Abstract

Results of an investigation of lateral beam structure by propagating femtosecond pulses in fused silica are presented. Observed spatial transformations of the beam were closely related to the onset of continuum generation. Further beam propagation was in the form of an intense central spike (filament) and surrounding rings. Increasing power led to beam splitting and the formation of a regular structure of multiple filaments. The filament was responsible for the spontaneous formation of permanent modification inside the material. Experimental results are backed by numerical simulations that include self-guided channels of a permanent change of the refractive index in a bulk medium.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (9)

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubietis, E. Gaizauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. di Trapani, "Light filaments without self-channeling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Mao, F. Quer, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, "Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1695-1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kamata and M. Obara, "Control of the refractive index change in fused silica glasses induced by a loosely focused femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 78, 85-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "The influence of self-focusing and filamentation on refractive index modifications in fused silica using intense femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 241, 529-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Mechain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrovicz, "Organizing multiple femtosecond filaments in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, G. Fibich, and B. Ilan, "Multiple filamentation induced by input-beam ellipticity," Opt. Lett. 29, 1126-1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schroeder, J. Liu, and S. L. Chin, "From random to controlled small-scale filamentation in water," Opt. Express 12, 4768-4774 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubietis, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, M. A. Porras, and P. D. Trapani, "Self-reconstruction of light filaments," Opt. Lett. 29, 2893-2895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (10)

A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, I. Diomin, and A. Varanavicius, "Self-guided propagation of femtosecond light pulses in water," Opt. Lett. 28, 1269-1271 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213-215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and A. A. Koltun, "Nonlinear-optical transformation of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse in air," Quantum Electron. 33, 69-75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akzobek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, E. S. J. Yu, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, J. Kasparian, G. Mejean, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woste, J.-P. Wolf, J. Yu, and W. Zimmer, "Femtosecond LIDAR: new perspectives of atmospheric remote sensing," in Laser Applications in Medicine, Biology, and Environmental Science , G. Mueller, V. V. Tuchin, G. G. Matuienko, C. Weiner, and V. Y. Panchenko, eds., Proc. SPIE 5149, 135-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaizauskas, V. Kudriasov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaicaitis, and A. Piskarskas, "Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002 and 7th International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization , G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, A. Giesen, and H. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932, 346-357 (2003).

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Multiple filamentation of circularly polarized beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 013901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Vectorial and random effects in self-focusing and in multiple filamentation," Physica D 157, 112-146 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Berge and A. Couairon, "Gas-induced solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003-1006 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and L. Berge, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Deterministic vectorial effects lead to multiple filamentation," Opt. Lett. 26, 840-842 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637-650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

H. R. Lange, G. Grillon, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. T. J. Nibbering, and A. Chiron, "Anomalous long-range propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through air: moving focus or pulse self-guiding?" Opt. Lett. 23, 120-122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, "Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air," Opt. Lett. 23, 382-384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Band-gap dependence of the ultrasfast white-light continuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406-4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J.-F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz,P. Breger, and P. Agostini, "High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1611-1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, "Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 304-306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

1995 (1)

1975 (2)

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Shen, "Self-focusing: experimental," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 1-34 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. L. Daves and J. H. Marburger, "Computer studies in self-focusing," Phys. Rev. 179, 862-868 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

J. H. Marburger and E. L. Daves, "Computer studies in self-focusing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 556-558 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

V. I. Bespalov and V. I. Talanov, "Filamentary structure of light beams in non-linear liquids," JETP Lett. 3, 307-309 (1966).

Agostini, P.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J.-F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz,P. Breger, and P. Agostini, "High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1611-1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akozbek, N.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Akzobek, N.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akzobek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andre, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, E. S. J. Yu, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barkauskas, M.

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaizauskas, V. Kudriasov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaicaitis, and A. Piskarskas, "Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002 and 7th International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization , G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, A. Giesen, and H. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932, 346-357 (2003).

