Abstract

We characterize the manner in which the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort pulses can control quantum interference of injected photocurrents in low-temperature-grown gallium arsenide. We verify the predicted linear and square-root dependences of the generated current on the average optical powers of the low (ν) and high (2ν) frequency wings of a pulse spectrum, respectively. When scanning the time delay between these two colors, the signal amplitude exhibits a temporal width of 72 fs. The generated signal behaves as an ideal current source for loads below ∼100 kΩ. This behavior allows us to increase the signal detection bandwidth from 25 kHz with a voltage amplifier to 830 kHz by use of a transimpedance amplifier; higher bandwidths are possible. We discuss how transimpedance amplification could also enable the quantum-interference photocurrent signal to be measured by use of materials with longer carrier lifetimes, such as intrinsic GaAs.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2004 (8)

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level," Science 303, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 1-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping: role of the carrier-envelope phase," Opt. Lett. 29, 2160-2162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. van Driel, Y. Kerachian, P. Nemec, and A. L. Smirl, "Quantum interference injection and control of spin-polarized transient current gratings in GaAs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, S223-S225 (2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

P. A. Roos, Q. Quraishi, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Characterization of quantum interference control of injected currents in LT-GaAs for carrier-envelope phase measurements," Opt. Express 11, 2081-2090 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev,A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi,M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, "Phase stabilization of an octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 2198-2200 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

S. T. Cundiff, "Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses," J. Phys. D 35, R43-R59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, "Role of the carrier-envelope offset phase of few-cycle pulses in nonperturbative resonant nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 127401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, "Determining the carrier-envelope offset frequency of 5-fs pulses with extreme nonlinear optics in ZnO," Opt. Lett. 27, 2127-2129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, "Signatures of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, T. Tschudi, M. J. Lederer, A. Boiko, and B. Luther-Davies, "Generation of 5-fs pulses and octave-spanning spectra directly from a Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 373-375 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holtzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 25-27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, "Optically injected spin currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5432-5435 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Accurate measurement of large optical frequency differences with a mode-locked laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 881-883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fraser, A. Haché, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Three color coherent generation and control of current in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2014-2016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Haché, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Quantum interference control of electrical currents in GaAs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1144-1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306-309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

1995 (2)

B. Sheehy, B. Walker, and L. F. DiMauro, "Phase control in the two-color photodissociation of HD+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4799-4802 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596-3599 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

Q. Wang and A. F. Starace, "Short-pulse detachment of H− in the presence of a static electric field," Phys. Rev. A 48, R1741-R1744 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

Y.-Y. Yin, C. Chen, D. S. Elliott, and A. V. Smith, "Asymmetric photoelectron angular distributions from interfering photoionization processes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2353-2356 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Z. Anderson, N. B. Baranova, K. Greene, and B. Y. Zel'dovich, "Interference of one- and two-photon processes in the ionization of atoms and molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 75, 210-214 (1992).

Anderson, D. Z.

D. Z. Anderson, N. B. Baranova, K. Greene, and B. Y. Zel'dovich, "Interference of one- and two-photon processes in the ionization of atoms and molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 75, 210-214 (1992).

Angelow, G.

Apolonski, A.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 1-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atanasov, R.

A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306-309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Atanasov, A. Haché, J. L. P. Hughes, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Coherent control of photocurrent generation in bulk semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1703-1706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev,A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baranova, N. B.

D. Z. Anderson, N. B. Baranova, K. Greene, and B. Y. Zel'dovich, "Interference of one- and two-photon processes in the ionization of atoms and molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 75, 210-214 (1992).

Bartels, A.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level," Science 303, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergquist, J. C.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhat, R. D. R.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Roos, Q. Quraishi, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Characterization of quantum interference control of injected currents in LT-GaAs for carrier-envelope phase measurements," Opt. Express 11, 2081-2090 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhat , R. D. R.

R. D. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, "Optically injected spin currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5432-5435 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bi, Z.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level," Science 303, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boiko, A.

