Abstract

We propose a new scheme for measuring the quantum efficiency of a single-photon detection apparatus by using polarization-entangled states. The scheme consists of measuring the polarization of a member of a polarization-entangled pair after a 90° polarization rotation conditional on the detection of the correlated photon after polarization selection. We present experimental results obtained with this scheme compared with traditional biphoton calibration. Our results show the interesting potentiality of the suggested scheme.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Auletta, Foundations and Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Aspect, J. Dalibard, and G. Roger, "Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using time-varying analyzers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1804-1807 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster, "Experimental violation of Bell's inequality based on phase and momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2495-2498 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Kwiat, W. A. Vareka, C. K. Hong, H. Nathel, and R. Y. Chiao, "Correlated two-photon interference in a dual-beam Michelson interferometer," Phys. Rev. A 41, 2910-2913 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3563-3566 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Kiess, Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, and C. O. Alley, "Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs oflight quanta produced by type-II parametric down conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3893-3897 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. G. White, D. F. V. James, P. H. Eberhard, and P. G. Kwiat, "Nonmaximally entangled states: production, characterization, and utilization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3103-3107 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. H. Shih, "Bell state preparation using pulsed nondegenerate two-photon entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 63, 060301 (R) (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, M. Rubin, and Y. H. Shih, "Interferometric Bell state preparation using femtosecond pulse pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 63, 062301 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Brida, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and E. Predazzi, "New experimental test of Bell inequalities by the use of a non-maximally entangled photon state," Phys. Lett. A 268, 12-16 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Brida, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and E. Predazzi, "A first test of Wigner function local realistic model," Phys. Lett. A 299, 121-124 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. See, for example, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. B. Pittman, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Experimental controlled-NOT logic gate for single photons in the coincidence basis," Phys. Rev. A 68, 032316 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Demonstration of nondeterministic quantum logic operations using linear optical elements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257902 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature (London) 409, 46-52 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000).
  18. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert, and A. Zeilinger, The Physics of Quantum Information (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. C. Burnham and D. L. Weinberg, "Observation of simultaneity in parametric production of optical photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84-87 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. N. Klyshko, "Use of two-photon light for absolute calibration of photoelectric detectors," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1112 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, and A. V. Sergienko, "Absolute calibration of the sensitivity of photodetectors using a two-photon field," Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 33, 477-480 (1981).
  22. A. Migdall, "Correlated-photon metrology without absolute standards," Phys. Today 52, 41-46 (1999), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Single photons on pseudodemand from stored parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 66, 042303 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Demonstration of feed-forward control for linear optics quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 66, 052305 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Giacomini, F. Sciarrino, E. Lombardi, and F. De Martini, "Active teleportation of quantum bit," Phys. Rev. A 66, 030302 (R) (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Quantum efficiency measurement of photon detectors by means of correlated photons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1623-1627 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. Brida, M. Genovese, and C. Novero, "An application of two photons entangled states to quantum metrology," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2099-2104 (2000), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. Brida, M. Chekhova, M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, L. Krivitsky, and S. Kulik, "Conditioned unitary transformation on biphotons," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032332 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. Brida, M. Chekhova, M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, L. Krivitsky, and S. Kulik, "Conditioned unitary transformation on biphotons," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. B. Pittman, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Experimental controlled-NOT logic gate for single photons in the coincidence basis," Phys. Rev. A 68, 032316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (6)

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Demonstration of nondeterministic quantum logic operations using linear optical elements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and E. Predazzi, "A first test of Wigner function local realistic model," Phys. Lett. A 299, 121-124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Single photons on pseudodemand from stored parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 66, 042303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Demonstration of feed-forward control for linear optics quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 66, 052305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Giacomini, F. Sciarrino, E. Lombardi, and F. De Martini, "Active teleportation of quantum bit," Phys. Rev. A 66, 030302 (R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature (London) 409, 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. H. Shih, "Bell state preparation using pulsed nondegenerate two-photon entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 63, 060301 (R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, M. Rubin, and Y. H. Shih, "Interferometric Bell state preparation using femtosecond pulse pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 63, 062301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