Becker, A.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akzobek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berge, L.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and L. Berge, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Berge and A. Couairon, "Gas-induced solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003-1006 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bespalov, V. I.

V. I. Bespalov and V. I. Talanov, "Filamentary structure of light beams in non-linear liquids," JETP Lett. 3, 307-309 (1966).

Bourayou, R.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, E. S. J. Yu, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, J. Kasparian, G. Mejean, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woste, J.-P. Wolf, J. Yu, and W. Zimmer, "Femtosecond LIDAR: new perspectives of atmospheric remote sensing," in Laser Applications in Medicine, Biology, and Environmental Science , G. Mueller, V. V. Tuchin, G. G. Matuienko, C. Weiner, and V. Y. Panchenko, eds., Proc. SPIE 5149, 135-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boutou, V.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213-215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akzobek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Breger, P.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J.-F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz,P. Breger, and P. Agostini, "High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1611-1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Callan, J. P.

Chien, C. Y.

Chin, S. L.

H. Schroeder, J. Liu, and S. L. Chin, "From random to controlled small-scale filamentation in water," Opt. Express 12, 4768-4774 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "The influence of self-focusing and filamentation on refractive index modifications in fused silica using intense femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 241, 529-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akzobek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637-650 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Band-gap dependence of the ultrasfast white-light continuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406-4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, "Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 304-306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiron, A.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J.-F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz,P. Breger, and P. Agostini, "High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1611-1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Lange, G. Grillon, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. T. J. Nibbering, and A. Chiron, "Anomalous long-range propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through air: moving focus or pulse self-guiding?" Opt. Lett. 23, 120-122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

G. Mechain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrovicz, "Organizing multiple femtosecond filaments in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Berge and A. Couairon, "Gas-induced solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003-1006 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and L. Berge, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courvoisier, F.

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213-215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Daves, E. L.

E. L. Daves and J. H. Marburger, "Computer studies in self-focusing," Phys. Rev. 179, 862-868 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Marburger and E. L. Daves, "Computer studies in self-focusing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 556-558 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

di Trapani, P.

A. Dubietis, E. Gaizauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. di Trapani, "Light filaments without self-channeling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diomin, I.

Du, D.

Dubietis, A.

Eisloffel, J.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fibich, G.

A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, G. Fibich, and B. Ilan, "Multiple filamentation induced by input-beam ellipticity," Opt. Lett. 29, 1126-1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Multiple filamentation of circularly polarized beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 013901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Vectorial and random effects in self-focusing and in multiple filamentation," Physica D 157, 112-146 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Deterministic vectorial effects lead to multiple filamentation," Opt. Lett. 26, 840-842 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, R. J.

Franco, M.

G. Mechain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrovicz, "Organizing multiple femtosecond filaments in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and L. Berge, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Lange, G. Grillon, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. T. J. Nibbering, and A. Chiron, "Anomalous long-range propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through air: moving focus or pulse self-guiding?" Opt. Lett. 23, 120-122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, E. S. J. Yu, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Schirmer, and A. L. Gaeta "Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783-3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaizauskas, E.

A. Dubietis, E. Gaizauskas, G. Tamosauskas, and P. di Trapani, "Light filaments without self-channeling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 253903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubietis, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, M. A. Porras, and P. D. Trapani, "Self-reconstruction of light filaments," Opt. Lett. 29, 2893-2895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaizauskas, V. Kudriasov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaicaitis, and A. Piskarskas, "Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002 and 7th International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization , G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, A. Giesen, and H. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932, 346-357 (2003).

Gamaly, E. G.

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

Golubtsov, I. S.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akzobek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grigonis, R.

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaizauskas, V. Kudriasov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaicaitis, and A. Piskarskas, "Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002 and 7th International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization , G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, A. Giesen, and H. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932, 346-357 (2003).

Grillon, G.

Guizard, S.

S. S. Mao, F. Quer, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, "Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1695-1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hatzes, A. P.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Her, T.-H.

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, K. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, L.

