Abstract

The dynamics of current-modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with optical feedback has been studied experimentally. The nature of the dynamics is classified by measured power spectra. It is shown that when the depth of the current modulation is increased the VCSEL dynamics exhibits transitions from a regime governed by the optical feedback through a regime where both optical feedback and modulation contribute to a regime where the current modulation controls the dynamics. Such a transition through three regimes of dynamical behavior has also been identified, at different bias currents, when the modulation frequency is varied. A dynamical resonance having a complicated dependence on the external cavity length is also revealed. The measurements are in good qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Y. C. Chung and Y. H. Lee, “Spectral characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with external cavity optical feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  3, 597–599 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. P. Ho, J. D. Walker, and J. M. Kahn, “External optical feedback effects on intensity noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  5, 892–895 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, “Influence of external optical feedback on threshold and spectral characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  6, 34–36 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Robert, P. Besnard, M.-L. Charès, and G. M. Stéphan, “Switching of the polarization state of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using polarized feedback,” Opt. Quantum Electron.  27, 805–811 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. H. Russell and T. D. Milster, “Polarization switching control in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  70, 2520–2522 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. V. Kuksenkov and H. Temkin, “Polarization related properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  3, 390–395 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Polarization selection and sensitivity of external cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 639–641 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. S. Spencer, C. R. Mirasso, and K. A. Shore, “Effect of strong optical feedback on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 191–193 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Y. Law, G. P. Agrawal, “Feedback-induced chaos and intensity-noise enhancement in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B  15, 562–569 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. I. Wilkinson, J. Woodhead, J. E. F. Frost, J. S. Roberts, R. Wilson, and M. F. Lewis, “Electrical polarization control of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using polarized feedback and a liquid crystal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  11, 155–157 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Masoller and N. B. Abraham, “Low-frequency fluctuations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A  59, 3021–3031 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. A. Loiko, A. V. Naumenko, and N. B. Abraham, “Complex polarization dynamics in a VCSEL with external polarization-selective feedback,” J. Opt. B  3, S100–S111 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Ackemann, M. Sondermann, A. Naumenko, and N. A. Loiko, “Polarization dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subjected to optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. B  77, 739–746 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Lett.  28, 1543–1545 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, and M. Romanelli, “Multi-time-scale dynamics of a laser with polarized optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A  67, 053809 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Fujiwara, Y. Takiguchi, and J. Ohtsubo, “Obsercation of low-frequency fluctuations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Lett.  28, 896–898 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Sivaprakasam, S. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Polarisation-resolved relative intensity noise measurements of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting subjected to strong optical feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 9–11 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Houlihan, L. Lewis, and G. Huyet, “Feedback induced polarization switching in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun.  232, 391–397 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Suppression of polarization-switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using optical feedback,” Opt. Lett.  29, 2151–2153 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Regimes of feedback effects in 1.5-μm distributed feedback lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol.  LT-4, 1655–1661 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Y. Law, G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear spatio-temporal dynamics due to transverse-mode competition in gain-switched microcavity semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Commun.  138, 95–98 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Valle, L. Pesquera, S. I. Turovets, and J. M. Lopez, “Nonlinear dynamics of current-modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun.  208, 173–182 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, P. Mégret, M. Blondel, and K. Panajotov, “Nonlinear polarization dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. E  68, 016207 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. N. Fujiwara, Y. Takiguchi, and J. Ohtsubo, “Observation of the synchronization of chaos in mutually injected vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett.  28, 1677–1679 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Y. Hong, M. W. Lee, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Synchronization of chaos in unidirectionally coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett.  29, 1215–1217 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. W. Lee, Y. Hong, and K. A. Shore, “Experimental demonstration of VCSEL-based chaotic optical communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 2392–2394 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. S. Torre, C. Masoller, P. Mandel, and K. A. Shore, “Transverse-mode dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  40, 620–628 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. M. Mendez, R. Laje, M. Giudici, J. Aliaga, and G. B. Mindlin, “The dynamics of periodically forced semiconductor laser with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E  63, 066218 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. M. Buldú, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, and M. C. Torrent, “Delay-induced resonances in an optical system with feedback,” Phys. Rev. E  69, 046207 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Y. Takiguchi, Y. Liu, and J. Ohtsubo, “Low-frequency fluctuation induced by injection-current modulation in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback,” Opt. Lett.  23, 1369–1371 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (7)