Brabec, T.

Buchanan, M.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596-3599 (1995).
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Burgdörfer, J.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 1-17 (2004).
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Chang, C.-C.

Chen, C.

Y.-Y. Yin, C. Chen, D. S. Elliott, and A. V. Smith, "Asymmetric photoelectron angular distributions from interfering photoionization processes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2353-2356 (1992).
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Corkum, P. B.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596-3599 (1995).
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Cundiff, S. T.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
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P. A. Roos, Q. Quraishi, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Characterization of quantum interference control of injected currents in LT-GaAs for carrier-envelope phase measurements," Opt. Express 11, 2081-2090 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
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T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, "Phase stabilization of an octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 2198-2200 (2003).
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S. T. Cundiff, "Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses," J. Phys. D 35, R43-R59 (2002).
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D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holtzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi,M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
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G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level," Science 303, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holtzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

B. Sheehy, B. Walker, and L. F. DiMauro, "Phase control in the two-color photodissociation of HD+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4799-4802 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dombi, P.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 1-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R. E.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dupont, E.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596-3599 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ell, R.

Elliott, D. S.

Y.-Y. Yin, C. Chen, D. S. Elliott, and A. V. Smith, "Asymmetric photoelectron angular distributions from interfering photoionization processes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2353-2356 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortier, T. M.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, "Phase stabilization of an octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 2198-2200 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, J. M.

J. M. Fraser, A. Haché, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Three color coherent generation and control of current in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2014-2016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gibbs, H. M.

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping: role of the carrier-envelope phase," Opt. Lett. 29, 2160-2162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev,A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev,A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grasbon, F.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greene, K.

D. Z. Anderson, N. B. Baranova, K. Greene, and B. Y. Zel'dovich, "Interference of one- and two-photon processes in the ionization of atoms and molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 75, 210-214 (1992).

Haché, A.

J. M. Fraser, A. Haché, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Three color coherent generation and control of current in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2014-2016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Haché, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Quantum interference control of electrical currents in GaAs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1144-1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306-309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Atanasov, A. Haché, J. L. P. Hughes, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Coherent control of photocurrent generation in bulk semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1703-1706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holtzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 1-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev,A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holtzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Accurate measurement of large optical frequency differences with a mode-locked laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 881-883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, "Route to phase control of ultrashort light pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 2008-2010 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haug, H.

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev,A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level," Science 303, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holtzwarth, R.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holtzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 1-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev,A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Accurate measurement of large optical frequency differences with a mode-locked laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 881-883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, J. L. P.

A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306-309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Atanasov, A. Haché, J. L. P. Hughes, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Coherent control of photocurrent generation in bulk semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1703-1706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Itano, W. M.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D. J.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, "Phase stabilization of an octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 2198-2200 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holtzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kakehata, M.

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 1-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kerachian, Y.

H. M. van Driel, Y. Kerachian, P. Nemec, and A. L. Smirl, "Quantum interference injection and control of spin-polarized transient current gratings in GaAs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, S223-S225 (2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, G.

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping: role of the carrier-envelope phase," Opt. Lett. 29, 2160-2162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kostoulas, Y.

A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306-309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 1-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev,A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, "Route to phase control of ultrashort light pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 2008-2010 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, M. J.

Lee, W. D.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemell, Ch.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 1-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lezius, M.

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596-3599 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luther-Davies, B.

Ma, L.-S.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level," Science 303, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Mücke, O. D.

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping: role of the carrier-envelope phase," Opt. Lett. 29, 2160-2162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, "Role of the carrier-envelope offset phase of few-cycle pulses in nonperturbative resonant nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 127401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, "Determining the carrier-envelope offset frequency of 5-fs pulses with extreme nonlinear optics in ZnO," Opt. Lett. 27, 2127-2129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, "Signatures of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemec, P.

H. M. van Driel, Y. Kerachian, P. Nemec, and A. L. Smirl, "Quantum interference injection and control of spin-polarized transient current gratings in GaAs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, S223-S225 (2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi,M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oates, C.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level," Science 303, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oates, C. W.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pascolini, M.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi,M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 1-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peckham, D. W.