Ilan, B.

A. Dubietis, G. Tamosauskas, G. Fibich, and B. Ilan, "Multiple filamentation induced by input-beam ellipticity," Opt. Lett. 29, 1126-1128 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Multiple filamentation of circularly polarized beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 013901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Vectorial and random effects in self-focusing and in multiple filamentation," Physica D 157, 112-146 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Deterministic vectorial effects lead to multiple filamentation," Opt. Lett. 26, 840-842 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ilkov, F. A.

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, A.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kamata, M.

M. Kamata and M. Obara, "Control of the refractive index change in fused silica glasses induced by a loosely focused femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 78, 85-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akzobek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and A. A. Koltun, "Nonlinear-optical transformation of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse in air," Quantum Electron. 33, 69-75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, "Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 304-306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasparian, J.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213-215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, J. Kasparian, G. Mejean, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woste, J.-P. Wolf, J. Yu, and W. Zimmer, "Femtosecond LIDAR: new perspectives of atmospheric remote sensing," in Laser Applications in Medicine, Biology, and Environmental Science , G. Mueller, V. V. Tuchin, G. G. Matuienko, C. Weiner, and V. Y. Panchenko, eds., Proc. SPIE 5149, 135-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, E. S. J. Yu, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koltun, A. A.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and A. A. Koltun, "Nonlinear-optical transformation of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse in air," Quantum Electron. 33, 69-75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Kosareva, O.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and A. A. Koltun, "Nonlinear-optical transformation of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse in air," Quantum Electron. 33, 69-75 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akzobek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, "Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 304-306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kucinskas, E.

Kudriasov, V.

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaizauskas, V. Kudriasov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaicaitis, and A. Piskarskas, "Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002 and 7th International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization , G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, A. Giesen, and H. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932, 346-357 (2003).

Lamouroux, B.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Lange, G. Grillon, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. T. J. Nibbering, and A. Chiron, "Anomalous long-range propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through air: moving focus or pulse self-guiding?" Opt. Lett. 23, 120-122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lange, H. R.

H. R. Lange, G. Grillon, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. T. J. Nibbering, and A. Chiron, "Anomalous long-range propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through air: moving focus or pulse self-guiding?" Opt. Lett. 23, 120-122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J.-F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz,P. Breger, and P. Agostini, "High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1611-1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laux, U.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Liu, W.

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akzobek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation)," Appl. Phys. B 77, 149-165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Mao, S. S.

S. S. Mao, F. Quer, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, "Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1695-1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mao, X.

S. S. Mao, F. Quer, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, "Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1695-1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marburger, J. H.

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing: theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Daves and J. H. Marburger, "Computer studies in self-focusing," Phys. Rev. 179, 862-868 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Marburger and E. L. Daves, "Computer studies in self-focusing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 556-558 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P.

S. S. Mao, F. Quer, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, "Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1695-1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Mechain, G.

G. Mechain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrovicz, "Organizing multiple femtosecond filaments in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mejean, G.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213-215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, E. S. J. Yu, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, J. Kasparian, G. Mejean, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woste, J.-P. Wolf, J. Yu, and W. Zimmer, "Femtosecond LIDAR: new perspectives of atmospheric remote sensing," in Laser Applications in Medicine, Biology, and Environmental Science , G. Mueller, V. V. Tuchin, G. G. Matuienko, C. Weiner, and V. Y. Panchenko, eds., Proc. SPIE 5149, 135-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Milosavljevic, M.

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, K. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mlejnek, M.

Moloney, J. V.

Mourou, G.

Mysyrovicz, A.

