Abstract

Recently, laser activity has been achieved in the low-phonon-energy, moisture-resistant bromide host crystals: neodymium-doped potassium lead bromide (Nd3+:KPb2Br5) and rubidium lead bromide (Nd3+:RbPb2Br5). Laser activity at 1.07 µm was observed for both crystalline materials. Laser operation at the new wavelengths of 1.18 and 0.97 µm resulting from the 4F5/2 + 2H9/24IJ transitions (J=13/2 and 11/2) in Nd:RbPb2Br5 was achieved for the first time in a solid-state laser material. We present cw pump-probe spectra and discuss excited-state absorption and reabsorption processes due to the long-lived lower laser levels, as well as possible depopulation mechanisms feasible for more efficient laser operation in these crystals. The bromides are compared with potassium lead chloride (Nd3+:KPb2Cl5).

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Rademaker, E. Heumann, S. A. Payne, G. Huber, W. F. Krupke, L. I. Isaenko, and A. Burger, "Laser activity at 1.18, 1.07, and 0.97 µm in the low-phonon-energy hosts KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 doped with Nd3+," Opt. Lett. 30, 729-731 (2005).
  2. K. Rademaker, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, K. Petermann, G. Huber, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Optical properties of Nd3+- and Tb3+-doped KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 with low nonradiative decay," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2117-2129 (2004).
  3. K. Rademaker, K. Petermann, G. Huber, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Slow nonradiative decay for rare earths in KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5," in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004).
  4. M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, "Optical properties of Dy3+- and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264-276 (2001).
  5. S. Kueck, L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, and G. Huber, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part I: Y3Al5O12, YAlO3, and Y2O3," Appl. Phys. B 67, 151-156 (1998).
  6. L. Fornasiero, S. Kueck, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part II: YVO4, GdVO4, Sr5(PO4)3F," Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998).
  7. L. Fornasiero, T. Kellner, S. Kueck, J. P. Meyn, P. E.-A. Moebert, and G. Huber, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals III: LaSc3(BO3)4, CaWO4, YLiF4," Appl. Phys. B 68, 67-72 (1999).
  8. J. Koetke and G. Huber, "Infrared excited-state absorption and stimulated-emission cross sections of Er3+-doped crystals," Appl. Phys. B 61, 151-158 (1995).
  9. B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
  10. G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
  11. A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, 1996).
  12. M. J. Weber, "Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3," Phys. Rev. 157, 262-272 (1967).
  13. B. G. Wybourne, "Composition of the electronic states of Nd(IV) and Er(IV)," J. Chem. Phys. 34, 279-281 (1961).
  14. A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals, Their Physics and Properties (Springer-Verlag, 1990).
  15. U. Hoemmerich, E. Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, "Crystal growth, upconversion, and emission properties of Er3+- and Nd3+- doped KPb2Br5," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postconference Digest Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America,2004).
  16. M. Nostrand, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (personal communication, 2003).
  17. N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, "Spectroscopic analysis and laser modelling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride," J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).
  18. K. Rademaker is preparing a manuscript titled "Rare-earth-doped alkali-lead--halide laser crystals of low-phonon energy."

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, "Spectroscopic analysis and laser modelling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride," J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

L. Fornasiero, T. Kellner, S. Kueck, J. P. Meyn, P. E.-A. Moebert, and G. Huber, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals III: LaSc3(BO3)4, CaWO4, YLiF4," Appl. Phys. B 68, 67-72 (1999).

1998 (2)

S. Kueck, L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, and G. Huber, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part I: Y3Al5O12, YAlO3, and Y2O3," Appl. Phys. B 67, 151-156 (1998).

L. Fornasiero, S. Kueck, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part II: YVO4, GdVO4, Sr5(PO4)3F," Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998).

1995 (1)

J. Koetke and G. Huber, "Infrared excited-state absorption and stimulated-emission cross sections of Er3+-doped crystals," Appl. Phys. B 61, 151-158 (1995).

1967 (1)

M. J. Weber, "Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3," Phys. Rev. 157, 262-272 (1967).

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).

1961 (1)

B. G. Wybourne, "Composition of the electronic states of Nd(IV) and Er(IV)," J. Chem. Phys. 34, 279-281 (1961).

Bowman, S. R.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, "Spectroscopic analysis and laser modelling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride," J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).

Burger, A.

Chai, B. H. T.

L. Fornasiero, S. Kueck, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part II: YVO4, GdVO4, Sr5(PO4)3F," Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998).

Fornasiero, L.

L. Fornasiero, T. Kellner, S. Kueck, J. P. Meyn, P. E.-A. Moebert, and G. Huber, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals III: LaSc3(BO3)4, CaWO4, YLiF4," Appl. Phys. B 68, 67-72 (1999).

