Abstract

Yb3+Er3+-codoped chloride-modified germanate–bismuth–lead glasses have been synthesized by the conventional melting and quenching method. Structural and thermal stability properties have been obtained on the basis of the Raman spectra and differential thermal analysis, which indicate that the PbCl2 addition has an important influence on the phonon density of states, maximum phonon energy, and thermal stability of host glasses. The Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters and quantum efficiencies were calculated on the basis of the Judd–Ofelt theory and lifetime measurements. For the 1.53μm emission band, the full widths at the half-maximum increase and peak wavelengths are blueshifted with increasing PbCl2 content. Moreover, the effect of the PbCl2 addition on the phonon density of states, OH content, and upconversion luminescence has been discussed and evaluated. Our results reveal that, with increasing PbCl2 content, the decrease of phonon density and OH content contributes more to the enhanced upconversion emissions than that of maximum phonon energy.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. T. Sun, S. Q. Xu, S. X. Dai, J. J. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion emission of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped natrium-barium-strontiam-lead- bismuth glasses," Solid State Commun. 132, 193-196 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. T. Sun, S. X. Dai, S. Q. Xu, L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Frequency upconversion emission of Er3+-doped strontium-lead-bismuth glasses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 2292-2294 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Q. Xu, J. J. Zhang, and G. N. Wang, "Blue upconversion luminescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped lead chloride tellurite glass," Chin. Phys. Lett. 2, 106-109 (2004).
  4. F. Auzel, K. E. Lipinska-Kalita, and P. Santa Cruz, "A new Er3+-doped vitreous fluoride amplification medium with crystal-like cross-sections and reduced inhomogeneous line width," Opt. Mater. 5, 75-78 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. T. Sun, D. B. Zhang, S. Q. Xu, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Physical properties of novel lead-bismuthate glasses with large transmitting windows," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1759-1761 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. D. Huang, M. Mortier, and F. Auzel, "Stark levels analysis for Er3+-doped oxide glasses: germanate and silicate," Opt. Mater. 15, 243-260 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Yamada and K. Kojima, "Upconversion fluorescence in Er3+-doped Na2O-GeO2 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 57-62 (1999).
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  10. L. Dong, W. H. Loh, and J. E. Caplen, "Efficient single-frequency fiber lasers with novel photosensitive ErYb optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 20, 337-339 (1995).
  11. Z. M. Yang, S. Q. Xu, L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Thermal analysis and optical properties of Yb3+/Er3+-codoped oxyfluoride germanate glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 951-957 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. T. Sun, L. Y. Zhang, S. L. Zhao, J. J. Zhang, C. L. Yu, D. B. He, Z. C. Duan, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Structural and upconversion fluorescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped oxychloride lead-germanium-bismuth glass," Solid State Commun. 133, 357-361 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Q. Xu, Z. M. Yang, and G. N. Wang, "Effects of chloride introduction on upconversion luminescence in Tm3+ doped tellurite glasses," Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 60, 3025-3028 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Chen, X. Kong, S. Ye, and W. Qin, "Upconversion analysis in Tm3+-doped PWG glass," Chin. J. Lumin. 20, 1-4 (1999).
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  17. H. Verweij and J. Buster, "The structure of lithium, sodium and potassium germanate glasses, studied by Raman scattering," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 81-99 (1979).
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  18. K. E. Lipinska-Kalita, "FT infrared and laser Raman spectroscopy of amorphous and crystalline germanates," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 41-48 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Ohtsuka, "Raman spectra of binary tellurite glasses containing tri- or tetra-valent cations," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191, 115-123 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Burger, K. Kneipp, and H. Hobert, "Glass formation, properties and structure of glasses in the TeO2-ZnO system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 151, 134-142 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. A. Kharlamov, R. M. Almeida, and J. Heo, "Vibrational spectra and structure of heavy metal oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 202, 233-240 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. G. Hwa, Y. R. Chang, and W. C. Chao, "Infrared spectra of lanthanum gallogermanate glasses," Mater. Chem. Phys. 85, 158-162 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, and K. B. Lyons, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. Baia, T. Iliescu, S. Simon, and W. Kiefer, "Raman and IR spectroscopic studies of manganese doped GeO2-Bi2O3 glasses," J. Mol. Struct. 599, 9-13 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. Baia, R. Stefan, and J. Popp, "Vibrational spectroscopy of highly iron doped B2O3-Bi2O3 glass systems," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 109-117 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. J. Weber, "Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3," Phys. Rev. 171, 283-291 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. J. Weber, "Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3," J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4774-4780 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. R. Jacobs and M. J. Weber, "Dependence of the F3/24-I11/24 induced-emission cross section for Nd3+ on glass composition," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 102-111 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Heo, Y. B. Shin, and J. N. Jang, "Spectroscopic analysis of Tm3+ in PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 glass," Appl. Opt. 34, 4284-4289 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Compositional dependence of Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305-3310 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  31. H. T. Sun, S. X. Dai, and D. B. Zhang, "Optical transitions and frequency upconversion emission of Er3+ ions in novel lead-bismuthate glass," Physica B 353, 248-254 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. Reisfeld and Y. Eckstein, "Radiative and non-radiative transition probabilities and quantum yields for excited states of Er3+ in germanate and tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 15, 125-140 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, and M. G. Drexhage, "Optical transition of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635-6648 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. A. Capobianco, G. Prevost, and P. P. Proulx, "Upconversion properties of Er3+ doped lead silicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 6, 175-184 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. Reisfeld, G. Katz, and N. Spector, "The comparison of calculated transition probabilities with luminescence characteristics of erbium(III) in fluoride glasses and in the mixed yttrium-zirconium oxide crystal," J. Solid State Chem. 41, 253-261 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, K. Gatterer, and H. P. Fritzer, "Optical properties of rare-earth ions in lead germanate glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2045-2052 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  37. A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, "Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215-6227 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  38. M. Mortier, Y. D. Huang, and F. Auzel, "Crystal field analysis of Er3+-doped glasses: germanate silicate and ZBLAN," J. Alloys Compd. 300-301, 407-413 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  39. Y. G. Choi and J. Heo, "1.3 µm emission and multiphonon relaxation phenomena in PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 glasses doped with rare-earths," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217, 199-207 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  40. M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, and T. R. Gosnell, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 56, 9302-9315 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  41. J. M. F. van Dijk and M. F. H. Schuurmans, "On the nonradiative and radiative decay rates and a modified exponential energy gap law for 4f-4f transitions in rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5317-5323 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  42. T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, "Phonon sidebands, multiphonon relaxation of excited states, and phonon-assisted energy transfer between ions in solids," Phys. Rev. B 1, 2961-2969 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  43. C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, "Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 16, 10-20 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  44. L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, "Multiphonon orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals," Phys. Rev. 174, 429-438 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  45. Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, and K. Dyer, "Host-dependent optical transitions of Er3+ ions in lead-germanate and lead-tellurium-germanate glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 8906-8913 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  46. W. S. Tsang, W. M. Yu, and C. L. Mak, "Evidence of the influence of phonon density on Tm3+ upconversion luminescence in tellurite and germanate glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1871-1874 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  47. K. Kobayashi, "Development of infrared transmitting glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 403-406 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  48. M. V. D. Vermelho, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, and H. T. Amorim, "Temperature investigation of infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in erbium-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1540 nm," J. Lumin. 102-103, 755-761 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (9)