G. Mechain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrovicz, "Organizing multiple femtosecond filaments in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, E. S. J. Yu, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, J. Kasparian, G. Mejean, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woste, J.-P. Wolf, J. Yu, and W. Zimmer, "Femtosecond LIDAR: new perspectives of atmospheric remote sensing," in Laser Applications in Medicine, Biology, and Environmental Science , G. Mueller, V. V. Tuchin, G. G. Matuienko, C. Weiner, and V. Y. Panchenko, eds., Proc. SPIE 5149, 135-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and L. Berge, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Lange, G. Grillon, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. T. J. Nibbering, and A. Chiron, "Anomalous long-range propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through air: moving focus or pulse self-guiding?" Opt. Lett. 23, 120-122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J.-F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz,P. Breger, and P. Agostini, "High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1611-1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, N. T.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "The influence of self-focusing and filamentation on refractive index modifications in fused silica using intense femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 241, 529-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nibbering, E. T.

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

M. Kamata and M. Obara, "Control of the refractive index change in fused silica glasses induced by a loosely focused femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 78, 85-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petit, S.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petite, G.

S. S. Mao, F. Quer, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, "Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1695-1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Piskarskas, A.

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaizauskas, V. Kudriasov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaicaitis, and A. Piskarskas, "Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002 and 7th International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization , G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, A. Giesen, and H. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932, 346-357 (2003).

Porras, M. A.

Prade, B.

G. Mechain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrovicz, "Organizing multiple femtosecond filaments in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and L. Berge, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Lange, G. Grillon, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. T. J. Nibbering, and A. Chiron, "Anomalous long-range propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through air: moving focus or pulse self-guiding?" Opt. Lett. 23, 120-122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quer, F.

S. S. Mao, F. Quer, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, "Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1695-1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Schirmer, and A. L. Gaeta "Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783-3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripoche, J.-F.

H. R. Lange, G. Grillon, J.-F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. T. J. Nibbering, and A. Chiron, "Anomalous long-range propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through air: moving focus or pulse self-guiding?" Opt. Lett. 23, 120-122 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J.-F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz,P. Breger, and P. Agostini, "High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1611-1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A. V.

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, J. Kasparian, G. Mejean, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woste, J.-P. Wolf, J. Yu, and W. Zimmer, "Femtosecond LIDAR: new perspectives of atmospheric remote sensing," in Laser Applications in Medicine, Biology, and Environmental Science , G. Mueller, V. V. Tuchin, G. G. Matuienko, C. Weiner, and V. Y. Panchenko, eds., Proc. SPIE 5149, 135-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, E. S. J. Yu, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russo, R. E.

S. S. Mao, F. Quer, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, "Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1695-1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saliminia, A.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "The influence of self-focusing and filamentation on refractive index modifications in fused silica using intense femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 241, 529-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213-215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, J. Kasparian, G. Mejean, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woste, J.-P. Wolf, J. Yu, and W. Zimmer, "Femtosecond LIDAR: new perspectives of atmospheric remote sensing," in Laser Applications in Medicine, Biology, and Environmental Science , G. Mueller, V. V. Tuchin, G. G. Matuienko, C. Weiner, and V. Y. Panchenko, eds., Proc. SPIE 5149, 135-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, J. Kasparian, G. Mejean, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woste, J.-P. Wolf, J. Yu, and W. Zimmer, "Femtosecond LIDAR: new perspectives of atmospheric remote sensing," in Laser Applications in Medicine, Biology, and Environmental Science , G. Mueller, V. V. Tuchin, G. G. Matuienko, C. Weiner, and V. Y. Panchenko, eds., Proc. SPIE 5149, 135-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, E. S. J. Yu, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schirmer, R. W.

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Schirmer, and A. L. Gaeta "Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783-3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholz, A.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, H.

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, "Self-focusing: experimental," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 1-34 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sirutkaitis, V.

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaizauskas, V. Kudriasov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaicaitis, and A. Piskarskas, "Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002 and 7th International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization , G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, A. Giesen, and H. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932, 346-357 (2003).

Squier, J.

Stecklum, B.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and L. Berge, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, K.

Talanov, V. I.

V. I. Bespalov and V. I. Talanov, "Filamentary structure of light beams in non-linear liquids," JETP Lett. 3, 307-309 (1966).

Tamosauskas, G.

