Abstract

We investigate the small-particle phonon-polariton response of several microstructures that are made of silicon carbide (SiC). Phonon polaritons can be excited in a wavelength region between 10 and 12 µm. Simple structures such as elliptical cylinders support phonon polaritons at two wavelengths, which depend on the axis ratio of the particle. In particles with a more irregular shape such as rectangular or triangular cylinders, up to five phonon polaritons can be excited. Through comparison of the strength of phonon-polariton excitation with the similar effect of the plasmon-polariton excitation in metallic nanoparticles, it is found that the excitation of phonon polaritons is more efficient. This behavior is attributed to the lower imaginary part of the dielectric constant of SiC.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Zheng, R. P. Joshi, and C. Fazi, "Effects of barrier height fluctuations and electron tunneling on the reverse characteristics of 6H-SiC Schottky contacts," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3701-3707 (1999).
  2. G. Ziegler, P. Lang, D. Theis, and C. Weyrich, "Single crystal growth of SiC substrate material for blue light emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 30, 277-281 (1983).
  3. K.-H. Lee, C. H. Park, B.-H. Cheong, and K. J. Chang, "First-principles study of the optical properties of SiC," Solid State Commun. 92, 869-872 (1994).
  4. W. J. Moore, R. T. Holm, M. J. Yang, and J. A. Freitas, Jr., "Infrared dielectric constant of cubic SiC," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 7255-7258 (1995).
  5. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
  6. J. P. Kottmann and O. J. F. Martin, "Influence of the cross section and the permittivity on the plasmon-resonance spectrum of silver nanowires," Appl. Phys. B 73, 299-304 (2001).
  7. H. Mutschke, A. C. Andersen, D. Clément, T. Henning, and G. Peiter, "Infrared properties of SiC particles," Astron. Astrophys. 345, 187-202 (1999).
  8. T. Bernatowicz, G. Fraundorf, T. Ming, E. Anders, B. Wopenka, E. Zinner, and P. Fraundorf, "Evidence for interstellar SiC in the Murray carbonaceous meteorite," Nature 330, 728-730 (1987).
  9. J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).
  10. J. Le Gall, M. Olivier, and J. J. Greffet, "Experimental and theoretical study of reflection and coherent thermal emissionby a SiC grating supporting a surface-phonon polariton," Phys. Rev. B 55, 10105-10114 (1997).
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  12. M. S. Anderson, "Enhanced infrared absorption with dielectric nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2964-2966 (2003).
  13. S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).
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  17. A. Madrazo and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a cylinder in front of a conducting plane," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1298-1309 (1995).
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  21. E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1985).

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, "Phonon-enhanced lightmatter interaction at the nanometre scale," Nature 418, 159-162 (2002).

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).

2001 (3)

J. P. Kottmann and O. J. F. Martin, "Influence of the cross section and the permittivity on the plasmon-resonance spectrum of silver nanowires," Appl. Phys. B 73, 299-304 (2001).

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).

S. Linden, A. Christ, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, "Selective suppression of extinction within the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 73, 311-316 (2001).

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

H. Mutschke, A. C. Andersen, D. Clément, T. Henning, and G. Peiter, "Infrared properties of SiC particles," Astron. Astrophys. 345, 187-202 (1999).

L. Zheng, R. P. Joshi, and C. Fazi, "Effects of barrier height fluctuations and electron tunneling on the reverse characteristics of 6H-SiC Schottky contacts," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3701-3707 (1999).

1997 (1)

J. Le Gall, M. Olivier, and J. J. Greffet, "Experimental and theoretical study of reflection and coherent thermal emissionby a SiC grating supporting a surface-phonon polariton," Phys. Rev. B 55, 10105-10114 (1997).

1995 (2)

W. J. Moore, R. T. Holm, M. J. Yang, and J. A. Freitas, Jr., "Infrared dielectric constant of cubic SiC," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 7255-7258 (1995).