H. T. Sun, S. Q. Xu, S. X. Dai, J. J. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion emission of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped natrium-barium-strontiam-lead- bismuth glasses," Solid State Commun. 132, 193-196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, S. X. Dai, S. Q. Xu, L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Frequency upconversion emission of Er3+-doped strontium-lead-bismuth glasses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 2292-2294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xu, J. J. Zhang, and G. N. Wang, "Blue upconversion luminescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped lead chloride tellurite glass," Chin. Phys. Lett. 2, 106-109 (2004).

H. T. Sun, D. B. Zhang, S. Q. Xu, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Physical properties of novel lead-bismuthate glasses with large transmitting windows," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1759-1761 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Yang, S. Q. Xu, L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Thermal analysis and optical properties of Yb3+/Er3+-codoped oxyfluoride germanate glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 951-957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, L. Y. Zhang, S. L. Zhao, J. J. Zhang, C. L. Yu, D. B. He, Z. C. Duan, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Structural and upconversion fluorescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped oxychloride lead-germanium-bismuth glass," Solid State Commun. 133, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xu, Z. M. Yang, and G. N. Wang, "Effects of chloride introduction on upconversion luminescence in Tm3+ doped tellurite glasses," Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 60, 3025-3028 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Hwa, Y. R. Chang, and W. C. Chao, "Infrared spectra of lanthanum gallogermanate glasses," Mater. Chem. Phys. 85, 158-162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, S. X. Dai, and D. B. Zhang, "Optical transitions and frequency upconversion emission of Er3+ ions in novel lead-bismuthate glass," Physica B 353, 248-254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