Trapani, P. D.

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and L. Berge, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaicaitis, V.

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaizauskas, V. Kudriasov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaicaitis, and A. Piskarskas, "Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002 and 7th International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization , G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, A. Giesen, and H. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932, 346-357 (2003).

Vallee, R.

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "The influence of self-focusing and filamentation on refractive index modifications in fused silica using intense femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 241, 529-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Varanavicius, A.

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, E. S. J. Yu, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, J. Kasparian, G. Mejean, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woste, J.-P. Wolf, J. Yu, and W. Zimmer, "Femtosecond LIDAR: new perspectives of atmospheric remote sensing," in Laser Applications in Medicine, Biology, and Environmental Science , G. Mueller, V. V. Tuchin, G. G. Matuienko, C. Weiner, and V. Y. Panchenko, eds., Proc. SPIE 5149, 135-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213-215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, J. Kasparian, G. Mejean, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woste, J.-P. Wolf, J. Yu, and W. Zimmer, "Femtosecond LIDAR: new perspectives of atmospheric remote sensing," in Laser Applications in Medicine, Biology, and Environmental Science , G. Mueller, V. V. Tuchin, G. G. Matuienko, C. Weiner, and V. Y. Panchenko, eds., Proc. SPIE 5149, 135-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, E. S. J. Yu, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woste, L.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, E. S. J. Yu, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, J. Kasparian, G. Mejean, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woste, J.-P. Wolf, J. Yu, and W. Zimmer, "Femtosecond LIDAR: new perspectives of atmospheric remote sensing," in Laser Applications in Medicine, Biology, and Environmental Science , G. Mueller, V. V. Tuchin, G. G. Matuienko, C. Weiner, and V. Y. Panchenko, eds., Proc. SPIE 5149, 135-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

Yu, E. S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, E. S. J. Yu, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, G. Mejean, J. Kasparian, J. Yu, E. Salmon, A. Scholz, B. Stecklum, J. Eisloffel, U. Laux, A. P. Hatzes, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Kilometer-range nonlinear propagation of femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 036607 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213-215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, J. Kasparian, G. Mejean, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woste, J.-P. Wolf, J. Yu, and W. Zimmer, "Femtosecond LIDAR: new perspectives of atmospheric remote sensing," in Laser Applications in Medicine, Biology, and Environmental Science , G. Mueller, V. V. Tuchin, G. G. Matuienko, C. Weiner, and V. Y. Panchenko, eds., Proc. SPIE 5149, 135-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zimmer, W.

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, J. Kasparian, G. Mejean, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woste, J.-P. Wolf, J. Yu, and W. Zimmer, "Femtosecond LIDAR: new perspectives of atmospheric remote sensing," in Laser Applications in Medicine, Biology, and Environmental Science , G. Mueller, V. V. Tuchin, G. G. Matuienko, C. Weiner, and V. Y. Panchenko, eds., Proc. SPIE 5149, 135-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (3)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Mao, F. Quer, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, "Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1695-1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kamata and M. Obara, "Control of the refractive index change in fused silica glasses induced by a loosely focused femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 78, 85-88 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, "Femtosecond laser pulse filamentation versus optical breakdown in H2O," Appl. Phys. B 76, 215-229 (2003).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Courvoisier, V. Boutou, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, G. Mejean, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, "Ultraintense light filaments transmitted through clouds," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 213-215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

JETP Lett. (1)

V. I. Bespalov and V. I. Talanov, "Filamentary structure of light beams in non-linear liquids," JETP Lett. 3, 307-309 (1966).

