Abstract

We present a lidar technique using femtosecond-terawatt laser pulses to perform a multiparameter analysis of cloud microphysics. Particle size and density within the cloud are deduced from the multispectral multiple scattering pattern of an ultrashort laser pulse. Furthermore, the spectral analysis of the atmospheric transmission of the white-light continuum from the same laser source yields temperature and relative humidity.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2003 (9)

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, L. Eymard, and J. Tournadre, "SSM/I integrated water vapor content measurements in coastal regions: a comparison with shipborne and airborne remote sensing measurements, radiosonde measurements, and NWP model retrievals," J. Geophys. Res. 108(C3), FET4-1-20 (2003).

A. Heliere, J. L. Bezy, P. Bensi, and P. Ingmann, "System definition of the ESA Earth Explorer WALES mission," in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites VI, H. Fujisada, J. B. Lurie, M. L. Aten, and K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4881, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Wimmers, J. L. Moody, E. V. Browell, J. W. Hair, W. B. Grant, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. C. Schmidt, J. Li, and B. A. Ridley, "Signatures of tropopause folding in satellite imagery," J. Geophys. Res. 108(D4), 8360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Philbrick, "Application of Raman lidar advancements in meteorology and air quality monitoring," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring III, U. N. Singh, T. Itabe, and Z. Liu, eds., Proc. SPIE 4893, 61-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, L. Leone, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, and C. Serio, "Measurement campaign of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols in southern Italy," in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds III, H.-L. Huang, D. Lu, and Y. Sasane, eds., Proc. SPIE 4891, 353-360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, and A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a supercontinuum-based infrared lidar," Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Matvienko, V. V. Veretennikov, G. M. Krekov, and M. M. Krekova, "Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols with a white-light femtosecond lidar," Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 16, 1013-1019 (2003).

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 Including Updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).

M. C. Galvez, M. Fujita, N. Inoue, R. Moriki, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, "Three-wavelength backscatter measurement of clouds and aerosols using a white light lidar system," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 41, L284-L286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

A. V. Korolev, G. A. Isaac, I. P. Mazin, and H. W. Barker, "Microphysical properties of continental clouds from in situ measurements," Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127, 2117-2151 (2001).

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J.-P. Wolf, J. Kasparian, and R. Sauerbrey, "Backward supercontinuum emission from a filament generated by ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 26, 533-535 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, "Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by fs-TW-laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere," Opt. Lett. 25, 1397-1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Miles, J. Verlinde, and E. E. Clothiaux, "Cloud droplet size distributions in low-level stratiform clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, "Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 304-306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Ch. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

1996 (2)

1995 (3)

1994 (2)

B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE," Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311-1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker and M. P. McCormick, "Aerosol and cloud sensing with the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," in Lidar Techniques for Remote Sensing, C. Weiner, ed., Proc. SPIE 2310, 98-105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

1989 (1)

1985 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

1976 (1)

Ackerman, T. P.

Aközbek, N.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amodeo, A.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, L. Leone, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, and C. Serio, "Measurement campaign of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols in southern Italy," in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds III, H.-L. Huang, D. Lu, and Y. Sasane, eds., Proc. SPIE 4891, 353-360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amoruso, S.

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, L. Leone, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, and C. Serio, "Measurement campaign of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols in southern Italy," in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds III, H.-L. Huang, D. Lu, and Y. Sasane, eds., Proc. SPIE 4891, 353-360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

André, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, "Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by fs-TW-laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere," Opt. Lett. 25, 1397-1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ange, G.

Bacis, R.

Back , T.

T. Back and H. Schwefel, "An overview of evolutionary algorithms for parameter optimization," Evol. Comput. 1, 1-23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 Including Updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barker, H. W.

A. V. Korolev, G. A. Isaac, I. P. Mazin, and H. W. Barker, "Microphysical properties of continental clouds from in situ measurements," Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127, 2117-2151 (2001).

Becker, A.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 Including Updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bensi, P.

A. Heliere, J. L. Bezy, P. Bensi, and P. Ingmann, "System definition of the ESA Earth Explorer WALES mission," in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites VI, H. Fujisada, J. B. Lurie, M. L. Aten, and K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4881, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bezy, J. L.

A. Heliere, J. L. Bezy, P. Bensi, and P. Ingmann, "System definition of the ESA Earth Explorer WALES mission," in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites VI, H. Fujisada, J. B. Lurie, M. L. Aten, and K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4881, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bissonnette, L. R.

Bissonnette , L. R.

Bösenberg, J.

Bourayou, R.

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, and A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a supercontinuum-based infrared lidar," Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, A.

Brodeur, A.

Browell, E. V.