Poletto, L.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi,M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poppe, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, "Route to phase control of ultrashort light pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 2008-2010 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priori, E.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quraishi, Q.

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 25-27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holtzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichert, J.

Robertsson, L.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level," Science 303, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roos, P. A.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Roos, Q. Quraishi, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Characterization of quantum interference control of injected currents in LT-GaAs for carrier-envelope phase measurements," Opt. Express 11, 2081-2090 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi,M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheuer, V.

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev,A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheehy, B.

B. Sheehy, B. Walker, and L. F. DiMauro, "Phase control in the two-color photodissociation of HD+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4799-4802 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shkrebtii, A. I.

J. M. Fraser, A. Haché, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Three color coherent generation and control of current in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2014-2016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Roos, Q. Quraishi, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Characterization of quantum interference control of injected currents in LT-GaAs for carrier-envelope phase measurements," Opt. Express 11, 2081-2090 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, "Optically injected spin currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5432-5435 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fraser, A. Haché, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Three color coherent generation and control of current in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2014-2016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Haché, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Quantum interference control of electrical currents in GaAs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1144-1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306-309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Atanasov, A. Haché, J. L. P. Hughes, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Coherent control of photocurrent generation in bulk semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1703-1706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirl, A. L.

H. M. van Driel, Y. Kerachian, P. Nemec, and A. L. Smirl, "Quantum interference injection and control of spin-polarized transient current gratings in GaAs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, S223-S225 (2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. V.

Y.-Y. Yin, C. Chen, D. S. Elliott, and A. V. Smith, "Asymmetric photoelectron angular distributions from interfering photoionization processes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2353-2356 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, C.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, Ch.

Stagira, S.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi,M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starace, A. F.

Q. Wang and A. F. Starace, "Short-pulse detachment of H− in the presence of a static electric field," Phys. Rev. A 48, R1741-R1744 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A. J.

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tempea, G.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tondello, G.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi,M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torizuka, K.

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 1-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tritschler, T.

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping: role of the carrier-envelope phase," Opt. Lett. 29, 2160-2162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, "Role of the carrier-envelope offset phase of few-cycle pulses in nonperturbative resonant nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 127401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, "Determining the carrier-envelope offset frequency of 5-fs pulses with extreme nonlinear optics in ZnO," Opt. Lett. 27, 2127-2129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, "Signatures of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tschudi, T.

Udem, T.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 1-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev,A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holtzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Accurate measurement of large optical frequency differences with a mode-locked laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 881-883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev,A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Driel, H. M.

H. M. van Driel, Y. Kerachian, P. Nemec, and A. L. Smirl, "Quantum interference injection and control of spin-polarized transient current gratings in GaAs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, S223-S225 (2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fraser, A. Haché, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Three color coherent generation and control of current in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2014-2016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Haché, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Quantum interference control of electrical currents in GaAs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1144-1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306-309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Atanasov, A. Haché, J. L. P. Hughes, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Coherent control of photocurrent generation in bulk semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1703-1706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Villoresi, P.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi,M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi,M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vu, Q. T.

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, B.

B. Sheehy, B. Walker, and L. F. DiMauro, "Phase control in the two-color photodissociation of HD+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4799-4802 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang , Q.

Q. Wang and A. F. Starace, "Short-pulse detachment of H− in the presence of a static electric field," Phys. Rev. A 48, R1741-R1744 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, Z. R.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596-3599 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping: role of the carrier-envelope phase," Opt. Lett. 29, 2160-2162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, "Role of the carrier-envelope offset phase of few-cycle pulses in nonperturbative resonant nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 127401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, "Determining the carrier-envelope offset frequency of 5-fs pulses with extreme nonlinear optics in ZnO," Opt. Lett. 27, 2127-2129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, "Signatures of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

Wilpers, G.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level," Science 303, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level," Science 303, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 25-27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holtzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wineland, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, L.