Laser Applications in Medicine, Biology, and Environmental Science (1)

M. Rodriguez, R. Bourayou, J. Kasparian, G. Mejean, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Woste, J.-P. Wolf, J. Yu, and W. Zimmer, "Femtosecond LIDAR: new perspectives of atmospheric remote sensing," in Laser Applications in Medicine, Biology, and Environmental Science , G. Mueller, V. V. Tuchin, G. G. Matuienko, C. Weiner, and V. Y. Panchenko, eds., Proc. SPIE 5149, 135-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002 and 7th International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization (1)

V. Sirutkaitis, E. Gaizauskas, V. Kudriasov, M. Barkauskas, R. Grigonis, V. Vaicaitis, and A. Piskarskas, "Self-guiding, supercontinuum generation and damage in bulk materials induced by femtosecond pulses," in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2002 and 7th International Workshop on Laser Beam and Optics Characterization , G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, C. J. Stolz, A. Giesen, and H. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE 4932, 346-357 (2003).

Opt. Commun. (3)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 171, 279-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Saliminia, N. T. Nguyen, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, "The influence of self-focusing and filamentation on refractive index modifications in fused silica using intense femtosecond pulses," Opt. Commun. 241, 529-538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, "Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter," Opt. Commun. 202, 189-197 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

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A. Dubietis, E. Kucinskas, G. Tamosauskas, E. Gaizauskas, M. A. Porras, and P. D. Trapani, "Self-reconstruction of light filaments," Opt. Lett. 29, 2893-2895 (2004).
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Phys. Rev. E (1)

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Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Mejean, E. S. J. Yu, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Woste, "White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis," Science 301, 61-64 (2003).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup for the investigation of beam propagation in fused silica.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transverse intensity profile of the laser beam used in the experiments. (Ellipticity of the beam is shown by two lines representing the directions of the major and minor axes.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beam transverse intensity profiles after 10 mm of propagation for different energies: (a) 0.7, (b) 1.4, (c) 2.7, (d) 3.4, (e) 4.0, (f) 4.8 μ J . Energy was monotonically increased during the experiment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross section of the beam transverse intensity profiles after 10 mm of propagation for the energies of 1.3 (just below the onset of the continuum) and 2.7 μ J .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Beam transverse intensity profiles for pulse energies of (a) 0.7 and (b) 1.4 μ J . Energy was decreased down from a maximum value of 4.8 μ J .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Beam transverse intensity profiles for (a) 5, (b) 7, (c) 9, (d) 11 mm of propagation distance (pulse energy is fixed at 3 μ J ).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Images of the calculated beam transverse patterns for elliptical input beams at z = 1 cm for different incident beam powers: (a) 2 P cr , (b) 4 P cr , (c) 8 P cr , (d) 12 P cr demonstrating the MF case by nucleation on the surrounding ring.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Images of the calculated beam transverse patterns for a noisy elliptical input beam at z = 1 cm for (a) 8 P cr and (b) 12 P cr demonstrating blurring of the beam structure.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Refractive-index profile used to model the irreversible changes in the bulk. The profile was taken according to the beam transverse intensity for an incident beam power 15 times over critical.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated beam transverse intensity profiles for beam power: (a) and (b) 0.9 P cr , (c) and (d) 2 P cr , (e) and (f) 4 P cr without (left column) and with (right column) that takes into account permanent changes of the refractive-index profile shown in Fig. 9.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calculated pulse radial intensity distribution in time (inset shows the transverse time-integrated intensity profile) at z = 1 cm for beam power 4 P cr that takes into account permanent changes of the refractive-index profile.

Equations (4)

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n ( x , y , z ) = n 0 + n 2 I ( x , y , z ) + n 2 α I h ( x , y , z ) ,
A z = i 2 k ( 2 A x 2 + 2 A y 2 ) + i ω 0 Δ n c A β ( K ) 2 A 2 K 2 A ,
A ( x , y , 0 ) = A 0 exp [ x 2 q x w 0 2 y 2 q y w 0 2 2 i k ( x 2 + y 2 ) R 0 ] ,
A s ( x , y , 0 ) = a s m , n A ( x , y , 0 ) w 0 π 2 m + n 1 m ! n ! ( m + n ) × H m ( 2 x q x w 0 2 ) H n ( 2 y q y w 0 2 ) exp ( i Φ m n ) ,

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