L. Fornasiero, S. Kueck, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part II: YVO4, GdVO4, Sr5(PO4)3F," Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998).

S. Kueck, L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, and G. Huber, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part I: Y3Al5O12, YAlO3, and Y2O3," Appl. Phys. B 67, 151-156 (1998).

Heumann, E.

Hoemmerich, U.

U. Hoemmerich, E. Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, "Crystal growth, upconversion, and emission properties of Er3+- and Nd3+- doped KPb2Br5," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postconference Digest Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America,2004).

Huber, G.

K. Rademaker, E. Heumann, S. A. Payne, G. Huber, W. F. Krupke, L. I. Isaenko, and A. Burger, "Laser activity at 1.18, 1.07, and 0.97 µm in the low-phonon-energy hosts KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 doped with Nd3+," Opt. Lett. 30, 729-731 (2005).

K. Rademaker, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, K. Petermann, G. Huber, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Optical properties of Nd3+- and Tb3+-doped KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 with low nonradiative decay," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2117-2129 (2004).

L. Fornasiero, T. Kellner, S. Kueck, J. P. Meyn, P. E.-A. Moebert, and G. Huber, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals III: LaSc3(BO3)4, CaWO4, YLiF4," Appl. Phys. B 68, 67-72 (1999).

L. Fornasiero, S. Kueck, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part II: YVO4, GdVO4, Sr5(PO4)3F," Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998).

S. Kueck, L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, and G. Huber, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part I: Y3Al5O12, YAlO3, and Y2O3," Appl. Phys. B 67, 151-156 (1998).

J. Koetke and G. Huber, "Infrared excited-state absorption and stimulated-emission cross sections of Er3+-doped crystals," Appl. Phys. B 61, 151-158 (1995).

K. Rademaker, K. Petermann, G. Huber, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Slow nonradiative decay for rare earths in KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5," in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004).

Isaenko, L. I.

Jenkins, N. W.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, "Spectroscopic analysis and laser modelling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride," J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).

Jensen, T.

L. Fornasiero, S. Kueck, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part II: YVO4, GdVO4, Sr5(PO4)3F," Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998).

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals, Their Physics and Properties (Springer-Verlag, 1990).

A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, 1996).

Kellner, T.

L. Fornasiero, T. Kellner, S. Kueck, J. P. Meyn, P. E.-A. Moebert, and G. Huber, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals III: LaSc3(BO3)4, CaWO4, YLiF4," Appl. Phys. B 68, 67-72 (1999).

Koetke, J.

J. Koetke and G. Huber, "Infrared excited-state absorption and stimulated-emission cross sections of Er3+-doped crystals," Appl. Phys. B 61, 151-158 (1995).

Krupke, W. F.

Kueck, S.

L. Fornasiero, T. Kellner, S. Kueck, J. P. Meyn, P. E.-A. Moebert, and G. Huber, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals III: LaSc3(BO3)4, CaWO4, YLiF4," Appl. Phys. B 68, 67-72 (1999).

L. Fornasiero, S. Kueck, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part II: YVO4, GdVO4, Sr5(PO4)3F," Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998).

S. Kueck, L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, and G. Huber, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part I: Y3Al5O12, YAlO3, and Y2O3," Appl. Phys. B 67, 151-156 (1998).

Lindle, J. R.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, "Spectroscopic analysis and laser modelling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride," J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).

Mandal, K. C.

K. Rademaker, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, K. Petermann, G. Huber, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Optical properties of Nd3+- and Tb3+-doped KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 with low nonradiative decay," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2117-2129 (2004).

K. Rademaker, K. Petermann, G. Huber, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Slow nonradiative decay for rare earths in KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5," in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004).

Meyn, J. P.

L. Fornasiero, T. Kellner, S. Kueck, J. P. Meyn, P. E.-A. Moebert, and G. Huber, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals III: LaSc3(BO3)4, CaWO4, YLiF4," Appl. Phys. B 68, 67-72 (1999).

Mix, E.

S. Kueck, L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, and G. Huber, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part I: Y3Al5O12, YAlO3, and Y2O3," Appl. Phys. B 67, 151-156 (1998).

Moebert, P. E.-A.

L. Fornasiero, T. Kellner, S. Kueck, J. P. Meyn, P. E.-A. Moebert, and G. Huber, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals III: LaSc3(BO3)4, CaWO4, YLiF4," Appl. Phys. B 68, 67-72 (1999).

Nitsch, K.

K. Rademaker, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, K. Petermann, G. Huber, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Optical properties of Nd3+- and Tb3+-doped KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 with low nonradiative decay," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2117-2129 (2004).

K. Rademaker, K. Petermann, G. Huber, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Slow nonradiative decay for rare earths in KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5," in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004).

Nostrand, M.

M. Nostrand, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (personal communication, 2003).

Nostrand, M. C.

