Abstract

Ultrashort pulses exhibiting angular dispersion have their pulse front tilted relative to the phase front. This leads to a serious degradation in the focused peak power, making the use of adequate diagnostics indispensable. Here we present an upgrade to a previously demonstrated uniaxial single-shot autocorrelator for ultrashort laser pulse-width measurements that extends its versatility, by making it suitable for detecting and correcting tilted pulse fronts. We have used this diagnostic to optimize the alignment of our chirped-pulse-amplification grating compressor.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Strickland and G. Mourou, "Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses," Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Fiorini, C. Sauteret, C. Rouyer, N. Blanchot, S. Seznec, and A. Migus, "Temporal aberrations due to misalignments of a stretcher-compressor system and compensation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1662-1670 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Pretzler, A. Kasper, and K. J. White, "Angular chirp and tilted light pulses in CPA lasers," Appl. Phys. B 70, 1-9 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Hebling, "Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1759-1763 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Osvay, A. P. Kovacs, Z. Heiner, G. Kurdi, J. Klebniczki, and M. Csatari, "Angular dispersion and temporal change of femtosecond pulses from misaligned pulse compressors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 213-220 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Sacks, G. Mourou, and R. Danielius, "Adjusting pulse-front tilt and pulse duration by use of a single-shot autocorrelator," Opt. Lett. 26, 462-464 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Raghuramaiah, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, and P. D. Gupta, "Simultaneous measurement of pulse front tilt and pulse duration of a femtosecond laser beam," Opt. Commun. 223, 163-168 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Varjú, A. P. Kovács, G. Kurdi, and K. Osvay, "High-precision measurement of angular dispersion in a CPA laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, S259-S263 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O'Shea, and R. Trebino, "Measuring pulse-front tilt in ultrashort pulses using GRENOUILLE," Opt. Express 11, 491-501 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Janszky, G. Corradi, and R. N. Gyuzalian, "On a possibility of analysing the temporal characteristics of short light pulses," Opt. Commun. 23, 293-298 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Salin, P. Georges, G. Roger, and A. Brun, "Single-shot measurement of a 52-fs pulse," Appl. Opt. 26, 4528-4531 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Collier, C. Danson, C. Johnson, and C. Mistry, "Uniaxial single shot autocorrelator," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1599-1602 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison Wesley Longman, 1998).
  14. G. Figueira, N. Lopes, L. Cardoso, J. Wemans, J. M. Dias, M. Fajardo, C. Leitão, and J. T. Mendonça, "Performance and characterization of a 2.8 TW Ti:sapphire-Nd:glass chirped pulse amplification laser system," in XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, J. Kody Mora, ed., Proc. SPIE 5777, 636-641 (2005).

2004 (1)

K. Osvay, A. P. Kovacs, Z. Heiner, G. Kurdi, J. Klebniczki, and M. Csatari, "Angular dispersion and temporal change of femtosecond pulses from misaligned pulse compressors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 213-220 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Raghuramaiah, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, and P. D. Gupta, "Simultaneous measurement of pulse front tilt and pulse duration of a femtosecond laser beam," Opt. Commun. 223, 163-168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O'Shea, and R. Trebino, "Measuring pulse-front tilt in ultrashort pulses using GRENOUILLE," Opt. Express 11, 491-501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

K. Varjú, A. P. Kovács, G. Kurdi, and K. Osvay, "High-precision measurement of angular dispersion in a CPA laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, S259-S263 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

G. Pretzler, A. Kasper, and K. J. White, "Angular chirp and tilted light pulses in CPA lasers," Appl. Phys. B 70, 1-9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Collier, C. Danson, C. Johnson, and C. Mistry, "Uniaxial single shot autocorrelator," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1599-1602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Hebling, "Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1759-1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. Fiorini, C. Sauteret, C. Rouyer, N. Blanchot, S. Seznec, and A. Migus, "Temporal aberrations due to misalignments of a stretcher-compressor system and compensation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1662-1670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, "Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses," Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. Janszky, G. Corradi, and R. N. Gyuzalian, "On a possibility of analysing the temporal characteristics of short light pulses," Opt. Commun. 23, 293-298 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Akturk, S.

Blanchot, N.

C. Fiorini, C. Sauteret, C. Rouyer, N. Blanchot, S. Seznec, and A. Migus, "Temporal aberrations due to misalignments of a stretcher-compressor system and compensation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1662-1670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brun, A.

Cardoso, L.