A. Madrazo and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, "Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a cylinder in front of a conducting plane," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1298-1309 (1995).

1994 (2)

K.-H. Lee, C. H. Park, B.-H. Cheong, and K. J. Chang, "First-principles study of the optical properties of SiC," Solid State Commun. 92, 869-872 (1994).

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).

1987 (1)

T. Bernatowicz, G. Fraundorf, T. Ming, E. Anders, B. Wopenka, E. Zinner, and P. Fraundorf, "Evidence for interstellar SiC in the Murray carbonaceous meteorite," Nature 330, 728-730 (1987).

1983 (1)

G. Ziegler, P. Lang, D. Theis, and C. Weyrich, "Single crystal growth of SiC substrate material for blue light emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 30, 277-281 (1983).

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Anders, E.

T. Bernatowicz, G. Fraundorf, T. Ming, E. Anders, B. Wopenka, E. Zinner, and P. Fraundorf, "Evidence for interstellar SiC in the Murray carbonaceous meteorite," Nature 330, 728-730 (1987).

Andersen, A. C.

H. Mutschke, A. C. Andersen, D. Clément, T. Henning, and G. Peiter, "Infrared properties of SiC particles," Astron. Astrophys. 345, 187-202 (1999).

Anderson, M. S.

M. S. Anderson, "Enhanced infrared absorption with dielectric nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2964-2966 (2003).

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).

Aussenegg, F. R.

Bernatowicz, T.

T. Bernatowicz, G. Fraundorf, T. Ming, E. Anders, B. Wopenka, E. Zinner, and P. Fraundorf, "Evidence for interstellar SiC in the Murray carbonaceous meteorite," Nature 330, 728-730 (1987).

Brongersma, M. L.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).

Carminati, R.

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).

Chang, K. J.

K.-H. Lee, C. H. Park, B.-H. Cheong, and K. J. Chang, "First-principles study of the optical properties of SiC," Solid State Commun. 92, 869-872 (1994).

Chen, Y.

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).

Cheong, B.-H.

K.-H. Lee, C. H. Park, B.-H. Cheong, and K. J. Chang, "First-principles study of the optical properties of SiC," Solid State Commun. 92, 869-872 (1994).

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).

Christ, A.

S. Linden, A. Christ, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, "Selective suppression of extinction within the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 73, 311-316 (2001).

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Clément, D.

H. Mutschke, A. C. Andersen, D. Clément, T. Henning, and G. Peiter, "Infrared properties of SiC particles," Astron. Astrophys. 345, 187-202 (1999).

Dittlbacher, H.

Faist, J.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).

Fazi, C.

L. Zheng, R. P. Joshi, and C. Fazi, "Effects of barrier height fluctuations and electron tunneling on the reverse characteristics of 6H-SiC Schottky contacts," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3701-3707 (1999).

Fraundorf, G.

T. Bernatowicz, G. Fraundorf, T. Ming, E. Anders, B. Wopenka, E. Zinner, and P. Fraundorf, "Evidence for interstellar SiC in the Murray carbonaceous meteorite," Nature 330, 728-730 (1987).

Fraundorf, P.

T. Bernatowicz, G. Fraundorf, T. Ming, E. Anders, B. Wopenka, E. Zinner, and P. Fraundorf, "Evidence for interstellar SiC in the Murray carbonaceous meteorite," Nature 330, 728-730 (1987).

Freitas, J. A.

W. J. Moore, R. T. Holm, M. J. Yang, and J. A. Freitas, Jr., "Infrared dielectric constant of cubic SiC," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 7255-7258 (1995).

Giessen, H.

S. Linden, A. Christ, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, "Selective suppression of extinction within the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 73, 311-316 (2001).

Greffet, J. J.

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).

J. Le Gall, M. Olivier, and J. J. Greffet, "Experimental and theoretical study of reflection and coherent thermal emissionby a SiC grating supporting a surface-phonon polariton," Phys. Rev. B 55, 10105-10114 (1997).

