Abstract

The nonlinear refractive index (n2) of an As2S3 channel waveguide at 1.55 µm has been measured. The n2 was deduced when the spectral broadening and modulation due to self-phase modulation (SPM) were characterized. Owing to the temporal asymmetry of the injected pulse, a specific approach to asymmetric SPM is presented. The measurements have been performed for both photodarkened and nonphotodarkened etched thin films so that the effect of photodarkening on the n2 could be assessed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. Vallée, S. Frédérick, K. Asatryan, M. Fischer, and T. Galstian, "Real-time observation of Bragg grating formation in As2S3 chalcogenide ridge waveguide," Opt. Commun. 230, 301-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

A. P. Caricato, M. D. Sario, M. Fernandez, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, A. Luches, M. Martino, M. Montagna, F. Prudenzano, and A. Jha, "Chalcogenide glass thin film waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 632-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Ho, J. M. Laniel, R. Vallée, and A. Villeneuve, "Photosensitivity of As2S3 chalcogenide thin films at 1.5 µm," Opt. Lett. 28, 965-967 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Zakery, Y. Ruan, A. V. Rode, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, "Low-loss waveguides in ultrafast laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1844-1852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (4)

K. Petkov and P. J. S. Ewen, "Photoinduced changes in the linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249, 150-159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256/257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Saliminia, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, S. LaRochelle, and K. Richardson, "First- and second-order Bragg gratings in single-mode planar waveguides of chalcogenide glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 837-842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, É. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, "Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. Meneghini and A. Villeneuve, "As2S3 photosensitivity by two-photon absorption: holographic gratings and self-written channel waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2946-1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Cerqua-Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, "Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form," Opt. Mater. 10, 155-159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, "Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518-5523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, N. Toyosawa, and H. Hisakuni, "Photoinduced Bragg gratings in As2S3 optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 20, 1976-1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

M. Asobe, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kanamori, "Laser-diode ultrafast all-optical switching by using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 1056-1058 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Applications of highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fibers in ultrafast all-optical switches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2325-2333 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibersby self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Ultrafast all-optical switching using nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 362-365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, "Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Cheung and J. M. Liu, "Efficient generation of ultrashort, wavelength-tunable infrared pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1491-1506 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

1980 (1)

K. Tanaka, "Reversible photostructural change: mechanisms, properties and applications," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35/36, 1023-1034 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. J. Apling, A. J. Leadbetter, and A. C. Wright, "A comparison of the structures of vapour-deposited and bulk arsenic sulphide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 23, 369-384 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Apling, A. J.

A. J. Apling, A. J. Leadbetter, and A. C. Wright, "A comparison of the structures of vapour-deposited and bulk arsenic sulphide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 23, 369-384 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Asatryan, K.

R. Vallée, S. Frédérick, K. Asatryan, M. Fischer, and T. Galstian, "Real-time observation of Bragg grating formation in As2S3 chalcogenide ridge waveguide," Opt. Commun. 230, 301-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, "Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518-5523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kanamori, "Laser-diode ultrafast all-optical switching by using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 1056-1058 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Applications of highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fibers in ultrafast all-optical switches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2325-2333 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibersby self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Ultrafast all-optical switching using nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 362-365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Beatty, R.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256/257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bindra, K. S.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bookey, H. T.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256/257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, É. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, "Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Caricato, A. P.

A. P. Caricato, M. D. Sario, M. Fernandez, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, A. Luches, M. Martino, M. Montagna, F. Prudenzano, and A. Jha, "Chalcogenide glass thin film waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 632-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cerqua-Richardson, K. A.

K. A. Cerqua-Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, "Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form," Opt. Mater. 10, 155-159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Charters, R. B.

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R. B. Charters, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications," Appl. Surf. Sci. 197/198, 481-485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, S.-W.

Cheung , E. C.

Diels, J.-C. M.

Duguay, M. A.

Ewen, P. J. S.

K. Petkov and P. J. S. Ewen, "Photoinduced changes in the linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249, 150-159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, M.

A. P. Caricato, M. D. Sario, M. Fernandez, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, A. Luches, M. Martino, M. Montagna, F. Prudenzano, and A. Jha, "Chalcogenide glass thin film waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 632-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, M.

A. P. Caricato, M. D. Sario, M. Fernandez, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, A. Luches, M. Martino, M. Montagna, F. Prudenzano, and A. Jha, "Chalcogenide glass thin film waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 632-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, M.

R. Vallée, S. Frédérick, K. Asatryan, M. Fischer, and T. Galstian, "Real-time observation of Bragg grating formation in As2S3 chalcogenide ridge waveguide," Opt. Commun. 230, 301-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, J. J.

Foulgoc, K. L.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256/257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frédérick, S.

R. Vallée, S. Frédérick, K. Asatryan, M. Fischer, and T. Galstian, "Real-time observation of Bragg grating formation in As2S3 chalcogenide ridge waveguide," Opt. Commun. 230, 301-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T.