G. Figueira, N. Lopes, L. Cardoso, J. Wemans, J. M. Dias, M. Fajardo, C. Leitão, and J. T. Mendonça, "Performance and characterization of a 2.8 TW Ti:sapphire-Nd:glass chirped pulse amplification laser system," in XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, J. Kody Mora, ed., Proc. SPIE 5777, 636-641 (2005).

Collier, J.

J. Collier, C. Danson, C. Johnson, and C. Mistry, "Uniaxial single shot autocorrelator," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1599-1602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corradi, G.

J. Janszky, G. Corradi, and R. N. Gyuzalian, "On a possibility of analysing the temporal characteristics of short light pulses," Opt. Commun. 23, 293-298 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Csatari, M.

K. Osvay, A. P. Kovacs, Z. Heiner, G. Kurdi, J. Klebniczki, and M. Csatari, "Angular dispersion and temporal change of femtosecond pulses from misaligned pulse compressors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 213-220 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Danielius, R.

Danson, C.

J. Collier, C. Danson, C. Johnson, and C. Mistry, "Uniaxial single shot autocorrelator," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1599-1602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dias, J. M.

G. Figueira, N. Lopes, L. Cardoso, J. Wemans, J. M. Dias, M. Fajardo, C. Leitão, and J. T. Mendonça, "Performance and characterization of a 2.8 TW Ti:sapphire-Nd:glass chirped pulse amplification laser system," in XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, J. Kody Mora, ed., Proc. SPIE 5777, 636-641 (2005).

Fajardo, M.

G. Figueira, N. Lopes, L. Cardoso, J. Wemans, J. M. Dias, M. Fajardo, C. Leitão, and J. T. Mendonça, "Performance and characterization of a 2.8 TW Ti:sapphire-Nd:glass chirped pulse amplification laser system," in XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, J. Kody Mora, ed., Proc. SPIE 5777, 636-641 (2005).

Figueira, G.

G. Figueira, N. Lopes, L. Cardoso, J. Wemans, J. M. Dias, M. Fajardo, C. Leitão, and J. T. Mendonça, "Performance and characterization of a 2.8 TW Ti:sapphire-Nd:glass chirped pulse amplification laser system," in XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, J. Kody Mora, ed., Proc. SPIE 5777, 636-641 (2005).

Fiorini, C.

C. Fiorini, C. Sauteret, C. Rouyer, N. Blanchot, S. Seznec, and A. Migus, "Temporal aberrations due to misalignments of a stretcher-compressor system and compensation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1662-1670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Georges, P.

Gupta, P. D.

M. Raghuramaiah, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, and P. D. Gupta, "Simultaneous measurement of pulse front tilt and pulse duration of a femtosecond laser beam," Opt. Commun. 223, 163-168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gyuzalian, R. N.

J. Janszky, G. Corradi, and R. N. Gyuzalian, "On a possibility of analysing the temporal characteristics of short light pulses," Opt. Commun. 23, 293-298 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hebling, J.

J. Hebling, "Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1759-1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison Wesley Longman, 1998).

Heiner, Z.

K. Osvay, A. P. Kovacs, Z. Heiner, G. Kurdi, J. Klebniczki, and M. Csatari, "Angular dispersion and temporal change of femtosecond pulses from misaligned pulse compressors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 213-220 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Janszky, J.

J. Janszky, G. Corradi, and R. N. Gyuzalian, "On a possibility of analysing the temporal characteristics of short light pulses," Opt. Commun. 23, 293-298 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C.

J. Collier, C. Danson, C. Johnson, and C. Mistry, "Uniaxial single shot autocorrelator," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1599-1602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, A.

G. Pretzler, A. Kasper, and K. J. White, "Angular chirp and tilted light pulses in CPA lasers," Appl. Phys. B 70, 1-9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kimmel, M.

Klebniczki, J.

K. Osvay, A. P. Kovacs, Z. Heiner, G. Kurdi, J. Klebniczki, and M. Csatari, "Angular dispersion and temporal change of femtosecond pulses from misaligned pulse compressors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 213-220 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kovacs, A. P.

K. Osvay, A. P. Kovacs, Z. Heiner, G. Kurdi, J. Klebniczki, and M. Csatari, "Angular dispersion and temporal change of femtosecond pulses from misaligned pulse compressors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 213-220 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kovács, A. P.