G. Brida, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and E. Predazzi, "New experimental test of Bell inequalities by the use of a non-maximally entangled photon state," Phys. Lett. A 268, 12-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, and C. Novero, "An application of two photons entangled states to quantum metrology," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2099-2104 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Quantum efficiency measurement of photon detectors by means of correlated photons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1623-1627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Migdall, "Correlated-photon metrology without absolute standards," Phys. Today 52, 41-46 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

A. G. White, D. F. V. James, P. H. Eberhard, and P. G. Kwiat, "Nonmaximally entangled states: production, characterization, and utilization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3103-3107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3563-3566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

E. Kiess, Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, and C. O. Alley, "Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs oflight quanta produced by type-II parametric down conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3893-3897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster, "Experimental violation of Bell's inequality based on phase and momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2495-2498 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kwiat, W. A. Vareka, C. K. Hong, H. Nathel, and R. Y. Chiao, "Correlated two-photon interference in a dual-beam Michelson interferometer," Phys. Rev. A 41, 2910-2913 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

A. Aspect, J. Dalibard, and G. Roger, "Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using time-varying analyzers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1804-1807 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, and A. V. Sergienko, "Absolute calibration of the sensitivity of photodetectors using a two-photon field," Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 33, 477-480 (1981).

1980 (1)

D. N. Klyshko, "Use of two-photon light for absolute calibration of photoelectric detectors," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1112 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

D. C. Burnham and D. L. Weinberg, "Observation of simultaneity in parametric production of optical photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84-87 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Alley, C. O.

E. Kiess, Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, and C. O. Alley, "Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs oflight quanta produced by type-II parametric down conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3893-3897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspect, A.

A. Aspect, J. Dalibard, and G. Roger, "Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using time-varying analyzers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1804-1807 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Brendel, J.

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3563-3566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brida, G.

G. Brida, M. Chekhova, M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, L. Krivitsky, and S. Kulik, "Conditioned unitary transformation on biphotons," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and E. Predazzi, "A first test of Wigner function local realistic model," Phys. Lett. A 299, 121-124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, and C. Novero, "An application of two photons entangled states to quantum metrology," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2099-2104 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and E. Predazzi, "New experimental test of Bell inequalities by the use of a non-maximally entangled photon state," Phys. Lett. A 268, 12-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Quantum efficiency measurement of photon detectors by means of correlated photons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1623-1627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burnham , D. C.

D. C. Burnham and D. L. Weinberg, "Observation of simultaneity in parametric production of optical photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84-87 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Castelletto, S.

Chekhova, M.

G. Brida, M. Chekhova, M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, L. Krivitsky, and S. Kulik, "Conditioned unitary transformation on biphotons," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chekhova, M. V.

Y. H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, M. Rubin, and Y. H. Shih, "Interferometric Bell state preparation using femtosecond pulse pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 63, 062301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chiao, R. Y.

P. Kwiat, W. A. Vareka, C. K. Hong, H. Nathel, and R. Y. Chiao, "Correlated two-photon interference in a dual-beam Michelson interferometer," Phys. Rev. A 41, 2910-2913 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalibard, J.

A. Aspect, J. Dalibard, and G. Roger, "Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using time-varying analyzers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1804-1807 (1982).
[CrossRef]

De Martini, F.

S. Giacomini, F. Sciarrino, E. Lombardi, and F. De Martini, "Active teleportation of quantum bit," Phys. Rev. A 66, 030302 (R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eberhard, P. H.

A. G. White, D. F. V. James, P. H. Eberhard, and P. G. Kwiat, "Nonmaximally entangled states: production, characterization, and utilization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3103-3107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fitch, M. J.

T. B. Pittman, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Experimental controlled-NOT logic gate for single photons in the coincidence basis," Phys. Rev. A 68, 032316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franson, J. D.

T. B. Pittman, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Experimental controlled-NOT logic gate for single photons in the coincidence basis," Phys. Rev. A 68, 032316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Single photons on pseudodemand from stored parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 66, 042303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Demonstration of nondeterministic quantum logic operations using linear optical elements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Demonstration of feed-forward control for linear optics quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 66, 052305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Genovese, M.

G. Brida, M. Chekhova, M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, L. Krivitsky, and S. Kulik, "Conditioned unitary transformation on biphotons," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and E. Predazzi, "A first test of Wigner function local realistic model," Phys. Lett. A 299, 121-124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, and C. Novero, "An application of two photons entangled states to quantum metrology," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2099-2104 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and E. Predazzi, "New experimental test of Bell inequalities by the use of a non-maximally entangled photon state," Phys. Lett. A 268, 12-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giacomini, S.