L. Baia, R. Stefan, and J. Popp, "Vibrational spectroscopy of highly iron doped B2O3-Bi2O3 glass systems," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 109-117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Kobayashi, "Development of infrared transmitting glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316, 403-406 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. V. D. Vermelho, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, and H. T. Amorim, "Temperature investigation of infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in erbium-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1540 nm," J. Lumin. 102-103, 755-761 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

W. S. Tsang, W. M. Yu, and C. L. Mak, "Evidence of the influence of phonon density on Tm3+ upconversion luminescence in tellurite and germanate glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1871-1874 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

L. Baia, T. Iliescu, S. Simon, and W. Kiefer, "Raman and IR spectroscopic studies of manganese doped GeO2-Bi2O3 glasses," J. Mol. Struct. 599, 9-13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Huang, M. Mortier, and F. Auzel, "Stark levels analysis for Er3+-doped oxide glasses: germanate and silicate," Opt. Mater. 15, 243-260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, "Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215-6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Mortier, Y. D. Huang, and F. Auzel, "Crystal field analysis of Er3+-doped glasses: germanate silicate and ZBLAN," J. Alloys Compd. 300-301, 407-413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. Yamada and K. Kojima, "Upconversion fluorescence in Er3+-doped Na2O-GeO2 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 57-62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, K. Gatterer, and H. P. Fritzer, "Optical properties of rare-earth ions in lead germanate glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2045-2052 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Y. G. Choi and J. Heo, "1.3 µm emission and multiphonon relaxation phenomena in PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 glasses doped with rare-earths," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217, 199-207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, and T. R. Gosnell, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 56, 9302-9315 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, and K. Dyer, "Host-dependent optical transitions of Er3+ ions in lead-germanate and lead-tellurium-germanate glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 8906-8913 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Capobianco, G. Prevost, and P. P. Proulx, "Upconversion properties of Er3+ doped lead silicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 6, 175-184 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kharlamov, R. M. Almeida, and J. Heo, "Vibrational spectra and structure of heavy metal oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 202, 233-240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, K. E. Lipinska-Kalita, and P. Santa Cruz, "A new Er3+-doped vitreous fluoride amplification medium with crystal-like cross-sections and reduced inhomogeneous line width," Opt. Mater. 5, 75-78 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

L. Dong, W. H. Loh, and J. E. Caplen, "Efficient single-frequency fiber lasers with novel photosensitive ErYb optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 20, 337-339 (1995).

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Ohtsuka, "Raman spectra of binary tellurite glasses containing tri- or tetra-valent cations," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191, 115-123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Heo, Y. B. Shin, and J. N. Jang, "Spectroscopic analysis of Tm3+ in PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 glass," Appl. Opt. 34, 4284-4289 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

Z. Pan, D. O. Henderson, and S. H. Morgan, "A Raman investigation of lead haloborate glasses," J. Chem. Phys. 101, 1767-1774 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, D. O. Henderson, and S. H. Morgan, "Vibrational spectra of bismuth silicate glasses and hydrogen-induced reduction effects," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 171, 134-140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

H. Burger, K. Kneipp, and H. Hobert, "Glass formation, properties and structure of glasses in the TeO2-ZnO system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 151, 134-142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hutchinson and T. H. Allik, "Diode array-pumped Er, Yb: phosphate glass laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1424-1426 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Compositional dependence of Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305-3310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

K. E. Lipinska-Kalita, "FT infrared and laser Raman spectroscopy of amorphous and crystalline germanates," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 119, 41-48 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, and K. B. Lyons, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, and M. G. Drexhage, "Optical transition of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635-6648 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. M. F. van Dijk and M. F. H. Schuurmans, "On the nonradiative and radiative decay rates and a modified exponential energy gap law for 4f-4f transitions in rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5317-5323 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. Reisfeld, G. Katz, and N. Spector, "The comparison of calculated transition probabilities with luminescence characteristics of erbium(III) in fluoride glasses and in the mixed yttrium-zirconium oxide crystal," J. Solid State Chem. 41, 253-261 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

H. Verweij and J. Buster, "The structure of lithium, sodium and potassium germanate glasses, studied by Raman scattering," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 81-99 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, "Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 16, 10-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. R. Jacobs and M. J. Weber, "Dependence of the F3/24-I11/24 induced-emission cross section for Nd3+ on glass composition," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 102-111 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

R. Reisfeld and Y. Eckstein, "Radiative and non-radiative transition probabilities and quantum yields for excited states of Er3+ in germanate and tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 15, 125-140 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, "Phonon sidebands, multiphonon relaxation of excited states, and phonon-assisted energy transfer between ions in solids," Phys. Rev. B 1, 2961-2969 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (3)

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, "Multiphonon orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals," Phys. Rev. 174, 429-438 (1968).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, "Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3," Phys. Rev. 171, 283-291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, "Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3," J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4774-4780 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Allik, T. H.