Henning, T.

H. Mutschke, A. C. Andersen, D. Clément, T. Henning, and G. Peiter, "Infrared properties of SiC particles," Astron. Astrophys. 345, 187-202 (1999).

Herzig, H. P.

Hillenbrand, R.

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, "Phonon-enhanced lightmatter interaction at the nanometre scale," Nature 418, 159-162 (2002).

Holm, R. T.

W. J. Moore, R. T. Holm, M. J. Yang, and J. A. Freitas, Jr., "Infrared dielectric constant of cubic SiC," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 7255-7258 (1995).

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).

Johnson , P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Joshi, R. P.

L. Zheng, R. P. Joshi, and C. Fazi, "Effects of barrier height fluctuations and electron tunneling on the reverse characteristics of 6H-SiC Schottky contacts," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3701-3707 (1999).

Joulain, K.

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).

Keilmann, F.

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, "Phonon-enhanced lightmatter interaction at the nanometre scale," Nature 418, 159-162 (2002).

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).

Kottmann , J. P.

J. P. Kottmann and O. J. F. Martin, "Influence of the cross section and the permittivity on the plasmon-resonance spectrum of silver nanowires," Appl. Phys. B 73, 299-304 (2001).

Krenn, J. R.

Kuhl, J.

S. Linden, A. Christ, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, "Selective suppression of extinction within the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 73, 311-316 (2001).

Lamprecht, B.

Lang, P.

G. Ziegler, P. Lang, D. Theis, and C. Weyrich, "Single crystal growth of SiC substrate material for blue light emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 30, 277-281 (1983).

Le Gall, J.

J. Le Gall, M. Olivier, and J. J. Greffet, "Experimental and theoretical study of reflection and coherent thermal emissionby a SiC grating supporting a surface-phonon polariton," Phys. Rev. B 55, 10105-10114 (1997).

Lee, K.-H.

K.-H. Lee, C. H. Park, B.-H. Cheong, and K. J. Chang, "First-principles study of the optical properties of SiC," Solid State Commun. 92, 869-872 (1994).

Leitner, A.

Linden, S.

S. Linden, A. Christ, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, "Selective suppression of extinction within the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 73, 311-316 (2001).

Madrazo , A.

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).

Mainguy, S.

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).

Martin, O. J. F.

J. P. Kottmann and O. J. F. Martin, "Influence of the cross section and the permittivity on the plasmon-resonance spectrum of silver nanowires," Appl. Phys. B 73, 299-304 (2001).

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).

Ming, T.

T. Bernatowicz, G. Fraundorf, T. Ming, E. Anders, B. Wopenka, E. Zinner, and P. Fraundorf, "Evidence for interstellar SiC in the Murray carbonaceous meteorite," Nature 330, 728-730 (1987).

Moore, W. J.

W. J. Moore, R. T. Holm, M. J. Yang, and J. A. Freitas, Jr., "Infrared dielectric constant of cubic SiC," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 7255-7258 (1995).

Mulet, J. P.

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).

Mutschke, H.

H. Mutschke, A. C. Andersen, D. Clément, T. Henning, and G. Peiter, "Infrared properties of SiC particles," Astron. Astrophys. 345, 187-202 (1999).

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

Olivier, M.

J. Le Gall, M. Olivier, and J. J. Greffet, "Experimental and theoretical study of reflection and coherent thermal emissionby a SiC grating supporting a surface-phonon polariton," Phys. Rev. B 55, 10105-10114 (1997).

Park, C. H.

K.-H. Lee, C. H. Park, B.-H. Cheong, and K. J. Chang, "First-principles study of the optical properties of SiC," Solid State Commun. 92, 869-872 (1994).

Peiter, G.

H. Mutschke, A. C. Andersen, D. Clément, T. Henning, and G. Peiter, "Infrared properties of SiC particles," Astron. Astrophys. 345, 187-202 (1999).

Requicha, A. A. G.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).