S. Giacomini, F. Sciarrino, E. Lombardi, and F. De Martini, "Active teleportation of quantum bit," Phys. Rev. A 66, 030302 (R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

See, for example, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3563-3566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gramegna, M.

G. Brida, M. Chekhova, M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, L. Krivitsky, and S. Kulik, "Conditioned unitary transformation on biphotons," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. K.

P. Kwiat, W. A. Vareka, C. K. Hong, H. Nathel, and R. Y. Chiao, "Correlated two-photon interference in a dual-beam Michelson interferometer," Phys. Rev. A 41, 2910-2913 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, B. C.

T. B. Pittman, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Experimental controlled-NOT logic gate for single photons in the coincidence basis," Phys. Rev. A 68, 032316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Single photons on pseudodemand from stored parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 66, 042303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Demonstration of nondeterministic quantum logic operations using linear optical elements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Demonstration of feed-forward control for linear optics quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 66, 052305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

James, D. F. V.

A. G. White, D. F. V. James, P. H. Eberhard, and P. G. Kwiat, "Nonmaximally entangled states: production, characterization, and utilization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3103-3107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kiess, E.

E. Kiess, Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, and C. O. Alley, "Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs oflight quanta produced by type-II parametric down conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3893-3897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. H.

Y. H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. H. Shih, "Bell state preparation using pulsed nondegenerate two-photon entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 63, 060301 (R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, M. Rubin, and Y. H. Shih, "Interferometric Bell state preparation using femtosecond pulse pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 63, 062301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klyshko, D. N.

D. N. Klyshko, "Use of two-photon light for absolute calibration of photoelectric detectors," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1112 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Knill, E.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature (London) 409, 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krivitsky, L.

G. Brida, M. Chekhova, M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, L. Krivitsky, and S. Kulik, "Conditioned unitary transformation on biphotons," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kulik, S.

G. Brida, M. Chekhova, M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, L. Krivitsky, and S. Kulik, "Conditioned unitary transformation on biphotons," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kulik, S. P.

Y. H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. H. Shih, "Bell state preparation using pulsed nondegenerate two-photon entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 63, 060301 (R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, M. Rubin, and Y. H. Shih, "Interferometric Bell state preparation using femtosecond pulse pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 63, 062301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P.

P. Kwiat, W. A. Vareka, C. K. Hong, H. Nathel, and R. Y. Chiao, "Correlated two-photon interference in a dual-beam Michelson interferometer," Phys. Rev. A 41, 2910-2913 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwiat, P. G.

A. G. White, D. F. V. James, P. H. Eberhard, and P. G. Kwiat, "Nonmaximally entangled states: production, characterization, and utilization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3103-3107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laflamme, R.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature (London) 409, 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lombardi, E.

S. Giacomini, F. Sciarrino, E. Lombardi, and F. De Martini, "Active teleportation of quantum bit," Phys. Rev. A 66, 030302 (R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Malygin, A. A.

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, and A. V. Sergienko, "Absolute calibration of the sensitivity of photodetectors using a two-photon field," Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 33, 477-480 (1981).

Mattle, K.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Migdall, A.

A. Migdall, "Correlated-photon metrology without absolute standards," Phys. Today 52, 41-46 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Milburn, G. J.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature (London) 409, 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nathel, H.

P. Kwiat, W. A. Vareka, C. K. Hong, H. Nathel, and R. Y. Chiao, "Correlated two-photon interference in a dual-beam Michelson interferometer," Phys. Rev. A 41, 2910-2913 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novero, C.

G. Brida, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and E. Predazzi, "A first test of Wigner function local realistic model," Phys. Lett. A 299, 121-124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, and C. Novero, "An application of two photons entangled states to quantum metrology," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2099-2104 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and E. Predazzi, "New experimental test of Bell inequalities by the use of a non-maximally entangled photon state," Phys. Lett. A 268, 12-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Quantum efficiency measurement of photon detectors by means of correlated photons," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1623-1627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Penin, A. N.