J. A. Hutchinson and T. H. Allik, "Diode array-pumped Er, Yb: phosphate glass laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1424-1426 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, R. M.

A. A. Kharlamov, R. M. Almeida, and J. Heo, "Vibrational spectra and structure of heavy metal oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 202, 233-240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Amorim, H. T.

M. V. D. Vermelho, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, and H. T. Amorim, "Temperature investigation of infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in erbium-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1540 nm," J. Lumin. 102-103, 755-761 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

Y. D. Huang, M. Mortier, and F. Auzel, "Stark levels analysis for Er3+-doped oxide glasses: germanate and silicate," Opt. Mater. 15, 243-260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Mortier, Y. D. Huang, and F. Auzel, "Crystal field analysis of Er3+-doped glasses: germanate silicate and ZBLAN," J. Alloys Compd. 300-301, 407-413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, K. E. Lipinska-Kalita, and P. Santa Cruz, "A new Er3+-doped vitreous fluoride amplification medium with crystal-like cross-sections and reduced inhomogeneous line width," Opt. Mater. 5, 75-78 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baia, L.

L. Baia, R. Stefan, and J. Popp, "Vibrational spectroscopy of highly iron doped B2O3-Bi2O3 glass systems," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 109-117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Baia, T. Iliescu, S. Simon, and W. Kiefer, "Raman and IR spectroscopic studies of manganese doped GeO2-Bi2O3 glasses," J. Mol. Struct. 599, 9-13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burger, H.

H. Burger, K. Kneipp, and H. Hobert, "Glass formation, properties and structure of glasses in the TeO2-ZnO system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 151, 134-142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Buster, J.

H. Verweij and J. Buster, "The structure of lithium, sodium and potassium germanate glasses, studied by Raman scattering," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 81-99 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Caplen, J. E.

L. Dong, W. H. Loh, and J. E. Caplen, "Efficient single-frequency fiber lasers with novel photosensitive ErYb optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 20, 337-339 (1995).

Capobianco, J. A.

J. A. Capobianco, G. Prevost, and P. P. Proulx, "Upconversion properties of Er3+ doped lead silicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 6, 175-184 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. R.

L. G. Hwa, Y. R. Chang, and W. C. Chao, "Infrared spectra of lanthanum gallogermanate glasses," Mater. Chem. Phys. 85, 158-162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W. C.

L. G. Hwa, Y. R. Chang, and W. C. Chao, "Infrared spectra of lanthanum gallogermanate glasses," Mater. Chem. Phys. 85, 158-162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

B. Chen, X. Kong, S. Ye, and W. Qin, "Upconversion analysis in Tm3+-doped PWG glass," Chin. J. Lumin. 20, 1-4 (1999).

Choi, Y. G.

Y. G. Choi and J. Heo, "1.3 µm emission and multiphonon relaxation phenomena in PbO-Bi2O3-Ga2O3 glasses doped with rare-earths," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 217, 199-207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cockroft, N. J.

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, and T. R. Gosnell, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 56, 9302-9315 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dai, S. X.

H. T. Sun, S. X. Dai, and D. B. Zhang, "Optical transitions and frequency upconversion emission of Er3+ ions in novel lead-bismuthate glass," Physica B 353, 248-254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, S. Q. Xu, S. X. Dai, J. J. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion emission of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped natrium-barium-strontiam-lead- bismuth glasses," Solid State Commun. 132, 193-196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, S. X. Dai, S. Q. Xu, L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Frequency upconversion emission of Er3+-doped strontium-lead-bismuth glasses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 2292-2294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, D. B. Zhang, S. Q. Xu, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Physical properties of novel lead-bismuthate glasses with large transmitting windows," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1759-1761 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Silvestri, S.

Dexter, D. L.