R. Vallée, S. Frédérick, K. Asatryan, M. Fischer, and T. Galstian, "Real-time observation of Bragg grating formation in As2S3 chalcogenide ridge waveguide," Opt. Commun. 230, 301-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T. V.

Gamaly, E. G.

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R. B. Charters, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications," Appl. Surf. Sci. 197/198, 481-485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, "Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Harbold, J. M.

Hisakuni, H.

Ho, N.

Hutchings, D. C.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, "Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H. Y.

Itoh, H.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, "Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518-5523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kanamori, "Laser-diode ultrafast all-optical switching by using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 1056-1058 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

A. P. Caricato, M. D. Sario, M. Fernandez, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, A. Luches, M. Martino, M. Montagna, F. Prudenzano, and A. Jha, "Chalcogenide glass thin film waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 632-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, S.

K. A. Cerqua-Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, "Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form," Opt. Mater. 10, 155-159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, "Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518-5523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, T.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, "Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518-5523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, H. Kobayashi, H. Itoh, and T. Kanamori, "Laser-diode ultrafast all-optical switching by using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber," Opt. Lett. 18, 1056-1058 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Applications of highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fibers in ultrafast all-optical switches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2325-2333 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Ultrafast all-optical switching using nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 362-365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibersby self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Katsufuji, T.

Knystautas, É. J.

Kobayashi, H.

Kubodera, K.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Applications of highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fibers in ultrafast all-optical switches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2325-2333 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibersby self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Ultrafast all-optical switching using nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 362-365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laniel, J. M.

LaRochelle, S.

Lawrence, B.

K. A. Cerqua-Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, "Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form," Opt. Mater. 10, 155-159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leadbetter, A. J.

A. J. Apling, A. J. Leadbetter, and A. C. Wright, "A comparison of the structures of vapour-deposited and bulk arsenic sulphide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 23, 369-384 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Leggieri, G.

A. P. Caricato, M. D. Sario, M. Fernandez, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, A. Luches, M. Martino, M. Montagna, F. Prudenzano, and A. Jha, "Chalcogenide glass thin film waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 632-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, G.

Lines, M. E.

Liu, J. M.

Liu, X.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luches, A.

A. P. Caricato, M. D. Sario, M. Fernandez, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, A. Luches, M. Martino, M. Montagna, F. Prudenzano, and A. Jha, "Chalcogenide glass thin film waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 632-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

A. Zakery, Y. Ruan, A. V. Rode, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, "Low-loss waveguides in ultrafast laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1844-1852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R. B. Charters, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications," Appl. Surf. Sci. 197/198, 481-485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martino, M.

A. P. Caricato, M. D. Sario, M. Fernandez, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, A. Luches, M. Martino, M. Montagna, F. Prudenzano, and A. Jha, "Chalcogenide glass thin film waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 632-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McKinley, J. M.

K. A. Cerqua-Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, "Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form," Opt. Mater. 10, 155-159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McMichael, I. C.

Meneghini, C.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256/257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, É. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, "Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini , C.

Montagna, M.

A. P. Caricato, M. D. Sario, M. Fernandez, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, A. Luches, M. Martino, M. Montagna, F. Prudenzano, and A. Jha, "Chalcogenide glass thin film waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 632-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Naganuma, K.

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, "Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518-5523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. Q.

Ö., F.

Petkov , K.

K. Petkov and P. J. S. Ewen, "Photoinduced changes in the linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249, 150-159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prudenzano, F.

A. P. Caricato, M. D. Sario, M. Fernandez, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, A. Luches, M. Martino, M. Montagna, F. Prudenzano, and A. Jha, "Chalcogenide glass thin film waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 632-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

Richardson, K. A.

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, É. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, "Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256/257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A. V.

A. Zakery, Y. Ruan, A. V. Rode, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, "Low-loss waveguides in ultrafast laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1844-1852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R. B. Charters, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications," Appl. Surf. Sci. 197/198, 481-485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Y.

Saliminia, A.

Samoc, M.

A. Zakery, Y. Ruan, A. V. Rode, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, "Low-loss waveguides in ultrafast laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1844-1852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R. B. Charters, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications," Appl. Surf. Sci. 197/198, 481-485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

Sario, M. D.

A. P. Caricato, M. D. Sario, M. Fernandez, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, A. Luches, M. Martino, M. Montagna, F. Prudenzano, and A. Jha, "Chalcogenide glass thin film waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 632-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256/257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, "Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shim, H.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256/257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

Slusher, R. E.

Spälter, S.

Stryland, E. W. V.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, "Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibersby self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, N. Toyosawa, and H. Hisakuni, "Photoinduced Bragg gratings in As2S3 optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 20, 1976-1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka, "Reversible photostructural change: mechanisms, properties and applications," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35/36, 1023-1034 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Toyosawa, N.

Vallée, R.

Viens, J. F.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256/257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Viens, J.-F.

Villeneuve, A.

Villeneuve, A.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256/257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

K. A. Cerqua-Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, "Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form," Opt. Mater. 10, 155-159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Meneghini and A. Villeneuve, "As2S3 photosensitivity by two-photon absorption: holographic gratings and self-written channel waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2946-1950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Wherrett, "Scaling rules for multiphoton interband absorption in semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 67-72 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

Wright, A. C.