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, and A. V. Sergienko, "Absolute calibration of the sensitivity of photodetectors using a two-photon field," Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 33, 477-480 (1981).

Pittman, T. B.

T. B. Pittman, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Experimental controlled-NOT logic gate for single photons in the coincidence basis," Phys. Rev. A 68, 032316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Single photons on pseudodemand from stored parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 66, 042303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Demonstration of nondeterministic quantum logic operations using linear optical elements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Demonstration of feed-forward control for linear optics quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 66, 052305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Predazzi, E.

G. Brida, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and E. Predazzi, "A first test of Wigner function local realistic model," Phys. Lett. A 299, 121-124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and E. Predazzi, "New experimental test of Bell inequalities by the use of a non-maximally entangled photon state," Phys. Lett. A 268, 12-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rarity , J. G.

J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster, "Experimental violation of Bell's inequality based on phase and momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2495-2498 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rastello, M. L.

Ribordy, G.

See, for example, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Roger, G.

A. Aspect, J. Dalibard, and G. Roger, "Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using time-varying analyzers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1804-1807 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, M.

Y. H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, M. Rubin, and Y. H. Shih, "Interferometric Bell state preparation using femtosecond pulse pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 63, 062301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sciarrino, F.

S. Giacomini, F. Sciarrino, E. Lombardi, and F. De Martini, "Active teleportation of quantum bit," Phys. Rev. A 66, 030302 (R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A. V.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kiess, Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, and C. O. Alley, "Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs oflight quanta produced by type-II parametric down conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3893-3897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, and A. V. Sergienko, "Absolute calibration of the sensitivity of photodetectors using a two-photon field," Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 33, 477-480 (1981).

Shih, Y. H.

Y. H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, M. Rubin, and Y. H. Shih, "Interferometric Bell state preparation using femtosecond pulse pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 63, 062301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. H. Shih, "Bell state preparation using pulsed nondegenerate two-photon entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 63, 060301 (R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kiess, Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, and C. O. Alley, "Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs oflight quanta produced by type-II parametric down conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3893-3897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tapster, P. R.

J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster, "Experimental violation of Bell's inequality based on phase and momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2495-2498 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, W.

See, for example, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3563-3566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vareka, W. A.

P. Kwiat, W. A. Vareka, C. K. Hong, H. Nathel, and R. Y. Chiao, "Correlated two-photon interference in a dual-beam Michelson interferometer," Phys. Rev. A 41, 2910-2913 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinberg, D. L.

D. C. Burnham and D. L. Weinberg, "Observation of simultaneity in parametric production of optical photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84-87 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, A. G.

A. G. White, D. F. V. James, P. H. Eberhard, and P. G. Kwiat, "Nonmaximally entangled states: production, characterization, and utilization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3103-3107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

See, for example, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3563-3566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

G. Brida, M. Genovese, and C. Novero, "An application of two photons entangled states to quantum metrology," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2099-2104 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (London) (1)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature (London) 409, 46-52 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (2)

G. Brida, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and E. Predazzi, "New experimental test of Bell inequalities by the use of a non-maximally entangled photon state," Phys. Lett. A 268, 12-16 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and E. Predazzi, "A first test of Wigner function local realistic model," Phys. Lett. A 299, 121-124 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (8)

T. B. Pittman, M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Experimental controlled-NOT logic gate for single photons in the coincidence basis," Phys. Rev. A 68, 032316 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Kwiat, W. A. Vareka, C. K. Hong, H. Nathel, and R. Y. Chiao, "Correlated two-photon interference in a dual-beam Michelson interferometer," Phys. Rev. A 41, 2910-2913 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Kim, S. P. Kulik, and Y. H. Shih, "Bell state preparation using pulsed nondegenerate two-photon entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 63, 060301 (R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Kim, M. V. Chekhova, S. P. Kulik, M. Rubin, and Y. H. Shih, "Interferometric Bell state preparation using femtosecond pulse pumped spontaneous parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 63, 062301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, M. Chekhova, M. Genovese, M. Gramegna, L. Krivitsky, and S. Kulik, "Conditioned unitary transformation on biphotons," Phys. Rev. A 70, 032332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Single photons on pseudodemand from stored parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 66, 042303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Demonstration of feed-forward control for linear optics quantum computation," Phys. Rev. A 66, 052305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Giacomini, F. Sciarrino, E. Lombardi, and F. De Martini, "Active teleportation of quantum bit," Phys. Rev. A 66, 030302 (R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