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M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, and M. G. Drexhage, "Optical transition of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635-6648 (1983).
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H. T. Sun, L. Y. Zhang, S. L. Zhao, J. J. Zhang, C. L. Yu, D. B. He, Z. C. Duan, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Structural and upconversion fluorescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped oxychloride lead-germanium-bismuth glass," Solid State Commun. 133, 357-361 (2004).
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Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, and K. Dyer, "Host-dependent optical transitions of Er3+ ions in lead-germanate and lead-tellurium-germanate glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 8906-8913 (1996).
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R. Reisfeld and Y. Eckstein, "Radiative and non-radiative transition probabilities and quantum yields for excited states of Er3+ in germanate and tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 15, 125-140 (1974).
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M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, K. Gatterer, and H. P. Fritzer, "Optical properties of rare-earth ions in lead germanate glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2045-2052 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, K. Gatterer, and H. P. Fritzer, "Optical properties of rare-earth ions in lead germanate glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2045-2052 (1999).
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M. V. D. Vermelho, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, and H. T. Amorim, "Temperature investigation of infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in erbium-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1540 nm," J. Lumin. 102-103, 755-761 (2003).
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S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Compositional dependence of Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305-3310 (1992).
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H. T. Sun, L. Y. Zhang, S. L. Zhao, J. J. Zhang, C. L. Yu, D. B. He, Z. C. Duan, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Structural and upconversion fluorescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped oxychloride lead-germanium-bismuth glass," Solid State Commun. 133, 357-361 (2004).
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M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, and T. R. Gosnell, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 56, 9302-9315 (1997).
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H. T. Sun, S. X. Dai, S. Q. Xu, L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Frequency upconversion emission of Er3+-doped strontium-lead-bismuth glasses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 2292-2294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Yang, S. Q. Xu, L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Thermal analysis and optical properties of Yb3+/Er3+-codoped oxyfluoride germanate glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 951-957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L. L.

H. T. Sun, S. Q. Xu, S. X. Dai, J. J. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion emission of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped natrium-barium-strontiam-lead- bismuth glasses," Solid State Commun. 132, 193-196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, L. Y. Zhang, S. L. Zhao, J. J. Zhang, C. L. Yu, D. B. He, Z. C. Duan, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Structural and upconversion fluorescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped oxychloride lead-germanium-bismuth glass," Solid State Commun. 133, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, D. B. Zhang, S. Q. Xu, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Physical properties of novel lead-bismuthate glasses with large transmitting windows," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1759-1761 (2004).
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Y. D. Huang, M. Mortier, and F. Auzel, "Stark levels analysis for Er3+-doped oxide glasses: germanate and silicate," Opt. Mater. 15, 243-260 (2001).
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M. Mortier, Y. D. Huang, and F. Auzel, "Crystal field analysis of Er3+-doped glasses: germanate silicate and ZBLAN," J. Alloys Compd. 300-301, 407-413 (2000).
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L. Baia, T. Iliescu, S. Simon, and W. Kiefer, "Raman and IR spectroscopic studies of manganese doped GeO2-Bi2O3 glasses," J. Mol. Struct. 599, 9-13 (2001).
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R. R. Jacobs and M. J. Weber, "Dependence of the F3/24-I11/24 induced-emission cross section for Nd3+ on glass composition," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 102-111 (1976).
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Jang, J. N.

Jha, A.

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, "Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215-6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z. H.

Z. M. Yang, S. Q. Xu, L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Thermal analysis and optical properties of Yb3+/Er3+-codoped oxyfluoride germanate glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 951-957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, D. B. Zhang, S. Q. Xu, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Physical properties of novel lead-bismuthate glasses with large transmitting windows," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1759-1761 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, L. Y. Zhang, S. L. Zhao, J. J. Zhang, C. L. Yu, D. B. He, Z. C. Duan, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Structural and upconversion fluorescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped oxychloride lead-germanium-bismuth glass," Solid State Commun. 133, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, S. Q. Xu, S. X. Dai, J. J. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion emission of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped natrium-barium-strontiam-lead- bismuth glasses," Solid State Commun. 132, 193-196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, S. X. Dai, S. Q. Xu, L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Frequency upconversion emission of Er3+-doped strontium-lead-bismuth glasses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 2292-2294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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R. Reisfeld, G. Katz, and N. Spector, "The comparison of calculated transition probabilities with luminescence characteristics of erbium(III) in fluoride glasses and in the mixed yttrium-zirconium oxide crystal," J. Solid State Chem. 41, 253-261 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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A. A. Kharlamov, R. M. Almeida, and J. Heo, "Vibrational spectra and structure of heavy metal oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 202, 233-240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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L. Baia, T. Iliescu, S. Simon, and W. Kiefer, "Raman and IR spectroscopic studies of manganese doped GeO2-Bi2O3 glasses," J. Mol. Struct. 599, 9-13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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H. Burger, K. Kneipp, and H. Hobert, "Glass formation, properties and structure of glasses in the TeO2-ZnO system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 151, 134-142 (1992).
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H. Yamada and K. Kojima, "Upconversion fluorescence in Er3+-doped Na2O-GeO2 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 57-62 (1999).
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B. Chen, X. Kong, S. Ye, and W. Qin, "Upconversion analysis in Tm3+-doped PWG glass," Chin. J. Lumin. 20, 1-4 (1999).

