Abstract

The energy transfer from Tm3+ to Nd3+ was explored in Tm,Nd:KPb2Cl5 for sensitization of a possible 5μm Nd laser. Evidence for an efficient energy transfer from Tm3+ to Nd3+ under 785 nm excitation was obtained through monitoring changes in (i) the Tm3+ decay behavior and (ii) the 5μm emission intensity arising from the I1124I924 transition of Nd3+ ions. The quantum efficiency of the 5μm emission from Nd3+ was estimated to be approximately four times greater in Tm,Nd:KPb2Cl5 compared with Nd:KPb2Cl5. Sensitization of Nd3+ with Tm3+ in KPb2Cl5 promises a significant increase in the maximum achievable slope efficiency of a potential 5μm Nd laser.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Virey, M. Couchaud, C. Faure, B. Ferrand, C. Wyon, and C. Borel, "Room temperature fluorescence of CsCdBr3:Re (Re=Pr, Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) in the 3-5 µm range," J. Alloys Compd. 275-277, 311-314 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Y. Tigreat, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, and B. Ferrand, "Spectroscopic investigation of a 1.55 µm emission band in Dy3+-doped CsCdBr3 and KPb2Cl5 single crystals," J. Lumin. 94-95, 107-111 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Schaafsma, L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Modeling of Dy3+-doped GeAsSe glass 1.3 µm optical fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1548-1550 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, "Spectroscopy of potential mid-infrared laser transitions in gallium lanthanum sulfide glass," J. Lumin. 72, 419-421 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and J. Ganem, "A 7 µm praseodymium-based solid-state laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646-649 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Özen and B. DiBartolo, "The microscopic interaction parameter for Tm-to-Ho resonant energy transfer in LiYF4," J. Phys. 13, 195-202 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, "Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host," Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101-1-245101-14 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O'Conner, S. K. Searles, and J. Ganem, "Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals," Opt. Mater. 22, 311-320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, "Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 µm lasing," Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, "Spectroscopic analysis laser modeling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride," J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, "Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host," Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101-1-245101-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

W. J. Chung and J. Heo, "Energy transfer process for the blue up-conversion in calcium aluminate glasses doped Tm3+ and Nd3+," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 348-352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Özen and B. DiBartolo, "The microscopic interaction parameter for Tm-to-Ho resonant energy transfer in LiYF4," J. Phys. 13, 195-202 (2001).

P. Y. Tigreat, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, and B. Ferrand, "Spectroscopic investigation of a 1.55 µm emission band in Dy3+-doped CsCdBr3 and KPb2Cl5 single crystals," J. Lumin. 94-95, 107-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region," Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

E. Virey, M. Couchaud, C. Faure, B. Ferrand, C. Wyon, and C. Borel, "Room temperature fluorescence of CsCdBr3:Re (Re=Pr, Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) in the 3-5 µm range," J. Alloys Compd. 275-277, 311-314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Schaafsma, L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Modeling of Dy3+-doped GeAsSe glass 1.3 µm optical fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1548-1550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, "Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm3+, Tb3+) and (Tm3+, Eu3+) doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5-µm laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246-2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

W. J. Chung, J. Y. Yoo, Y. S. Kim, and J. Heo, "Mechanism of the blue up-conversion in Tm3+/Nd3+-doped calcium aluminate glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1485-1490 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, "Spectroscopy of potential mid-infrared laser transitions in gallium lanthanum sulfide glass," J. Lumin. 72, 419-421 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and J. Ganem, "A 7 µm praseodymium-based solid-state laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646-649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Tanabe, T. Hanada, M. Watanabe, T. Hayashi, and N. Soga, "Optical properties of dysprosium-doped low-phonon-energy glasses for a potential 1.3 optical amplifier," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2917-2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

1968 (1)

W. B. Gandrud and H. W. Moos, "Rare-earth infrared lifetimes and exciton migration rates in trichloride crystals," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 2170-2182 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

T. H. Maiman, "Stimulated optical radiation from ruby," Nature 187, 493-494 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

D. L. Dexter, "A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

T. Schaafsma, L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Modeling of Dy3+-doped GeAsSe glass 1.3 µm optical fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1548-1550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Basiev, T. T.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, "Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 µm lasing," Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Borel, C.