A. J. Wimmers, J. L. Moody, E. V. Browell, J. W. Hair, W. B. Grant, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. C. Schmidt, J. Li, and B. A. Ridley, "Signatures of tropopause folding in satellite imagery," J. Geophys. Res. 108(D4), 8360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Stein, B.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Ch. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE," Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311-1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stringat, R.

Tang, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 Including Updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Theopold, F. A.

Toon , O. B.

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 Including Updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tournadre, J.

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, L. Eymard, and J. Tournadre, "SSM/I integrated water vapor content measurements in coastal regions: a comparison with shipborne and airborne remote sensing measurements, radiosonde measurements, and NWP model retrievals," J. Geophys. Res. 108(C3), FET4-1-20 (2003).

Tzortzakis, S.

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 Including Updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 Including Updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veretennikov, V. V.

G. G. Matvienko, V. V. Veretennikov, G. M. Krekov, and M. M. Krekova, "Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols with a white-light femtosecond lidar," Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 16, 1013-1019 (2003).

Verlinde, J.

N. L. Miles, J. Verlinde, and E. E. Clothiaux, "Cloud droplet size distributions in low-level stratiform clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Volk, R.

Waite, D.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wedekind, C.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Ch. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

Weitkamp, C.

Werner, Ch.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Ch. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, "Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by fs-TW-laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere," Opt. Lett. 25, 1397-1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Ch. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

Wimmers, A. J.

A. J. Wimmers, J. L. Moody, E. V. Browell, J. W. Hair, W. B. Grant, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. C. Schmidt, J. Li, and B. A. Ridley, "Signatures of tropopause folding in satellite imagery," J. Geophys. Res. 108(D4), 8360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winker , D. M.

D. M. Winker and M. P. McCormick, "Aerosol and cloud sensing with the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," in Lidar Techniques for Remote Sensing, C. Weiner, ed., Proc. SPIE 2310, 98-105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.

B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE," Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311-1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, and A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a supercontinuum-based infrared lidar," Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J.-P. Wolf, J. Kasparian, and R. Sauerbrey, "Backward supercontinuum emission from a filament generated by ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 26, 533-535 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, "Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by fs-TW-laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere," Opt. Lett. 25, 1397-1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Douard, R. Bacis, P. Rambaldi, A. Ross, J.-P. Wolf, G. Fabre, and R. Stringat, "Fourier-transform lidar," Opt. Lett. 20, 2140-2142 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wöste, L.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, and A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a supercontinuum-based infrared lidar," Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, "Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by fs-TW-laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere," Opt. Lett. 25, 1397-1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Ch. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE," Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311-1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

Yamanaka, C.

M. C. Galvez, M. Fujita, N. Inoue, R. Moriki, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, "Three-wavelength backscatter measurement of clouds and aerosols using a white light lidar system," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 41, L284-L286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 Including Updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, and A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a supercontinuum-based infrared lidar," Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J.-P. Wolf, J. Kasparian, and R. Sauerbrey, "Backward supercontinuum emission from a filament generated by ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 26, 533-535 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, "Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by fs-TW-laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere," Opt. Lett. 25, 1397-1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, "Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 71, 573-580 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, R. Bourayou, R. Sauerbrey, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, H. Lehmann, B. Stecklum, U. Laux, J. Eislöffel, A. Scholz, and A. P. Hatzes, "Towards a supercontinuum-based infrared lidar," Appl. Phys. B 77, 357-359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Oceanic Opt. (1)

G. G. Matvienko, V. V. Veretennikov, G. M. Krekov, and M. M. Krekova, "Remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols with a white-light femtosecond lidar," Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 16, 1013-1019 (2003).

Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).

Evol. Comput. (1)

T. Back and H. Schwefel, "An overview of evolutionary algorithms for parameter optimization," Evol. Comput. 1, 1-23 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

B. Stein, M. Del Guasta, J. Kolenda, M. Morandi, P. Rairoux, L. Stefanutti, J. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "Stratospheric aerosol size distribution from multispectral lidar measurements at Sodankylä during EASOE," Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1311-1314 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

N. L. Miles, J. Verlinde, and E. E. Clothiaux, "Cloud droplet size distributions in low-level stratiform clouds," J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 295 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

C. Flamant, J. Pelon, L. Eymard, and J. Tournadre, "SSM/I integrated water vapor content measurements in coastal regions: a comparison with shipborne and airborne remote sensing measurements, radiosonde measurements, and NWP model retrievals," J. Geophys. Res. 108(C3), FET4-1-20 (2003).