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Layne, C. B.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, "Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 16, 10-20 (1977).
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F. Auzel, K. E. Lipinska-Kalita, and P. Santa Cruz, "A new Er3+-doped vitreous fluoride amplification medium with crystal-like cross-sections and reduced inhomogeneous line width," Opt. Mater. 5, 75-78 (1996).
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L. Dong, W. H. Loh, and J. E. Caplen, "Efficient single-frequency fiber lasers with novel photosensitive ErYb optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 20, 337-339 (1995).

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C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, "Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 16, 10-20 (1977).
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A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, and K. B. Lyons, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
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Magni, V.

Mak, C. L.

W. S. Tsang, W. M. Yu, and C. L. Mak, "Evidence of the influence of phonon density on Tm3+ upconversion luminescence in tellurite and germanate glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1871-1874 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A. E.

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, and K. B. Lyons, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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T. Miyakawa and D. L. Dexter, "Phonon sidebands, multiphonon relaxation of excited states, and phonon-assisted energy transfer between ions in solids," Phys. Rev. B 1, 2961-2969 (1970).
[CrossRef]

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T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Ohtsuka, "Raman spectra of binary tellurite glasses containing tri- or tetra-valent cations," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191, 115-123 (1995).
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L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, "Multiphonon orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals," Phys. Rev. 174, 429-438 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, and K. Dyer, "Host-dependent optical transitions of Er3+ ions in lead-germanate and lead-tellurium-germanate glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 8906-8913 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, D. O. Henderson, and S. H. Morgan, "Vibrational spectra of bismuth silicate glasses and hydrogen-induced reduction effects," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 171, 134-140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, D. O. Henderson, and S. H. Morgan, "A Raman investigation of lead haloborate glasses," J. Chem. Phys. 101, 1767-1774 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mortier, M.

Y. D. Huang, M. Mortier, and F. Auzel, "Stark levels analysis for Er3+-doped oxide glasses: germanate and silicate," Opt. Mater. 15, 243-260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Mortier, Y. D. Huang, and F. Auzel, "Crystal field analysis of Er3+-doped glasses: germanate silicate and ZBLAN," J. Alloys Compd. 300-301, 407-413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Naftaly, M.

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, "Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215-6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nassau, K.

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, and K. B. Lyons, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, A.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Ohtsuka, "Raman spectra of binary tellurite glasses containing tri- or tetra-valent cations," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191, 115-123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohyagi, T.

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Compositional dependence of Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305-3310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, S. H. Morgan, and K. Dyer, "Host-dependent optical transitions of Er3+ ions in lead-germanate and lead-tellurium-germanate glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 8906-8913 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, D. O. Henderson, and S. H. Morgan, "Vibrational spectra of bismuth silicate glasses and hydrogen-induced reduction effects," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 171, 134-140 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, D. O. Henderson, and S. H. Morgan, "A Raman investigation of lead haloborate glasses," J. Chem. Phys. 101, 1767-1774 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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L. Baia, R. Stefan, and J. Popp, "Vibrational spectroscopy of highly iron doped B2O3-Bi2O3 glass systems," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 109-117 (2003).
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J. A. Capobianco, G. Prevost, and P. P. Proulx, "Upconversion properties of Er3+ doped lead silicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 6, 175-184 (1996).
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J. A. Capobianco, G. Prevost, and P. P. Proulx, "Upconversion properties of Er3+ doped lead silicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 6, 175-184 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Qin, W.

B. Chen, X. Kong, S. Ye, and W. Qin, "Upconversion analysis in Tm3+-doped PWG glass," Chin. J. Lumin. 20, 1-4 (1999).

Reisfeld, R.

R. Reisfeld, G. Katz, and N. Spector, "The comparison of calculated transition probabilities with luminescence characteristics of erbium(III) in fluoride glasses and in the mixed yttrium-zirconium oxide crystal," J. Solid State Chem. 41, 253-261 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld and Y. Eckstein, "Radiative and non-radiative transition probabilities and quantum yields for excited states of Er3+ in germanate and tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 15, 125-140 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Riseberg, L. A.

L. A. Riseberg and H. W. Moos, "Multiphonon orbit-lattice relaxation of excited states of rare-earth ions in crystals," Phys. Rev. 174, 429-438 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Santa Cruz, P.

F. Auzel, K. E. Lipinska-Kalita, and P. Santa Cruz, "A new Er3+-doped vitreous fluoride amplification medium with crystal-like cross-sections and reduced inhomogeneous line width," Opt. Mater. 5, 75-78 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schuurmans, M. F.

