted spontaneously at different times," Phys. Rev. A 61, 051803 (R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, R. Yu, S. P. Kulik, Y. Shih, and M. O. Scully, "Delayed choice quantum eraser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1-5 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kim, V. Berardi, M. V. Chekhova, A. Garuccio, and Y. Shih, "Temporal indistinguishability and quantum interference," Phys. Rev. A 62, 043820 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, and Y. Shih, "Quantum interference by two temporally distinguishable pulses," Phys. Rev. A 60, R37-R40 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y. H.

T. B. Pittman, D. V. Strekalov, A. Migdall, M. H. Rubin, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "Can two-photon interference be considered the interference of two photons?" Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1917-1920 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Strekalov, T. B. Pittman, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "Postselection-free energy-time entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 54, R1-R4 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih , Y. H.

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, "New type of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921-2924 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinberg, A. M.

P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, and R. Y. Chiao, "Observation of a quantum eraser: a revival of coherence in a two-photon interference experiment," Phys. Rev. A 45, 7729-7739 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strekalov, D. V.

T. B. Pittman, D. V. Strekalov, A. Migdall, M. H. Rubin, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "Can two-photon interference be considered the interference of two photons?" Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1917-1920 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Strekalov, T. B. Pittman, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "Postselection-free energy-time entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 54, R1-R4 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U'Ren, A. B.

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[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

W. P. Grice, A. B. U'Ren, and I. A. Walmsley, "Eliminating frequency and space-time correlations in multiphoton states," Phys. Rev. A 64, 063815 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
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P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. H. Shih, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Other (7)

This particular scheme can be used to prepare polarization entangled photons when the pump is cw; see Ref. 21 .

This photon bunching effect can also be observed as a peak in the two-photon detection rate; see Ref. 5 .

R. P. Feynman, R. Leighton, and M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics , Vol. III (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1965).

R. P. Feynman, QED The Strange Theory of Light and Matter (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1985).

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, in Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Foundations of Quantum Mechanics in the Light of New Technology , M. Namiki, ed. (Physical Society of Japan, Tokyo, 1987).

This is sort of a quantum eraser operation. For discussions on quantum erasers, see Refs. 7 and 8 .

With ultrafast pumps, as in this paper, polarization entangled photons cannot be obtained in general. See Refs. 23 , 24 , and 25 .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Orthogonally polarized photon pairs are generated from the BBO crystal by type II spontaneous parametric downconversion. Polarization analyzers A3 and A4 are removable. QR1, QR2, quartz rods; QP1, QP2, quartz plates; BS, beam splitter, D3, D4, detectors; F3, F4, filters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental data showing two-photon quantum interference. Polarization analyzers were not used for this measurement. The peak–dip visibility is ∼93%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental data with polarizers A3 oriented at 90° and A4 at 0°. The visibility of the quantum interference remains the same, but the overall count rate has been reduced.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental data with (a) polarizer A3 at 45° and A4 at 45°, (b) polarizer A3 at 45° and A4 at -45°. The overall count rate has been reduced but the visibility remains the same.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quantum mechanical two-photon Feynman alternatives. Ψ1 and Ψ4 are indistinguishable, and Ψ2 and Ψ3 are indistinguishable. As a result, quantum interference occurs pairwise and the interference peak–dip can be observed without needing to erase the actively distinguishing information. The vertical gray bar represents the beam splitter.

Equations (15)

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|Ψ=12[|ψHV+exp(iϕ)|ψVH],
|ψHV=dtodteGHV(to, te)aˆH1(to)aˆV2(te)|0,
|ψVH=dtodteGVH(to, te)aˆV1(te)aˆH2(to)|0,
GHV(to, te)=GVH(to, te)=N exp[-iω¯(to+te)]ξ(to, te)×[te-to; 0, L(ko-ke)].
[t; t1, t2]=1fort1<t<t20otherwise.
ξ(to, te)=exp-σ24 kp-keko-keto-kp-koko-kete2,
kp=dkpdω2ω¯,ko(e)=dko(e)dωω¯
GHV(to, te)GHV(to, te-τ2-τ),
GVH(to, te)GVH(to-τ, te-τ1).
R=dtdt[PHV(t, t)+PVH(t, t)],
Pij(t, t)=|0|aˆi3(t)aˆj4(t)|Ψ|2,
aˆi3(t)=12[aˆi2(t)+iaˆi1(t)],
aˆi4(t)=12[aˆi1(t)+iaˆi2(t)].
R=R01-cos[ϕ-ω¯(τ2-τ1)]1-|2τ+τ2-τ1|L(ko-ke)×exp-σ28 2kp-ko-keko-keτ+kp-koko-ke(τ2-τ1)2×[2τ+τ2-τ1;-L(ko-ke), L(ko-ke)],
RR0{1-cos[ϕ-ω¯(τ2-τ1)]}.

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