S. Sivaprakasam, S. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Polarisation-resolved relative intensity noise measurements of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting subjected to strong optical feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 9–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Houlihan, L. Lewis, and G. Huyet, “Feedback induced polarization switching in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun.  232, 391–397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Lee, Y. Hong, and K. A. Shore, “Experimental demonstration of VCSEL-based chaotic optical communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 2392–2394 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Torre, C. Masoller, P. Mandel, and K. A. Shore, “Transverse-mode dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  40, 620–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Buldú, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, and M. C. Torrent, “Delay-induced resonances in an optical system with feedback,” Phys. Rev. E  69, 046207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, M. W. Lee, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Synchronization of chaos in unidirectionally coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett.  29, 1215–1217 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Suppression of polarization-switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using optical feedback,” Opt. Lett.  29, 2151–2153 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

N. Fujiwara, Y. Takiguchi, and J. Ohtsubo, “Obsercation of low-frequency fluctuations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Lett.  28, 896–898 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Lett.  28, 1543–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fujiwara, Y. Takiguchi, and J. Ohtsubo, “Observation of the synchronization of chaos in mutually injected vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett.  28, 1677–1679 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, P. Mégret, M. Blondel, and K. Panajotov, “Nonlinear polarization dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. E  68, 016207 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Ackemann, M. Sondermann, A. Naumenko, and N. A. Loiko, “Polarization dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subjected to optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. B  77, 739–746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, and M. Romanelli, “Multi-time-scale dynamics of a laser with polarized optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A  67, 053809 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, S. I. Turovets, and J. M. Lopez, “Nonlinear dynamics of current-modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun.  208, 173–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. M. Mendez, R. Laje, M. Giudici, J. Aliaga, and G. B. Mindlin, “The dynamics of periodically forced semiconductor laser with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E  63, 066218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Loiko, A. V. Naumenko, and N. B. Abraham, “Complex polarization dynamics in a VCSEL with external polarization-selective feedback,” J. Opt. B  3, S100–S111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. I. Wilkinson, J. Woodhead, J. E. F. Frost, J. S. Roberts, R. Wilson, and M. F. Lewis, “Electrical polarization control of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using polarized feedback and a liquid crystal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  11, 155–157 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Masoller and N. B. Abraham, “Low-frequency fluctuations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A  59, 3021–3031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Polarization selection and sensitivity of external cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 639–641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Spencer, C. R. Mirasso, and K. A. Shore, “Effect of strong optical feedback on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 191–193 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Law, G. P. Agrawal, “Feedback-induced chaos and intensity-noise enhancement in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B  15, 562–569 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takiguchi, Y. Liu, and J. Ohtsubo, “Low-frequency fluctuation induced by injection-current modulation in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback,” Opt. Lett.  23, 1369–1371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

T. H. Russell and T. D. Milster, “Polarization switching control in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  70, 2520–2522 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Kuksenkov and H. Temkin, “Polarization related properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  3, 390–395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Law, G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear spatio-temporal dynamics due to transverse-mode competition in gain-switched microcavity semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Commun.  138, 95–98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

F. Robert, P. Besnard, M.-L. Charès, and G. M. Stéphan, “Switching of the polarization state of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using polarized feedback,” Opt. Quantum Electron.  27, 805–811 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, “Influence of external optical feedback on threshold and spectral characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  6, 34–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. P. Ho, J. D. Walker, and J. M. Kahn, “External optical feedback effects on intensity noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  5, 892–895 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Y. C. Chung and Y. H. Lee, “Spectral characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with external cavity optical feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  3, 597–599 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Regimes of feedback effects in 1.5-μm distributed feedback lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol.  LT-4, 1655–1661 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, N. B.

N. A. Loiko, A. V. Naumenko, and N. B. Abraham, “Complex polarization dynamics in a VCSEL with external polarization-selective feedback,” J. Opt. B  3, S100–S111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Masoller and N. B. Abraham, “Low-frequency fluctuations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A  59, 3021–3031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ackemann, T.

T. Ackemann, M. Sondermann, A. Naumenko, and N. A. Loiko, “Polarization dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subjected to optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. B  77, 739–746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

J. Y. Law, G. P. Agrawal, “Feedback-induced chaos and intensity-noise enhancement in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B  15, 562–569 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Law, G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear spatio-temporal dynamics due to transverse-mode competition in gain-switched microcavity semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Commun.  138, 95–98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aliaga, J.