A. J. Apling, A. J. Leadbetter, and A. C. Wright, "A comparison of the structures of vapour-deposited and bulk arsenic sulphide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 23, 369-384 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery, Y. Ruan, A. V. Rode, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, "Low-loss waveguides in ultrafast laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1844-1852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R. B. Charters, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications," Appl. Surf. Sci. 197/198, 481-485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, and A. Jha, "Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: observation of multiphoton absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1939-1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide-glass fibersby self-phase modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1153-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

A. V. Rode, A. Zakery, M. Samoc, R. B. Charters, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films for waveguide applications," Appl. Surf. Sci. 197/198, 481-485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Caricato, M. D. Sario, M. Fernandez, M. Ferrari, G. Leggieri, A. Luches, M. Martino, M. Montagna, F. Prudenzano, and A. Jha, "Chalcogenide glass thin film waveguides deposited by excimer laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 632-637 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. V. Stryland, "Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Applications of highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fibers in ultrafast all-optical switches," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2325-2333 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, "Ultrafast all-optical switching using nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 362-365 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Asobe, T. Kanamori, K. Naganuma, H. Itoh, and T. Kaino, "Third-order nonlinear spectroscopy in As2S3 chalcogenide glass fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5518-5523 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256/257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

A. J. Apling, A. J. Leadbetter, and A. C. Wright, "A comparison of the structures of vapour-deposited and bulk arsenic sulphide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 23, 369-384 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, "Reversible photostructural change: mechanisms, properties and applications," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35/36, 1023-1034 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. Petkov and P. J. S. Ewen, "Photoinduced changes in the linear and non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249, 150-159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (6)

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Vallée, S. Frédérick, K. Asatryan, M. Fischer, and T. Galstian, "Real-time observation of Bragg grating formation in As2S3 chalcogenide ridge waveguide," Opt. Commun. 230, 301-307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. (1)

K. A. Cerqua-Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, "Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form," Opt. Mater. 10, 155-159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Optics and Photonics (Academic, Toronto, 1995), p. 592.

J. M. Laniel, J.-M. Ménard, A. Villeneuve, R. Vallée, C. Lopez, and K. A. Richardson, "Refractive index measurements of planar chalcogenide waveguide," presented at the International Conference on Applications of Photonic Technology 5, Québec City, Québec, June 2-6, 2002.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Sausalito, Calif., 1986), p. 1283.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, Toronto, 1992), p. 439.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used for photodarkening of the As2S3 thin films. The intensity impinging on the samples is 28 mW/cm2, and the expositions last 1 h (∼100 J/cm2).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup used for measurement of the SPM on pulses propagated inside the As2S3 channel waveguides. The input beam is initially polarized (POL1). The injected intensity is controlled by a wave plate (λ/2) and a polarizer cube (POL2). The input and output power are measured by InGaAs photodetectors with beam splitters (BS1–3). The signal is coupled and decoupled by microscope objectives (OBJ1–2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra of the propagated pulses inside a nonphotodarkened As2S3 channel waveguide for four different average injected powers: (a) to (d) correspond to 0.02, 0.30, 0.99, and 2.02 mW (2-mW average power corresponds to a peak power of 33.0 W). The dashed lines serve as references in order to clearly show the apparent blueshift and the spectral asymmetry.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical experimental spectra of SPM measurements. (a) and (b) correspond to nonphotodarkened and photodarkened As2S3 channel waveguides, respectively. In each figure, two plots are shown; the top one corresponds to the low-intensity propagation, and the bottom one corresponds to the high-intensity propagation. Dotted curves correspond to experimental data and solid curves correspond to numerical fits.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Autocorrelation traces. (a) corresponds to the measured autocorrelation of the pulses generated by the OPO. (b) and (c) are numerically evaluated autocorrelations for which the spectral width is fo=0.35 THz and the spectral phase coefficients are either ϕ3=4.67, ϕ5=-1.84, and ϕ7=0.15 in (a) or ϕi=0 for all i in (b).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fitting Results for the n2 Measurement in As2S3 Photodarkened and Nonphotodarkened Channel Waveguides

Tables Icon

Table 2 Results of the Nonlinear Measurements in As2S3 Channel Waveguides

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i ψz-β22 2ψτ2-i6β3 3ψτ3+kon2Aeff|ψ|2+iαo2+iα22Aeff|ψ|2ψ=0,
G˜(f)=|A˜(f)|2.
A˜(f)=G˜(f) expij=2ϕjfj,
A˜(f)=P˜o sechfΔfoexpij=2ϕjfj,
A˜(f)=P˜o sechffoexpij=1Nϕ(2j+1)f(2j+1),
χ2(n2, ϕ)=f|A˜BPM(f; n2, ϕ)-A˜exp(f)|2.
no2(λ)-1=Aλ2λ2-B2,
βj(ω)=djdωj n(ω)ωc,
LNL=Aeffkon2Po,
LD=To2|β2|,
ϕmax=kon2Io.

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