A. J. Wimmers, J. L. Moody, E. V. Browell, J. W. Hair, W. B. Grant, C. F. Butler, M. A. Fenn, C. C. Schmidt, J. Li, and B. A. Ridley, "Signatures of tropopause folding in satellite imagery," J. Geophys. Res. 108(D4), 8360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and K. Yoshino, "The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database: Edition of 2000 Including Updates of 2001," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 82, 5-44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 (1)

M. C. Galvez, M. Fujita, N. Inoue, R. Moriki, Y. Izawa, and C. Yamanaka, "Three-wavelength backscatter measurement of clouds and aerosols using a white light lidar system," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 41, L284-L286 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laser Optoelektron. (1)

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, Ch. Werner, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

Opt. Lett. (8)

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 20, 73-75 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Douard, R. Bacis, P. Rambaldi, A. Ross, J.-P. Wolf, G. Fabre, and R. Stringat, "Fourier-transform lidar," Opt. Lett. 20, 2140-2142 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, "Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 304-306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air," Opt. Lett. 23, 382-384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Theopold, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, "Double-cavity étalon in the near infrared," Opt. Lett. 18, 253-255 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 21, 62-64 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, "Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by fs-TW-laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere," Opt. Lett. 25, 1397-1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J.-P. Wolf, J. Kasparian, and R. Sauerbrey, "Backward supercontinuum emission from a filament generated by ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 26, 533-535 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (4)

A. Heliere, J. L. Bezy, P. Bensi, and P. Ingmann, "System definition of the ESA Earth Explorer WALES mission," in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites VI, H. Fujisada, J. B. Lurie, M. L. Aten, and K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4881, 24-32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Philbrick, "Application of Raman lidar advancements in meteorology and air quality monitoring," in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring III, U. N. Singh, T. Itabe, and Z. Liu, eds., Proc. SPIE 4893, 61-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, S. Amoruso, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, F. Esposito, L. Leone, L. Mona, M. Pandolfi, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, and C. Serio, "Measurement campaign of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols in southern Italy," in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds III, H.-L. Huang, D. Lu, and Y. Sasane, eds., Proc. SPIE 4891, 353-360 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker and M. P. McCormick, "Aerosol and cloud sensing with the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE)," in Lidar Techniques for Remote Sensing, C. Weiner, ed., Proc. SPIE 2310, 98-105 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

A. V. Korolev, G. A. Isaac, I. P. Mazin, and H. W. Barker, "Microphysical properties of continental clouds from in situ measurements," Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127, 2117-2151 (2001).

Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (9)

G. Méjean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, S. Frey, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, L. Bergé, and S. Skupin, "UV-supercontinuum generated by kilometer-range filamentation in air," Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted for publication.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Brownell, S. Ismail, V. G. Brackett, M. B. Clayton, M. Fenn, L. Heilman, S. A. Kooi, D. D. Turner, M. J. Mahoney, R. E. Newell, Y. Zhu, E. Jensen, J. Barrick, and G. Sachse, "Lidar measurements of relative humidity and ice supersaturation in the upper troposphere," presented at the International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, July 10-14, 2000.

H. R. Pruppacher and J. D. Klett, Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1978).

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D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman, and T. P. Tooman, "A two year climatology of water vapor and aerosols in the lower troposphere measured by a Raman lidar," presented at the International Laser Radar Conference, Vichy, France, July 10-14, 2000.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Beam image observed from the ground in a spectral band near the fundamental wavelength (800 nm). The lower part of the image (see arrow) corresponds to Rayleigh scattering of the beam below the cloud. The halo is due to multiple scattering in the cloud at 6-km altitude. (b) Multiple scattering patterns obtained by geometry-corrected cuts across the halo (see dotted line), and Gaussian profile corresponding to the laser beam. The difference between the two profiles stems from multiple scattering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated angular multiple scattering profiles at 800 nm for monodisperse clouds composed of 0.1-, 0.5-, 1-, 2-, and 10-µm water droplets, with an extinction coefficient of α=3.27×10-2 m-1, corresponding to a cloud penetration depth of ∼30 m.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated angular multiple scattering profiles at 800 nm for monodisperse clouds composed of 2-µm water droplets, as a function of the extinction coefficient α. The corresponding penetration depths are 30, 15 and 60 m.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental and fitted angular distribution of multiple scattering, corresponding to the data of Fig. 1. (b) Corresponding droplet size distribution in the cloud retrieved with the genetic algorithm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature determined by a fit of the O2A band on the white-light absorption spectrum, and the nearest radiosonde data available (Meiningen, 23:00 UT).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fit of the water absorption spectrum in the 4ν-overtone band in the (a) 813–816 nm and (b) 825–829 nm regions. Black solid curve, measurement; gray dotted curve, fit; lower gray solid curve, residuum of the fit. The lower black line is the estimation of the baseline. Note that the extremely long absorption path allows us to measure weak lines not tabulated in the HITRAN 2000 database.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Retrieved average relative humidity (dotted line) and RH profile measured by radiosonde (solid line). Note that a cloud layer around 3 km at the radiosonde site perturbs the corresponding measurement.

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