J. M. Mendez, R. Laje, M. Giudici, J. Aliaga, and G. B. Mindlin, “The dynamics of periodically forced semiconductor laser with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E  63, 066218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, S.

S. Sivaprakasam, S. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Polarisation-resolved relative intensity noise measurements of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting subjected to strong optical feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 9–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Besnard, P.

F. Robert, P. Besnard, M.-L. Charès, and G. M. Stéphan, “Switching of the polarization state of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using polarized feedback,” Opt. Quantum Electron.  27, 805–811 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blondel, M.

M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Lett.  28, 1543–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, P. Mégret, M. Blondel, and K. Panajotov, “Nonlinear polarization dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. E  68, 016207 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buldú, J. M.

J. M. Buldú, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, and M. C. Torrent, “Delay-induced resonances in an optical system with feedback,” Phys. Rev. E  69, 046207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Charès, M.-L.

F. Robert, P. Besnard, M.-L. Charès, and G. M. Stéphan, “Switching of the polarization state of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using polarized feedback,” Opt. Quantum Electron.  27, 805–811 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Regimes of feedback effects in 1.5-μm distributed feedback lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol.  LT-4, 1655–1661 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. C.

Y. C. Chung and Y. H. Lee, “Spectral characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with external cavity optical feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  3, 597–599 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, “Influence of external optical feedback on threshold and spectral characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  6, 34–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Frost, J. E. F.

C. I. Wilkinson, J. Woodhead, J. E. F. Frost, J. S. Roberts, R. Wilson, and M. F. Lewis, “Electrical polarization control of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using polarized feedback and a liquid crystal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  11, 155–157 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, N.

Garcia-Ojalvo, J.

J. M. Buldú, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, and M. C. Torrent, “Delay-induced resonances in an optical system with feedback,” Phys. Rev. E  69, 046207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giacomelli, G.

G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, and M. Romanelli, “Multi-time-scale dynamics of a laser with polarized optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A  67, 053809 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giudici, M.

J. M. Mendez, R. Laje, M. Giudici, J. Aliaga, and G. B. Mindlin, “The dynamics of periodically forced semiconductor laser with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E  63, 066218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. P.

K. P. Ho, J. D. Walker, and J. M. Kahn, “External optical feedback effects on intensity noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  5, 892–895 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y.

S. Sivaprakasam, S. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Polarisation-resolved relative intensity noise measurements of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting subjected to strong optical feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 9–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Suppression of polarization-switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using optical feedback,” Opt. Lett.  29, 2151–2153 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hong, M. W. Lee, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Synchronization of chaos in unidirectionally coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett.  29, 1215–1217 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, Y. Hong, and K. A. Shore, “Experimental demonstration of VCSEL-based chaotic optical communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 2392–2394 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Houlihan, J.

J. Houlihan, L. Lewis, and G. Huyet, “Feedback induced polarization switching in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun.  232, 391–397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huyet, G.

J. Houlihan, L. Lewis, and G. Huyet, “Feedback induced polarization switching in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun.  232, 391–397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, “Influence of external optical feedback on threshold and spectral characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  6, 34–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, J. M.

K. P. Ho, J. D. Walker, and J. M. Kahn, “External optical feedback effects on intensity noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  5, 892–895 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kojima, K.

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, “Influence of external optical feedback on threshold and spectral characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  6, 34–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kuksenkov, D. V.

D. V. Kuksenkov and H. Temkin, “Polarization related properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  3, 390–395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laje, R.

J. M. Mendez, R. Laje, M. Giudici, J. Aliaga, and G. B. Mindlin, “The dynamics of periodically forced semiconductor laser with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E  63, 066218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Law, J. Y.

J. Y. Law, G. P. Agrawal, “Feedback-induced chaos and intensity-noise enhancement in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B  15, 562–569 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Law, G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear spatio-temporal dynamics due to transverse-mode competition in gain-switched microcavity semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Commun.  138, 95–98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. W.