E. Virey, M. Couchaud, C. Faure, B. Ferrand, C. Wyon, and C. Borel, "Room temperature fluorescence of CsCdBr3:Re (Re=Pr, Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) in the 3-5 µm range," J. Alloys Compd. 275-277, 311-314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, S. R.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O'Conner, S. K. Searles, and J. Ganem, "Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals," Opt. Mater. 22, 311-320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, "Spectroscopic analysis laser modeling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride," J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, "Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host," Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101-1-245101-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and J. Ganem, "A 7 µm praseodymium-based solid-state laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646-649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Braud, A.

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, "Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm3+, Tb3+) and (Tm3+, Eu3+) doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5-µm laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246-2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caird, J. A.

Chung, W. J.

W. J. Chung and J. Heo, "Energy transfer process for the blue up-conversion in calcium aluminate glasses doped Tm3+ and Nd3+," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 348-352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Chung, J. Y. Yoo, Y. S. Kim, and J. Heo, "Mechanism of the blue up-conversion in Tm3+/Nd3+-doped calcium aluminate glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1485-1490 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B.

T. Schaafsma, L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Modeling of Dy3+-doped GeAsSe glass 1.3 µm optical fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1548-1550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Couchaud, M.

E. Virey, M. Couchaud, C. Faure, B. Ferrand, C. Wyon, and C. Borel, "Room temperature fluorescence of CsCdBr3:Re (Re=Pr, Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) in the 3-5 µm range," J. Alloys Compd. 275-277, 311-314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, J.

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, "Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host," Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101-1-245101-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, "A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

DiBartolo, B.

G. Özen and B. DiBartolo, "The microscopic interaction parameter for Tm-to-Ho resonant energy transfer in LiYF4," J. Phys. 13, 195-202 (2001).

Dmitruk, L. N.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, "Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 µm lasing," Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Doroshenko, M. E.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, "Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 µm lasing," Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Doualan, J. L.

P. Y. Tigreat, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, and B. Ferrand, "Spectroscopic investigation of a 1.55 µm emission band in Dy3+-doped CsCdBr3 and KPb2Cl5 single crystals," J. Lumin. 94-95, 107-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, "Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm3+, Tb3+) and (Tm3+, Eu3+) doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5-µm laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246-2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ermamakov, G. A.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, "Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 µm lasing," Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Fan, T. Y.

Faure, C.

E. Virey, M. Couchaud, C. Faure, B. Ferrand, C. Wyon, and C. Borel, "Room temperature fluorescence of CsCdBr3:Re (Re=Pr, Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) in the 3-5 µm range," J. Alloys Compd. 275-277, 311-314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, B. J.

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and J. Ganem, "A 7 µm praseodymium-based solid-state laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646-649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferrand, B.

P. Y. Tigreat, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, and B. Ferrand, "Spectroscopic investigation of a 1.55 µm emission band in Dy3+-doped CsCdBr3 and KPb2Cl5 single crystals," J. Lumin. 94-95, 107-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Virey, M. Couchaud, C. Faure, B. Ferrand, C. Wyon, and C. Borel, "Room temperature fluorescence of CsCdBr3:Re (Re=Pr, Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) in the 3-5 µm range," J. Alloys Compd. 275-277, 311-314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galagan, B. I.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, "Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 µm lasing," Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Gandrud, W. B.

W. B. Gandrud and H. W. Moos, "Rare-earth infrared lifetimes and exciton migration rates in trichloride crystals," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 2170-2182 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ganem, J.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O'Conner, S. K. Searles, and J. Ganem, "Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals," Opt. Mater. 22, 311-320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, "Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host," Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101-1-245101-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and J. Ganem, "A 7 µm praseodymium-based solid-state laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646-649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Girard, S.