Nyein, E.

U. Hoemmerich, E. Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, "Crystal growth, upconversion, and emission properties of Er3+- and Nd3+- doped KPb2Br5," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postconference Digest Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America,2004).

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).

Page, R. H.

K. Rademaker, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, K. Petermann, G. Huber, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Optical properties of Nd3+- and Tb3+-doped KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 with low nonradiative decay," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2117-2129 (2004).

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, "Optical properties of Dy3+- and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264-276 (2001).

K. Rademaker, K. Petermann, G. Huber, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Slow nonradiative decay for rare earths in KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5," in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004).

Payne, S. A.

Petermann, K.

K. Rademaker, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, K. Petermann, G. Huber, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Optical properties of Nd3+- and Tb3+-doped KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 with low nonradiative decay," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2117-2129 (2004).

K. Rademaker, K. Petermann, G. Huber, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Slow nonradiative decay for rare earths in KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5," in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004).

Rademaker, K.

K. Rademaker, E. Heumann, S. A. Payne, G. Huber, W. F. Krupke, L. I. Isaenko, and A. Burger, "Laser activity at 1.18, 1.07, and 0.97 µm in the low-phonon-energy hosts KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 doped with Nd3+," Opt. Lett. 30, 729-731 (2005).

K. Rademaker, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, K. Petermann, G. Huber, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Optical properties of Nd3+- and Tb3+-doped KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 with low nonradiative decay," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2117-2129 (2004).

K. Rademaker, K. Petermann, G. Huber, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Slow nonradiative decay for rare earths in KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5," in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004).

K. Rademaker is preparing a manuscript titled "Rare-earth-doped alkali-lead--halide laser crystals of low-phonon energy."

Roy, U. N.

K. Rademaker, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, K. Petermann, G. Huber, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Optical properties of Nd3+- and Tb3+-doped KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 with low nonradiative decay," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2117-2129 (2004).

K. Rademaker, K. Petermann, G. Huber, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Slow nonradiative decay for rare earths in KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5," in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004).

Shaw, L. B.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, "Spectroscopic analysis and laser modelling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride," J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).

Trivedi, S. B.

U. Hoemmerich, E. Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, "Crystal growth, upconversion, and emission properties of Er3+- and Nd3+- doped KPb2Br5," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postconference Digest Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America,2004).

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, "Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3," Phys. Rev. 157, 262-272 (1967).

Wybourne, B. G.

B. G. Wybourne, "Composition of the electronic states of Nd(IV) and Er(IV)," J. Chem. Phys. 34, 279-281 (1961).

Yelisseyev, A. P.

K. Rademaker, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, K. Petermann, G. Huber, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Optical properties of Nd3+- and Tb3+-doped KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 with low nonradiative decay," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2117-2129 (2004).

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. I. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, "Optical properties of Dy3+- and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264-276 (2001).

K. Rademaker, K. Petermann, G. Huber, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Slow nonradiative decay for rare earths in KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5," in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004).

Appl. Phys. B (4)

S. Kueck, L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, and G. Huber, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part I: Y3Al5O12, YAlO3, and Y2O3," Appl. Phys. B 67, 151-156 (1998).

L. Fornasiero, S. Kueck, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part II: YVO4, GdVO4, Sr5(PO4)3F," Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998).

L. Fornasiero, T. Kellner, S. Kueck, J. P. Meyn, P. E.-A. Moebert, and G. Huber, "Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals III: LaSc3(BO3)4, CaWO4, YLiF4," Appl. Phys. B 68, 67-72 (1999).

J. Koetke and G. Huber, "Infrared excited-state absorption and stimulated-emission cross sections of Er3+-doped crystals," Appl. Phys. B 61, 151-158 (1995).

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

B. G. Wybourne, "Composition of the electronic states of Nd(IV) and Er(IV)," J. Chem. Phys. 34, 279-281 (1961).

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).

J. Lumin. (1)

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, "Spectroscopic analysis and laser modelling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride," J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (2)

M. J. Weber, "Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3," Phys. Rev. 157, 262-272 (1967).

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).

Other (6)

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals, Their Physics and Properties (Springer-Verlag, 1990).

U. Hoemmerich, E. Nyein, and S. B. Trivedi, "Crystal growth, upconversion, and emission properties of Er3+- and Nd3+- doped KPb2Br5," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postconference Digest Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America,2004).

M. Nostrand, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (personal communication, 2003).

K. Rademaker is preparing a manuscript titled "Rare-earth-doped alkali-lead--halide laser crystals of low-phonon energy."

K. Rademaker, K. Petermann, G. Huber, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, K. C. Mandal, and K. Nitsch, "Slow nonradiative decay for rare earths in KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5," in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, Vol. 94 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004).

A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, 1996).

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