Y. Hong, M. W. Lee, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Synchronization of chaos in unidirectionally coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett.  29, 1215–1217 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Lee, Y. Hong, and K. A. Shore, “Experimental demonstration of VCSEL-based chaotic optical communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 2392–2394 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

Y. C. Chung and Y. H. Lee, “Spectral characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with external cavity optical feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  3, 597–599 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, L.

J. Houlihan, L. Lewis, and G. Huyet, “Feedback induced polarization switching in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun.  232, 391–397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M. F.

C. I. Wilkinson, J. Woodhead, J. E. F. Frost, J. S. Roberts, R. Wilson, and M. F. Lewis, “Electrical polarization control of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using polarized feedback and a liquid crystal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  11, 155–157 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Loiko, N. A.

T. Ackemann, M. Sondermann, A. Naumenko, and N. A. Loiko, “Polarization dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subjected to optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. B  77, 739–746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Loiko, A. V. Naumenko, and N. B. Abraham, “Complex polarization dynamics in a VCSEL with external polarization-selective feedback,” J. Opt. B  3, S100–S111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, J. M.

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, S. I. Turovets, and J. M. Lopez, “Nonlinear dynamics of current-modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun.  208, 173–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, P.

M. S. Torre, C. Masoller, P. Mandel, and K. A. Shore, “Transverse-mode dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  40, 620–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marin, F.

G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, and M. Romanelli, “Multi-time-scale dynamics of a laser with polarized optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A  67, 053809 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Masoller, C.

M. S. Torre, C. Masoller, P. Mandel, and K. A. Shore, “Transverse-mode dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  40, 620–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Masoller and N. B. Abraham, “Low-frequency fluctuations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A  59, 3021–3031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mégret, P.

M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Lett.  28, 1543–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, P. Mégret, M. Blondel, and K. Panajotov, “Nonlinear polarization dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. E  68, 016207 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mendez, J. M.

J. M. Mendez, R. Laje, M. Giudici, J. Aliaga, and G. B. Mindlin, “The dynamics of periodically forced semiconductor laser with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E  63, 066218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Milster, T. D.

T. H. Russell and T. D. Milster, “Polarization switching control in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  70, 2520–2522 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mindlin, G. B.

J. M. Mendez, R. Laje, M. Giudici, J. Aliaga, and G. B. Mindlin, “The dynamics of periodically forced semiconductor laser with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E  63, 066218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mirasso, C. R.

P. S. Spencer, C. R. Mirasso, and K. A. Shore, “Effect of strong optical feedback on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 191–193 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, R. A.

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, “Influence of external optical feedback on threshold and spectral characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  6, 34–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Naumenko, A.

T. Ackemann, M. Sondermann, A. Naumenko, and N. A. Loiko, “Polarization dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subjected to optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. B  77, 739–746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Naumenko, A. V.

N. A. Loiko, A. V. Naumenko, and N. B. Abraham, “Complex polarization dynamics in a VCSEL with external polarization-selective feedback,” J. Opt. B  3, S100–S111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsubo, J.

Pan, Z.

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, “Influence of external optical feedback on threshold and spectral characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  6, 34–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Panajotov, K.

M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Lett.  28, 1543–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, P. Mégret, M. Blondel, and K. Panajotov, “Nonlinear polarization dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. E  68, 016207 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pesquera, L.

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, S. I. Turovets, and J. M. Lopez, “Nonlinear dynamics of current-modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun.  208, 173–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Polarization selection and sensitivity of external cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 639–641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robert, F.

F. Robert, P. Besnard, M.-L. Charès, and G. M. Stéphan, “Switching of the polarization state of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using polarized feedback,” Opt. Quantum Electron.  27, 805–811 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. S.

C. I. Wilkinson, J. Woodhead, J. E. F. Frost, J. S. Roberts, R. Wilson, and M. F. Lewis, “Electrical polarization control of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using polarized feedback and a liquid crystal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  11, 155–157 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Romanelli, M.

G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, and M. Romanelli, “Multi-time-scale dynamics of a laser with polarized optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A  67, 053809 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russell, T. H.

T. H. Russell and T. D. Milster, “Polarization switching control in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  70, 2520–2522 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sciamanna, M.

M. Sciamanna, K. Panajotov, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, “Optical feedback induces polarization mode hopping in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Lett.  28, 1543–1545 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, P. Mégret, M. Blondel, and K. Panajotov, “Nonlinear polarization dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. E  68, 016207 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shore, K. A.