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, "Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm3+, Tb3+) and (Tm3+, Eu3+) doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5-µm laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246-2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hanada, T.

S. Tanabe, T. Hanada, M. Watanabe, T. Hayashi, and N. Soga, "Optical properties of dysprosium-doped low-phonon-energy glasses for a potential 1.3 optical amplifier," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2917-2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, T.

S. Tanabe, T. Hanada, M. Watanabe, T. Hayashi, and N. Soga, "Optical properties of dysprosium-doped low-phonon-energy glasses for a potential 1.3 optical amplifier," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2917-2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heo, J.

W. J. Chung and J. Heo, "Energy transfer process for the blue up-conversion in calcium aluminate glasses doped Tm3+ and Nd3+," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 348-352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Chung, J. Y. Yoo, Y. S. Kim, and J. Heo, "Mechanism of the blue up-conversion in Tm3+/Nd3+-doped calcium aluminate glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1485-1490 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, "Spectroscopy of potential mid-infrared laser transitions in gallium lanthanum sulfide glass," J. Lumin. 72, 419-421 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Isaenko, L.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region," Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New low-phonon frequency crystals based on rare-earth-doped double halogenides for multiwavelength diode-pumped solid state laser," in Seventh International Symposium on Laser Metrology Applied to Science, Industry, and Everyday Life, Y.V.Chugui, S.N.Bagayev, A.Weckenmann, and P.H.Osanna, eds., Proc. SPIE 4900, 962-972 (2002).

Isaenko, L. I.

M. C. Nostrand, S. A. Payne, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Laser demonstration of rare-earth ions in low-phonon chloride and sulfide crystals," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, H.Injeyan, U.Keller, and C.Marshal, eds., Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 459-463.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 µm and 4.31 µm and KPb2Cl5 laser action at 2.43 µm," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, and U.Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441-449.

Ivanova, S.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region," Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New low-phonon frequency crystals based on rare-earth-doped double halogenides for multiwavelength diode-pumped solid state laser," in Seventh International Symposium on Laser Metrology Applied to Science, Industry, and Everyday Life, Y.V.Chugui, S.N.Bagayev, A.Weckenmann, and P.H.Osanna, eds., Proc. SPIE 4900, 962-972 (2002).

Jenkins, N. W.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O'Conner, S. K. Searles, and J. Ganem, "Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals," Opt. Mater. 22, 311-320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, "Spectroscopic analysis laser modeling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride," J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, "Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host," Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101-1-245101-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

W. J. Chung, J. Y. Yoo, Y. S. Kim, and J. Heo, "Mechanism of the blue up-conversion in Tm3+/Nd3+-doped calcium aluminate glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1485-1490 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Konyushkin, V. A.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, "Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 µm lasing," Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Krupke, W. F.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 µm and 4.31 µm and KPb2Cl5 laser action at 2.43 µm," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, and U.Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441-449.

Lindle, J. R.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, "Spectroscopic analysis laser modeling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride," J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maiman, T. H.

T. H. Maiman, "Stimulated optical radiation from ruby," Nature 187, 493-494 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Merkulov, A.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region," Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moncorge, R.

P. Y. Tigreat, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, and B. Ferrand, "Spectroscopic investigation of a 1.55 µm emission band in Dy3+-doped CsCdBr3 and KPb2Cl5 single crystals," J. Lumin. 94-95, 107-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, "Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm3+, Tb3+) and (Tm3+, Eu3+) doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5-µm laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246-2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moos, H. W.