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev,A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holtzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, Y.-Y.

Y.-Y. Yin, C. Chen, D. S. Elliott, and A. V. Smith, "Asymmetric photoelectron angular distributions from interfering photoionization processes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2353-2356 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zel'dovich, B. Y.

D. Z. Anderson, N. B. Baranova, K. Greene, and B. Y. Zel'dovich, "Interference of one- and two-photon processes in the ionization of atoms and molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 75, 210-214 (1992).

Zucco, M.

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level," Science 303, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, "Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 69, 327-332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. M. Fraser, A. Haché, A. I. Shkrebtii, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Three color coherent generation and control of current in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2014-2016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Haché, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Quantum interference control of electrical currents in GaAs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1144-1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

S. T. Cundiff, "Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses," J. Phys. D 35, R43-R59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, "Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses," Nature 414, 182-184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev,A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

P. Dombi, A. Apolonski, Ch. Lemell, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement and analysis of the carrier-envelope phase in light pulses approaching the single-cycle regime," New J. Phys. 6, 1-17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (8)

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Carrier-wave Rabi flopping: role of the carrier-envelope phase," Opt. Lett. 29, 2160-2162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, "Determining the carrier-envelope offset frequency of 5-fs pulses with extreme nonlinear optics in ZnO," Opt. Lett. 27, 2127-2129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Chang, A. M. Weiner, A. M. Vengsarkar, and D. W. Peckham, "Broadband fiber dispersion compensation for sub-100-fs pulses with a compression ratio of 300," Opt. Lett. 21, 1141-1143 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Xu, Ch. Spielmann, A. Poppe, T. Brabec, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, "Route to phase control of ultrashort light pulses," Opt. Lett. 21, 2008-2010 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Accurate measurement of large optical frequency differences with a mode-locked laser," Opt. Lett. 24, 881-883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, T. Tschudi, M. J. Lederer, A. Boiko, and B. Luther-Davies, "Generation of 5-fs pulses and octave-spanning spectra directly from a Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 26, 373-375 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, and S. T. Cundiff, "Phase stabilization of an octave-spanning Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 2198-2200 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 25-27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Q. Wang and A. F. Starace, "Short-pulse detachment of H− in the presence of a static electric field," Phys. Rev. A 48, R1741-R1744 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (16)

B. Sheehy, B. Walker, and L. F. DiMauro, "Phase control in the two-color photodissociation of HD+," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4799-4802 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596-3599 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-Y. Yin, C. Chen, D. S. Elliott, and A. V. Smith, "Asymmetric photoelectron angular distributions from interfering photoionization processes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2353-2356 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Atanasov, A. Haché, J. L. P. Hughes, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Coherent control of photocurrent generation in bulk semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1703-1706 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Haché, Y. Kostoulas, R. Atanasov, J. L. P. Hughes, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Observation of coherently controlled photocurrent in unbiased, bulk GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 306-309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Fortier, P. A. Roos, D. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, R. D. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Carrier-envelope phase-controlled quantum interference of injected photocurrents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 147403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. R. Bhat and J. E. Sipe, "Optically injected spin currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5432-5435 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holtzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, "Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102-5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, "Signatures of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, U. Morgner, and F. X. Kärtner, "Role of the carrier-envelope offset phase of few-cycle pulses in nonperturbative resonant nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 127401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. T. Vu, H. Haug, O. D. Mücke, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Light-induced gaps in semiconductor band-to-band transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217403 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi,M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, "Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213905 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, P. Dombi, G. G. Paulus, M. Kakehata, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, Ch. Lemell, K. Torizuka, J. Burgdörfer, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Observation of light-phase-sensitive photoemission from a metal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 073902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Paulus, F. Lindner, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Measurement of the phase of few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 253004 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Lindner, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Baltuska, E. Goulielmakis, M. Lezius, and F. Krausz, "Gouy phase shift for few-cycle laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113001 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the phase evolution of few-cycle light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