Y. Hong, M. W. Lee, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Synchronization of chaos in unidirectionally coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett.  29, 1215–1217 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Suppression of polarization-switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using optical feedback,” Opt. Lett.  29, 2151–2153 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sivaprakasam, S. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Polarisation-resolved relative intensity noise measurements of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting subjected to strong optical feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 9–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Torre, C. Masoller, P. Mandel, and K. A. Shore, “Transverse-mode dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  40, 620–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Lee, Y. Hong, and K. A. Shore, “Experimental demonstration of VCSEL-based chaotic optical communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 2392–2394 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Polarization selection and sensitivity of external cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 639–641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Spencer, C. R. Mirasso, and K. A. Shore, “Effect of strong optical feedback on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 191–193 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sivaprakasam, S.

S. Sivaprakasam, S. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Polarisation-resolved relative intensity noise measurements of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting subjected to strong optical feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 9–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sondermann, M.

T. Ackemann, M. Sondermann, A. Naumenko, and N. A. Loiko, “Polarization dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subjected to optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. B  77, 739–746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, P. S.

S. Sivaprakasam, S. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Polarisation-resolved relative intensity noise measurements of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting subjected to strong optical feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 9–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hong, M. W. Lee, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Synchronization of chaos in unidirectionally coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett.  29, 1215–1217 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Suppression of polarization-switching in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using optical feedback,” Opt. Lett.  29, 2151–2153 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. S. Spencer, C. R. Mirasso, and K. A. Shore, “Effect of strong optical feedback on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 191–193 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stéphan, G. M.

F. Robert, P. Besnard, M.-L. Charès, and G. M. Stéphan, “Switching of the polarization state of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using polarized feedback,” Opt. Quantum Electron.  27, 805–811 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takiguchi, Y.

Temkin, H.

D. V. Kuksenkov and H. Temkin, “Polarization related properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  3, 390–395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

Tkach, R. W.

R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Regimes of feedback effects in 1.5-μm distributed feedback lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol.  LT-4, 1655–1661 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Torre, M. S.

M. S. Torre, C. Masoller, P. Mandel, and K. A. Shore, “Transverse-mode dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  40, 620–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Torrent, M. C.

J. M. Buldú, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, and M. C. Torrent, “Delay-induced resonances in an optical system with feedback,” Phys. Rev. E  69, 046207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Turovets, S. I.

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, S. I. Turovets, and J. M. Lopez, “Nonlinear dynamics of current-modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun.  208, 173–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Valle, A.

M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, P. Mégret, M. Blondel, and K. Panajotov, “Nonlinear polarization dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. E  68, 016207 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, S. I. Turovets, and J. M. Lopez, “Nonlinear dynamics of current-modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun.  208, 173–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Polarization selection and sensitivity of external cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 639–641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Veretennicoff, I.

Walker, J. D.

K. P. Ho, J. D. Walker, and J. M. Kahn, “External optical feedback effects on intensity noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  5, 892–895 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, C. I.

C. I. Wilkinson, J. Woodhead, J. E. F. Frost, J. S. Roberts, R. Wilson, and M. F. Lewis, “Electrical polarization control of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using polarized feedback and a liquid crystal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  11, 155–157 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R.

C. I. Wilkinson, J. Woodhead, J. E. F. Frost, J. S. Roberts, R. Wilson, and M. F. Lewis, “Electrical polarization control of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using polarized feedback and a liquid crystal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  11, 155–157 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woodhead, J.

C. I. Wilkinson, J. Woodhead, J. E. F. Frost, J. S. Roberts, R. Wilson, and M. F. Lewis, “Electrical polarization control of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using polarized feedback and a liquid crystal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  11, 155–157 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Ackemann, M. Sondermann, A. Naumenko, and N. A. Loiko, “Polarization dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subjected to optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. B  77, 739–746 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. H. Russell and T. D. Milster, “Polarization switching control in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.  70, 2520–2522 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. S. Torre, C. Masoller, P. Mandel, and K. A. Shore, “Transverse-mode dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  40, 620–628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. V. Kuksenkov and H. Temkin, “Polarization related properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.  3, 390–395 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (8)