W. B. Gandrud and H. W. Moos, "Rare-earth infrared lifetimes and exciton migration rates in trichloride crystals," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 2170-2182 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Nostrand, M.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region," Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New low-phonon frequency crystals based on rare-earth-doped double halogenides for multiwavelength diode-pumped solid state laser," in Seventh International Symposium on Laser Metrology Applied to Science, Industry, and Everyday Life, Y.V.Chugui, S.N.Bagayev, A.Weckenmann, and P.H.Osanna, eds., Proc. SPIE 4900, 962-972 (2002).

Nostrand, M. C.

M. C. Nostrand, S. A. Payne, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Laser demonstration of rare-earth ions in low-phonon chloride and sulfide crystals," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, H.Injeyan, U.Keller, and C.Marshal, eds., Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 459-463.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 µm and 4.31 µm and KPb2Cl5 laser action at 2.43 µm," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, and U.Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441-449.

O'Conner, S.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O'Conner, S. K. Searles, and J. Ganem, "Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals," Opt. Mater. 22, 311-320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Orlovskii, Yu. V.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, "Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 µm lasing," Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Osiko, V. V.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, "Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 µm lasing," Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Özen, G.

G. Özen and B. DiBartolo, "The microscopic interaction parameter for Tm-to-Ho resonant energy transfer in LiYF4," J. Phys. 13, 195-202 (2001).

Page, R.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region," Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New low-phonon frequency crystals based on rare-earth-doped double halogenides for multiwavelength diode-pumped solid state laser," in Seventh International Symposium on Laser Metrology Applied to Science, Industry, and Everyday Life, Y.V.Chugui, S.N.Bagayev, A.Weckenmann, and P.H.Osanna, eds., Proc. SPIE 4900, 962-972 (2002).

Page, R. H.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 µm and 4.31 µm and KPb2Cl5 laser action at 2.43 µm," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, and U.Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441-449.

Papashvili, A. G.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, "Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 µm lasing," Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Payne, D. N.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, "Spectroscopy of potential mid-infrared laser transitions in gallium lanthanum sulfide glass," J. Lumin. 72, 419-421 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region," Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New low-phonon frequency crystals based on rare-earth-doped double halogenides for multiwavelength diode-pumped solid state laser," in Seventh International Symposium on Laser Metrology Applied to Science, Industry, and Everyday Life, Y.V.Chugui, S.N.Bagayev, A.Weckenmann, and P.H.Osanna, eds., Proc. SPIE 4900, 962-972 (2002).

Payne, S. A.

M. C. Nostrand, S. A. Payne, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Laser demonstration of rare-earth ions in low-phonon chloride and sulfide crystals," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, H.Injeyan, U.Keller, and C.Marshal, eds., Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 459-463.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 µm and 4.31 µm and KPb2Cl5 laser action at 2.43 µm," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, and U.Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441-449.

Prokhorov, A. M.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, "Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 µm lasing," Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Pukhov, K. K.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, "Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 µm lasing," Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Ramponi, A. J.

Samson, B. N.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, "Spectroscopy of potential mid-infrared laser transitions in gallium lanthanum sulfide glass," J. Lumin. 72, 419-421 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

T. Schaafsma, L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Modeling of Dy3+-doped GeAsSe glass 1.3 µm optical fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1548-1550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schaafsma, T.

T. Schaafsma, L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Modeling of Dy3+-doped GeAsSe glass 1.3 µm optical fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1548-1550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, P.

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, "Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host," Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101-1-245101-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schunemann, P. G.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 µm and 4.31 µm and KPb2Cl5 laser action at 2.43 µm," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, and U.Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441-449.

M. C. Nostrand, S. A. Payne, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Laser demonstration of rare-earth ions in low-phonon chloride and sulfide crystals," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, H.Injeyan, U.Keller, and C.Marshal, eds., Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 459-463.