L.-S. Ma, Z. Bi, A. Bartels, L. Robertsson, M. Zucco, R. S. Windeler, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, "Optical frequency synthesis and comparison with uncertainty at the 10−19 level," Science 303, 1843-1845 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, "An optical clock based on a single trapped 199Hg+ ion," Science 293, 825-828 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

H. M. van Driel, Y. Kerachian, P. Nemec, and A. L. Smirl, "Quantum interference injection and control of spin-polarized transient current gratings in GaAs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, S223-S225 (2004), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

D. Z. Anderson, N. B. Baranova, K. Greene, and B. Y. Zel'dovich, "Interference of one- and two-photon processes in the ionization of atoms and molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 75, 210-214 (1992).

Other (4)

H. M. van Driel and J. E. Sipe, "Coherent control of photocurrents in semiconductors," in Ultrafast Phenomena in Semiconductors , K.-T. Tsen, ed. (Springer, New York, 2001), pp. 261-307 and references therein.

M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 1972), p. 1020.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 17.4.

M. Wegener, Institut für Angewandte Physik, Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany (personal communication, 2004).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conceptual schematic showing quantum interference between one- and two-photon absorption in a direct-gap semiconductor. The two interfering absorption pathways can be driven by two harmonically related pulses or by the spectral wings of a single octave-spanning pulse. The interference can cause an imbalance in the otherwise symmetric carrier-population distribution in momentum space (represented by ovals), resulting in a net flow of carriers. The direction and magnitude of the resulting photocurrent are sensitive to the carrier-envelope phase for the single-pulse case.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Circuit diagram used to model the behavior of the QIC signal. The diagram shows the effective components of the MSM structure and the measurement device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup used for single-pulse QIC studies. The ν-to-2ν interferometer was used to stabilize f0 by use of a feedback loop. A prism pair and split mirror were used to adjust the time delay between the light at frequencies ν and 2ν. The light was focused onto a 30-µm semiconductor gap between two metal strip-line electrodes. MS, microstructure fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

QIC signal amplitude as a function of the average optical power at frequencies ν (circles) and 2ν (squares). The solid curves represent fits to the linear and square-root dependences that were predicted in Section 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

QIC signal amplitude as a function of the time delay between the two-pulse components near frequencies ν and 2ν. The solid curve represents the low-pass-filtered version of the measured data. FFT, fast Fourier transform.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relative QIC signal voltage as a function of the load resistance relative to 89 kΩ. The solid line represents the unity slope that is expected from an ideal current source.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

QIC signal power as a function of the stabilized carrier-envelope offset frequency. The squares (circles) represent data taken with a voltage (transimpedance) amplifier following the QIC sample. The curves represent the predicted behavior from Section 2. CST, stray capacitance.

Equations (10)

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E(t)=E0(t)exp[-i(2πνCt+ϕCE)],
Eˆ(ν)=Eˆ0(ν)δ(ν-νC)exp(-iϕCE)=Eˆ0(ν-νC)exp(-iϕCE)=[Eˆν(ν)+Eˆ2ν(ν)]exp(-iϕCE),
J˙(t)=2ηCEν2(t-td)E2ν(t)sin(2ϕν-ϕ2ν)-J(t)/τC,
J(t)=25/2ηC(μ0/0)3/4nνn2ν1/2IνI2ν1/2ηT(td)×sin(2ϕν-ϕ2ν)exp(-t/τC),
ηT(td)=-|Eν(t-td)|2|E2ν(t)|dt-|Eν(t)|2|E2ν(t)|dt,
J(t)=25/2ηC(μ0/0)3/4nνn2ν1/2IνI2ν1/2ηT(td)×sin(2ϕν-ϕ2ν)τC/T.
ϕCE(t)=2πf0t+ϕ0,
I(t)=I0 sin(2πf0t+ϕ0),
I0=25/2ηC(μ0/0)3/4nνn2ν1/2IνI2ν1/2ηT(td)SτC/T.
V(f0)=I0R[1+(2πf0RC)2]-1/2,

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