Rockstuhl, C.

Salt, M.

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).

Taubner, T.

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, "Phonon-enhanced lightmatter interaction at the nanometre scale," Nature 418, 159-162 (2002).

Theis, D.

G. Ziegler, P. Lang, D. Theis, and C. Weyrich, "Single crystal growth of SiC substrate material for blue light emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 30, 277-281 (1983).

Weyrich, C.

G. Ziegler, P. Lang, D. Theis, and C. Weyrich, "Single crystal growth of SiC substrate material for blue light emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 30, 277-281 (1983).

Wopenka, B.

T. Bernatowicz, G. Fraundorf, T. Ming, E. Anders, B. Wopenka, E. Zinner, and P. Fraundorf, "Evidence for interstellar SiC in the Murray carbonaceous meteorite," Nature 330, 728-730 (1987).

Yang, M. J.

W. J. Moore, R. T. Holm, M. J. Yang, and J. A. Freitas, Jr., "Infrared dielectric constant of cubic SiC," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 7255-7258 (1995).

Zheng, L.

L. Zheng, R. P. Joshi, and C. Fazi, "Effects of barrier height fluctuations and electron tunneling on the reverse characteristics of 6H-SiC Schottky contacts," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3701-3707 (1999).

Ziegler, G.

G. Ziegler, P. Lang, D. Theis, and C. Weyrich, "Single crystal growth of SiC substrate material for blue light emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 30, 277-281 (1983).

Zinner, E.

T. Bernatowicz, G. Fraundorf, T. Ming, E. Anders, B. Wopenka, E. Zinner, and P. Fraundorf, "Evidence for interstellar SiC in the Murray carbonaceous meteorite," Nature 330, 728-730 (1987).

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics-a route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).

Appl. Phys. B (2)

S. Linden, A. Christ, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, "Selective suppression of extinction within the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 73, 311-316 (2001).

J. P. Kottmann and O. J. F. Martin, "Influence of the cross section and the permittivity on the plasmon-resonance spectrum of silver nanowires," Appl. Phys. B 73, 299-304 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. S. Anderson, "Enhanced infrared absorption with dielectric nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2964-2966 (2003).

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

H. Mutschke, A. C. Andersen, D. Clément, T. Henning, and G. Peiter, "Infrared properties of SiC particles," Astron. Astrophys. 345, 187-202 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

G. Ziegler, P. Lang, D. Theis, and C. Weyrich, "Single crystal growth of SiC substrate material for blue light emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 30, 277-281 (1983).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

W. J. Moore, R. T. Holm, M. J. Yang, and J. A. Freitas, Jr., "Infrared dielectric constant of cubic SiC," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 7255-7258 (1995).

L. Zheng, R. P. Joshi, and C. Fazi, "Effects of barrier height fluctuations and electron tunneling on the reverse characteristics of 6H-SiC Schottky contacts," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 3701-3707 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nature (3)

R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, "Phonon-enhanced lightmatter interaction at the nanometre scale," Nature 418, 159-162 (2002).

T. Bernatowicz, G. Fraundorf, T. Ming, E. Anders, B. Wopenka, E. Zinner, and P. Fraundorf, "Evidence for interstellar SiC in the Murray carbonaceous meteorite," Nature 330, 728-730 (1987).

J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, K. Joulain, J. P. Mulet, S. Mainguy, and Y. Chen, "Coherent emission of light by thermal sources," Nature 416, 61-64 (2002).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. Le Gall, M. Olivier, and J. J. Greffet, "Experimental and theoretical study of reflection and coherent thermal emissionby a SiC grating supporting a surface-phonon polariton," Phys. Rev. B 55, 10105-10114 (1997).

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).

Solid State Commun. (1)

K.-H. Lee, C. H. Park, B.-H. Cheong, and K. J. Chang, "First-principles study of the optical properties of SiC," Solid State Commun. 92, 869-872 (1994).

Other (3)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffmann, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1985).

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