K. Varjú, A. P. Kovács, G. Kurdi, and K. Osvay, "High-precision measurement of angular dispersion in a CPA laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, S259-S263 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurdi, G.

K. Osvay, A. P. Kovacs, Z. Heiner, G. Kurdi, J. Klebniczki, and M. Csatari, "Angular dispersion and temporal change of femtosecond pulses from misaligned pulse compressors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 213-220 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Varjú, A. P. Kovács, G. Kurdi, and K. Osvay, "High-precision measurement of angular dispersion in a CPA laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, S259-S263 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leitão, C.

G. Figueira, N. Lopes, L. Cardoso, J. Wemans, J. M. Dias, M. Fajardo, C. Leitão, and J. T. Mendonça, "Performance and characterization of a 2.8 TW Ti:sapphire-Nd:glass chirped pulse amplification laser system," in XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, J. Kody Mora, ed., Proc. SPIE 5777, 636-641 (2005).

Lopes, N.

G. Figueira, N. Lopes, L. Cardoso, J. Wemans, J. M. Dias, M. Fajardo, C. Leitão, and J. T. Mendonça, "Performance and characterization of a 2.8 TW Ti:sapphire-Nd:glass chirped pulse amplification laser system," in XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, J. Kody Mora, ed., Proc. SPIE 5777, 636-641 (2005).

Mendonça, J. T.

G. Figueira, N. Lopes, L. Cardoso, J. Wemans, J. M. Dias, M. Fajardo, C. Leitão, and J. T. Mendonça, "Performance and characterization of a 2.8 TW Ti:sapphire-Nd:glass chirped pulse amplification laser system," in XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, J. Kody Mora, ed., Proc. SPIE 5777, 636-641 (2005).

Migus, A.

C. Fiorini, C. Sauteret, C. Rouyer, N. Blanchot, S. Seznec, and A. Migus, "Temporal aberrations due to misalignments of a stretcher-compressor system and compensation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1662-1670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mistry, C.

J. Collier, C. Danson, C. Johnson, and C. Mistry, "Uniaxial single shot autocorrelator," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1599-1602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Naik, P. A.

M. Raghuramaiah, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, and P. D. Gupta, "Simultaneous measurement of pulse front tilt and pulse duration of a femtosecond laser beam," Opt. Commun. 223, 163-168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O'Shea, P.

Osvay, K.

K. Osvay, A. P. Kovacs, Z. Heiner, G. Kurdi, J. Klebniczki, and M. Csatari, "Angular dispersion and temporal change of femtosecond pulses from misaligned pulse compressors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 213-220 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Varjú, A. P. Kovács, G. Kurdi, and K. Osvay, "High-precision measurement of angular dispersion in a CPA laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, S259-S263 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pretzler, G.

G. Pretzler, A. Kasper, and K. J. White, "Angular chirp and tilted light pulses in CPA lasers," Appl. Phys. B 70, 1-9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Raghuramaiah, M.

M. Raghuramaiah, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, and P. D. Gupta, "Simultaneous measurement of pulse front tilt and pulse duration of a femtosecond laser beam," Opt. Commun. 223, 163-168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roger, G.

Rouyer, C.

C. Fiorini, C. Sauteret, C. Rouyer, N. Blanchot, S. Seznec, and A. Migus, "Temporal aberrations due to misalignments of a stretcher-compressor system and compensation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1662-1670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sacks, Z.

Salin, F.

Sauteret, C.

C. Fiorini, C. Sauteret, C. Rouyer, N. Blanchot, S. Seznec, and A. Migus, "Temporal aberrations due to misalignments of a stretcher-compressor system and compensation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1662-1670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Seznec, S.

C. Fiorini, C. Sauteret, C. Rouyer, N. Blanchot, S. Seznec, and A. Migus, "Temporal aberrations due to misalignments of a stretcher-compressor system and compensation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1662-1670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, A. K.

M. Raghuramaiah, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, and P. D. Gupta, "Simultaneous measurement of pulse front tilt and pulse duration of a femtosecond laser beam," Opt. Commun. 223, 163-168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, "Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses," Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

Varjú, K.

K. Varjú, A. P. Kovács, G. Kurdi, and K. Osvay, "High-precision measurement of angular dispersion in a CPA laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, S259-S263 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wemans, J.

G. Figueira, N. Lopes, L. Cardoso, J. Wemans, J. M. Dias, M. Fajardo, C. Leitão, and J. T. Mendonça, "Performance and characterization of a 2.8 TW Ti:sapphire-Nd:glass chirped pulse amplification laser system," in XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, J. Kody Mora, ed., Proc. SPIE 5777, 636-641 (2005).