A. Aspect, J. Dalibard, and G. Roger, "Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using time-varying analyzers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1804-1807 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rarity and P. R. Tapster, "Experimental violation of Bell's inequality based on phase and momentum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2495-2498 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3563-3566 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Kiess, Y. H. Shih, A. V. Sergienko, and C. O. Alley, "Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment using pairs oflight quanta produced by type-II parametric down conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3893-3897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, A. V. Sergienko, Y. H. Shih, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337-4341 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. White, D. F. V. James, P. H. Eberhard, and P. G. Kwiat, "Nonmaximally entangled states: production, characterization, and utilization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3103-3107 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Demonstration of nondeterministic quantum logic operations using linear optical elements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 257902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Burnham and D. L. Weinberg, "Observation of simultaneity in parametric production of optical photon pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84-87 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

A. Migdall, "Correlated-photon metrology without absolute standards," Phys. Today 52, 41-46 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

See, for example, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. N. Klyshko, "Use of two-photon light for absolute calibration of photoelectric detectors," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1112 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. (1)

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, and A. V. Sergienko, "Absolute calibration of the sensitivity of photodetectors using a two-photon field," Sov. Phys. JETP Lett. 33, 477-480 (1981).

Other (3)

M. A. Nielsen and I. L. Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000).

D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert, and A. Zeilinger, The Physics of Quantum Information (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Auletta, Foundations and Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Our experimental setup. A cw argon laser generating at 351 nm pumps a type II β-barium borate crystal cut for frequency-degenerate noncollinear polarization-entangled phase matching. One of the correlated photons, after a spatial selection by means of pinhole A (a spectral selection by means of a red-glass cutoff filter RG and a polarization selection by means of a polarizing beam-splitter cube PBS) is addressed to the photon counter D1, which drives, through a fast high-voltage switch S, a Pockels cell PC placed in the optical path of the other photon. The delay between a photocount of D1 and the corresponding high-voltage pulse on the Pockels cell can be varied electronically. The second photon of an entangled pair is retarded, before the Pockels cell, by means of a 50-m PM fiber F. This realizes the conditioned unitary operation. The second photon is registered by photon counter D2 preceded by a Glan prism G and an interference filter IF. The output signals from the detectors are routed to a two-channel counter C to have the number of events on a single channel and to a time-to-amplitude converter TAC circuit, followed by a single-channel analyzer, to select and count coincidence events needed for the traditional biphoton calibration of detectors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Counts in a 10-s acquisition on the second detector as a function of the angle of the polarizer preceding it (without background subtraction). When the Pockels cell (KDP) is not activated, a slight dependence on the polarizer angle appears (squares). When a 90° rotation of polarization is realized by the Pockels cell conditioned to the measurement of a vertically polarized photon on the conjugated branch, the data (triangles) show a clear dependence on the polarizer setting corresponding to a vertically polarized state.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coincidences in a 10-s acquisition plotted versus the angle of the polarizer preceding the second detector. When the Pockels cell (KDP) is not activated, a maximum is at 0° (squares). When a 90° rotation of polarization is realized by the Pockels cell conditioned to the measurement of a vertically polarized photon on the conjugated branch, the maximum is shifted, as expected, to become 90° (triangles).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Uncertainty Budget for Single-Photon Detector Calibration with the Proposed Schemea

Tables Icon

Table 2 Uncertainty Budget for Single-Photon Detector Calibration with the Traditional PDC Scheme (Point at Lowest Pump Power)a

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

|ψ=|H|V+eiϕ|V|H2,
ρ=12[(1+η1)|VV|+(1-η1)|HH|],
W2=W0αη2[1-η1 cos(2θ)],
V=η1=NV-NHNV+NH,
ρ=|HVHV|+|VHVH|2.
η1=(NV-NH)(NVc-NHc)(NV+NH)(NVc+NHc),
u2(η1)=c12u2(NH)+c22u2(NV)+c32u2(NHc)+c42u2(NVc).
Ns=ηsN;Ni=ηiN,
Nc=ηsηiN
ηs=Nc/Ni.

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