J. M. F. van Dijk and M. F. H. Schuurmans, "On the nonradiative and radiative decay rates and a modified exponential energy gap law for 4f-4f transitions in rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5317-5323 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sekiya, T.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Ohtsuka, "Raman spectra of binary tellurite glasses containing tri- or tetra-valent cations," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191, 115-123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M. Naftaly, "Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5-µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215-6227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shin, Y. B.

Shinn, M. D.

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, and M. G. Drexhage, "Optical transition of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635-6648 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sibley, W. A.

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, and M. G. Drexhage, "Optical transition of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635-6648 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Simon, S.

L. Baia, T. Iliescu, S. Simon, and W. Kiefer, "Raman and IR spectroscopic studies of manganese doped GeO2-Bi2O3 glasses," J. Mol. Struct. 599, 9-13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soga, N.

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Compositional dependence of Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305-3310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spector, N.

R. Reisfeld, G. Katz, and N. Spector, "The comparison of calculated transition probabilities with luminescence characteristics of erbium(III) in fluoride glasses and in the mixed yttrium-zirconium oxide crystal," J. Solid State Chem. 41, 253-261 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Speghini, A.

M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, K. Gatterer, and H. P. Fritzer, "Optical properties of rare-earth ions in lead germanate glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2045-2052 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stefan, R.

L. Baia, R. Stefan, and J. Popp, "Vibrational spectroscopy of highly iron doped B2O3-Bi2O3 glass systems," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 109-117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. T.

H. T. Sun, D. B. Zhang, S. Q. Xu, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Physical properties of novel lead-bismuthate glasses with large transmitting windows," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1759-1761 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, S. X. Dai, S. Q. Xu, L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Frequency upconversion emission of Er3+-doped strontium-lead-bismuth glasses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 2292-2294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, S. Q. Xu, S. X. Dai, J. J. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion emission of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped natrium-barium-strontiam-lead- bismuth glasses," Solid State Commun. 132, 193-196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, L. Y. Zhang, S. L. Zhao, J. J. Zhang, C. L. Yu, D. B. He, Z. C. Duan, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Structural and upconversion fluorescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped oxychloride lead-germanium-bismuth glass," Solid State Commun. 133, 357-361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, S. X. Dai, and D. B. Zhang, "Optical transitions and frequency upconversion emission of Er3+ ions in novel lead-bismuthate glass," Physica B 353, 248-254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

Tanabe, S.

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, "Compositional dependence of Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 46, 3305-3310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, W. S.

W. S. Tsang, W. M. Yu, and C. L. Mak, "Evidence of the influence of phonon density on Tm3+ upconversion luminescence in tellurite and germanate glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 1871-1874 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Dijk, J. M.

J. M. F. van Dijk and M. F. H. Schuurmans, "On the nonradiative and radiative decay rates and a modified exponential energy gap law for 4f-4f transitions in rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5317-5323 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Vermelho, M. V.

M. V. D. Vermelho, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, and H. T. Amorim, "Temperature investigation of infrared-to-visible frequency upconversion in erbium-doped tellurite glasses excited at 1540 nm," J. Lumin. 102-103, 755-761 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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H. Verweij and J. Buster, "The structure of lithium, sodium and potassium germanate glasses, studied by Raman scattering," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 81-99 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wachtler, M.

M. Wachtler, A. Speghini, K. Gatterer, and H. P. Fritzer, "Optical properties of rare-earth ions in lead germanate glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81, 2045-2052 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. N.

S. Q. Xu, Z. M. Yang, and G. N. Wang, "Effects of chloride introduction on upconversion luminescence in Tm3+ doped tellurite glasses," Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 60, 3025-3028 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xu, J. J. Zhang, and G. N. Wang, "Blue upconversion luminescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped lead chloride tellurite glass," Chin. Phys. Lett. 2, 106-109 (2004).

Weber, M. J.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. J. Weber, "Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses," Phys. Rev. B 16, 10-20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Jacobs and M. J. Weber, "Dependence of the F3/24-I11/24 induced-emission cross section for Nd3+ on glass composition," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 102-111 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, "Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3," Phys. Rev. 171, 283-291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, "Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3," J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4774-4780 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S. Q.