White, K. J.

G. Pretzler, A. Kasper, and K. J. White, "Angular chirp and tilted light pulses in CPA lasers," Appl. Phys. B 70, 1-9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

G. Pretzler, A. Kasper, and K. J. White, "Angular chirp and tilted light pulses in CPA lasers," Appl. Phys. B 70, 1-9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Varjú, A. P. Kovács, G. Kurdi, and K. Osvay, "High-precision measurement of angular dispersion in a CPA laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, S259-S263 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Fiorini, C. Sauteret, C. Rouyer, N. Blanchot, S. Seznec, and A. Migus, "Temporal aberrations due to misalignments of a stretcher-compressor system and compensation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1662-1670 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Osvay, A. P. Kovacs, Z. Heiner, G. Kurdi, J. Klebniczki, and M. Csatari, "Angular dispersion and temporal change of femtosecond pulses from misaligned pulse compressors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 213-220 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

M. Raghuramaiah, A. K. Sharma, P. A. Naik, and P. D. Gupta, "Simultaneous measurement of pulse front tilt and pulse duration of a femtosecond laser beam," Opt. Commun. 223, 163-168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, "Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses," Opt. Commun. 56, 219-221 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Janszky, G. Corradi, and R. N. Gyuzalian, "On a possibility of analysing the temporal characteristics of short light pulses," Opt. Commun. 23, 293-298 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Hebling, "Derivation of the pulse front tilt caused by angular dispersion," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1759-1763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Collier, C. Danson, C. Johnson, and C. Mistry, "Uniaxial single shot autocorrelator," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1599-1602 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. Hecht, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison Wesley Longman, 1998).

G. Figueira, N. Lopes, L. Cardoso, J. Wemans, J. M. Dias, M. Fajardo, C. Leitão, and J. T. Mendonça, "Performance and characterization of a 2.8 TW Ti:sapphire-Nd:glass chirped pulse amplification laser system," in XV International Symposium on Gas Flow, Chemical Lasers, and High-Power Lasers, J. Kody Mora, ed., Proc. SPIE 5777, 636-641 (2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of a tilted pulse front. The phase fronts, corresponding to the vertical lines, are perpendicular to the propagation direction, with the pulse front tilted by an angle γ. λ 0 is the central wavelength, d ϴ = d λ is the angular dispersion, and D is the beam diameter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Influence of a tilted pulse front on the autocorrelation trace. (a) Two pulse fronts with a tilt α in the x z plane, relatively flipped, resulting in a shorter autocorrelation. (b) The same pulse fronts without flipping, resulting in a displaced autocorrelation trace (the dotted autocorrelation trace corresponds to that above for comparison).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Tilted-pulse-front single-shot autocorrelator. (a) Setup when viewed from the top. Each of the pulse fronts A and B shown has a tilt in the plane orthogonal to the x z plane that contains its propagation direction, and they are relatively flipped about the x z plane. This is illustrated by means of using a solid (dotted) line to mark the uppermost (lowermost) position of each pulse front. (b) Same setup when viewed from the side, for greater visual clarity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Autocorrelator setup. λ 2 , half-wave plate; WP, Wollaston prism; DP1 and DP2, Dove prisms; BP, biprism; NC, nonlinear crystal; L, imaging lens; CCD, camera.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Vertical autocorrelation trace denoting an untilted pulse front.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Autocorrelation trace of a compressed pulse exhibiting a tilted front. The upper trace is a time-delayed replica caused by an internal reflection in the device.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal profile of the autocorrelation for pulses with tilted and untilted pulse fronts.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Pulse-Front Tilt γ (in mrad) after Dispersive Elements

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

tan γ = λ d θ d λ ,
Δ τ = D c tan γ = D c λ d θ d λ ,
Δ τ = D c 2 N λ ϵ x tan θ d cos θ i ,
Δ t = K Δ x 2 n sin ϕ c ,
x ( sin ϕ α cos ϕ ) + β y = 0 ,
sin θ e ( λ ) = sin φ ( n o cos φ n e 2 n o 2 sin 2 φ ) ,
sin θ o ( λ ) = sin φ ( n e cos φ n o 2 n e 2 sin 2 φ ) ,
τ f = τ 0 1 + ( 2 k 0 L τ 0 2 ) 2 ,

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