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K. A. Shore, “Polarization selection and sensitivity of external cavity vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 639–641 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Spencer, C. R. Mirasso, and K. A. Shore, “Effect of strong optical feedback on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 191–193 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Wilkinson, J. Woodhead, J. E. F. Frost, J. S. Roberts, R. Wilson, and M. F. Lewis, “Electrical polarization control of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers using polarized feedback and a liquid crystal,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  11, 155–157 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chung and Y. H. Lee, “Spectral characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with external cavity optical feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  3, 597–599 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Ho, J. D. Walker, and J. M. Kahn, “External optical feedback effects on intensity noise of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  5, 892–895 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, Z. Pan, M. Dagenais, R. A. Morgan, and K. Kojima, “Influence of external optical feedback on threshold and spectral characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  6, 34–36 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Sivaprakasam, S. Bandyopadhyay, Y. Hong, P. S. Spencer, and K. A. Shore, “Polarisation-resolved relative intensity noise measurements of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting subjected to strong optical feedback,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 9–11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Lee, Y. Hong, and K. A. Shore, “Experimental demonstration of VCSEL-based chaotic optical communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  16, 2392–2394 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R. W. Tkach and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Regimes of feedback effects in 1.5-μm distributed feedback lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol.  LT-4, 1655–1661 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B (1)

N. A. Loiko, A. V. Naumenko, and N. B. Abraham, “Complex polarization dynamics in a VCSEL with external polarization-selective feedback,” J. Opt. B  3, S100–S111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (3)

J. Y. Law, G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear spatio-temporal dynamics due to transverse-mode competition in gain-switched microcavity semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Commun.  138, 95–98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, S. I. Turovets, and J. M. Lopez, “Nonlinear dynamics of current-modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun.  208, 173–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Houlihan, L. Lewis, and G. Huyet, “Feedback induced polarization switching in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Opt. Commun.  232, 391–397 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Robert, P. Besnard, M.-L. Charès, and G. M. Stéphan, “Switching of the polarization state of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using polarized feedback,” Opt. Quantum Electron.  27, 805–811 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

C. Masoller and N. B. Abraham, “Low-frequency fluctuations in vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A  59, 3021–3031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Giacomelli, F. Marin, and M. Romanelli, “Multi-time-scale dynamics of a laser with polarized optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. A  67, 053809 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

M. Sciamanna, A. Valle, P. Mégret, M. Blondel, and K. Panajotov, “Nonlinear polarization dynamics in directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. E  68, 016207 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Mendez, R. Laje, M. Giudici, J. Aliaga, and G. B. Mindlin, “The dynamics of periodically forced semiconductor laser with optical feedback,” Phys. Rev. E  63, 066218 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Buldú, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, and M. C. Torrent, “Delay-induced resonances in an optical system with feedback,” Phys. Rev. E  69, 046207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental set-up.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time traces of X-polarization (upper trace) and Y-polarization (lower trace) with (a) f M = 1 GHz , I m = 0.72 mA modulation, in the absence of optical feedback (b) 9 dB feedback ratio, in the absence of current modulation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time traces of the VCSEL (left column) and their RF spectra (right column) for different modulation amplitude. The modulation amplitude I m is (a) 0; (b) 0.036 mA ; (c) 0.18 mA ; (d) 0.72 mA ; (e) 0.72 mA and without optical feedback.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time traces of the VCSEL (left column) and their RF spectra (right column) for different modulation frequencies. The modulation frequency is (a) 1 GHz ; (b) 500 MHz ; (c) 100 MHz . Inset in Fig. 4c shows an enlargement of the time trace.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

RF spectra of the VCSEL for different modulation frequencies with 41 cm external cavity length. The modulation frequency is (a) 1 GHz ; (b) 500 MHz ; (c) 400 MHz ; (d) 200 MHz ; (e) 100 MHz .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

RF spectra of the VCSEL for different modulation frequencies with 60 cm external cavity length. The modulation frequency is (a) 1 GHz ; (b) 100 MHz ; (c) 50 MHz .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

RF spectra of the VCSEL for different modulation frequencies with 125 cm external cavity length. The modulation frequency is (a) 400 MHz ; (b) 360 MHz ; (c) 200 MHz ; (d) 117 MHz ; (e) 80 MHz .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

RF spectra of the VCSEL for different modulation frequencies with 1.1 mA dc bias current. The modulation frequency is (a) 1 GHz ; (b) 500 MHz ; (c) 200 MHz ; (d) 100 MHz ; (e) 80 MHz .

Metrics