Z. M. Yang, S. Q. Xu, L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Thermal analysis and optical properties of Yb3+/Er3+-codoped oxyfluoride germanate glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 951-957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, D. B. Zhang, S. Q. Xu, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Physical properties of novel lead-bismuthate glasses with large transmitting windows," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 1759-1761 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xu, Z. M. Yang, and G. N. Wang, "Effects of chloride introduction on upconversion luminescence in Tm3+ doped tellurite glasses," Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 60, 3025-3028 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, S. Q. Xu, S. X. Dai, J. J. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion emission of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped natrium-barium-strontiam-lead- bismuth glasses," Solid State Commun. 132, 193-196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, S. X. Dai, S. Q. Xu, L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Frequency upconversion emission of Er3+-doped strontium-lead-bismuth glasses," Chin. Phys. Lett. 21, 2292-2294 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Xu, J. J. Zhang, and G. N. Wang, "Blue upconversion luminescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped lead chloride tellurite glass," Chin. Phys. Lett. 2, 106-109 (2004).

Yamada, H.

H. Yamada and K. Kojima, "Upconversion fluorescence in Er3+-doped Na2O-GeO2 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 259, 57-62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. M.

S. Q. Xu, Z. M. Yang, and G. N. Wang, "Effects of chloride introduction on upconversion luminescence in Tm3+ doped tellurite glasses," Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 60, 3025-3028 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. M. Yang, S. Q. Xu, L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Thermal analysis and optical properties of Yb3+/Er3+-codoped oxyfluoride germanate glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 951-957 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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H. T. Sun, S. Q. Xu, S. X. Dai, J. J. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion emission of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped natrium-barium-strontiam-lead- bismuth glasses," Solid State Commun. 132, 193-196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, L. Y. Zhang, S. L. Zhao, J. J. Zhang, C. L. Yu, D. B. He, Z. C. Duan, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, "Structural and upconversion fluorescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped oxychloride lead-germanium-bismuth glass," Solid State Commun. 133, 357-361 (2004).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Peak deconvolution of the FT–Raman spectrum of undoped GB0 glass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FT-Raman spectra of undoped GB0, GB10, GB20, and GB30 glasses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Integrated intensities of Gaussian peaks at around 370, 550, and 750 cm 1 as a function of PbCl 2 content.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption spectra of Yb 3 + Er 3 + -codoped GB0 and GB30 glasses. The inset shows a detailed comparison of the line profiles between GB0 and GB30 glasses corresponding to the absorption of the Er 3 + I 13 2 4 level.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescence spectra of Yb 3 + Er 3 + -codoped GB0, GB10, GB20, and GB30 glasses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FWHM and peak emission wavelength of Er 3 + ions at around 1.53 μ m in Yb 3 + Er 3 + -codoped GB0, GB10, GB20, and GB30 glasses.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Upconversion fluorescence spectra of Yb 3 + Er 3 + -codoped GB0, GB10, GB20, and GB30 glasses under 975 nm LD excitation. The inset shows the integrated intensities as a function of PbCl 2 content.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Infrared transmission spectra of GB0, GB10, GB20, and GB30 glasses.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated OH content in Yb 3 + Er 3 + -codoped GB0, GB10, GB20, and GB30 glasses.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Compositions of the Glasses Prepared in the Present Study

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Table 2 T g , T x , and Δ T Values of GB0, GB10, GB20, and GB30 Glasses

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Table 3 Judd–Ofelt Intensity Parameters of Er 3 + in Various Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 4 Calculated Radiative Lifetimes of the Excited States of Er 3 + in GB0, GB10, GB20, and GB30 Glasses Based on Judd–Ofelt Theory

Tables Icon

Table 5 Calculated Effective Radiative Lifetimes for the S 3 2 4 Level, Measured Luminescence Lifetimes, and Calculated Quantum Efficiencies for Yb 3 + Er 3 + -Codoped GB0, GB10, GB20, and GB30 Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 6 Calculated Multiphonon Relaxation Rates and Relative Multiphonon Relaxation Rates Based on Eqs. (5, 6)

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

B 0 ( x Λ ) 2 cos 2 ( θ 2 ) d 2 m A V ω 0 ,
B 0 d 4 Λ 2 Z A 10 3 Z C 2 3 cos 2 ( θ 2 ) m A ω 0 .
τ eff = 3 exp ( Δ E k T ) + 1 3 A ( H 11 2 2 ) exp ( Δ E k T ) + A ( S 3 2 4 ) .
η q = τ mea τ rad ,
W MP ( 0 ) = β exp [ α ( Δ E 2 ω max ) ] ,
W MP ( T ) = W MP ( 0 ) [ 1 exp ( ω max k T ) ] p ,
W MP = C [ exp ( ω P k T ) exp ( ω P k T ) 1 ] P exp ( α Δ E ) .
C ρ ( ω ) 5 3 ,
Cl + OH HCl + 1 2 O 2 .
[ OH ] [ parts per million ( ppm ) ] = ( 1000 d ) log ( T b T ) ,
1 τ mea = 1 τ rad + W MP + δ PED + W OH + W ET ,

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