Schweizer, T.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, "Spectroscopy of potential mid-infrared laser transitions in gallium lanthanum sulfide glass," J. Lumin. 72, 419-421 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Searles, S. K.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O'Conner, S. K. Searles, and J. Ganem, "Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals," Opt. Mater. 22, 311-320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, "Spectroscopic analysis laser modeling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride," J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Schaafsma, L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Modeling of Dy3+-doped GeAsSe glass 1.3 µm optical fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1548-1550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and J. Ganem, "A 7 µm praseodymium-based solid-state laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646-649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Skvortsov, V. N.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, "Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 µm lasing," Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Smith, S.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, "Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 µm lasing," Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Soga, N.

S. Tanabe, T. Hanada, M. Watanabe, T. Hayashi, and N. Soga, "Optical properties of dysprosium-doped low-phonon-energy glasses for a potential 1.3 optical amplifier," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2917-2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Staver, P. R.

Sumida, D. S.

Tanabe, S.

S. Tanabe, T. Hanada, M. Watanabe, T. Hayashi, and N. Soga, "Optical properties of dysprosium-doped low-phonon-energy glasses for a potential 1.3 optical amplifier," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2917-2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tigreat, P. Y.

P. Y. Tigreat, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, and B. Ferrand, "Spectroscopic investigation of a 1.55 µm emission band in Dy3+-doped CsCdBr3 and KPb2Cl5 single crystals," J. Lumin. 94-95, 107-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tkachuk, A.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region," Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Isaenko, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New low-phonon frequency crystals based on rare-earth-doped double halogenides for multiwavelength diode-pumped solid state laser," in Seventh International Symposium on Laser Metrology Applied to Science, Industry, and Everyday Life, Y.V.Chugui, S.N.Bagayev, A.Weckenmann, and P.H.Osanna, eds., Proc. SPIE 4900, 962-972 (2002).

Vatnik, S.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region," Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Virey, E.

E. Virey, M. Couchaud, C. Faure, B. Ferrand, C. Wyon, and C. Borel, "Room temperature fluorescence of CsCdBr3:Re (Re=Pr, Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) in the 3-5 µm range," J. Alloys Compd. 275-277, 311-314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vorob'ev, I. N.

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, "Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 µm lasing," Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Watanabe, M.

S. Tanabe, T. Hanada, M. Watanabe, T. Hayashi, and N. Soga, "Optical properties of dysprosium-doped low-phonon-energy glasses for a potential 1.3 optical amplifier," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2917-2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wyon, C.

E. Virey, M. Couchaud, C. Faure, B. Ferrand, C. Wyon, and C. Borel, "Room temperature fluorescence of CsCdBr3:Re (Re=Pr, Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) in the 3-5 µm range," J. Alloys Compd. 275-277, 311-314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yelisseyev, A.

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region," Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, J. Y.

W. J. Chung, J. Y. Yoo, Y. S. Kim, and J. Heo, "Mechanism of the blue up-conversion in Tm3+/Nd3+-doped calcium aluminate glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1485-1490 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and J. Ganem, "A 7 µm praseodymium-based solid-state laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646-649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, "Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm3+, Tb3+) and (Tm3+, Eu3+) doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5-µm laser operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246-2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Schaafsma, L. B. Shaw, B. Cole, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Modeling of Dy3+-doped GeAsSe glass 1.3 µm optical fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1548-1550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

E. Virey, M. Couchaud, C. Faure, B. Ferrand, C. Wyon, and C. Borel, "Room temperature fluorescence of CsCdBr3:Re (Re=Pr, Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm) in the 3-5 µm range," J. Alloys Compd. 275-277, 311-314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (3)

S. Tanabe, T. Hanada, M. Watanabe, T. Hayashi, and N. Soga, "Optical properties of dysprosium-doped low-phonon-energy glasses for a potential 1.3 optical amplifier," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 2917-2922 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Chung, J. Y. Yoo, Y. S. Kim, and J. Heo, "Mechanism of the blue up-conversion in Tm3+/Nd3+-doped calcium aluminate glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80, 1485-1490 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Chung and J. Heo, "Energy transfer process for the blue up-conversion in calcium aluminate glasses doped Tm3+ and Nd3+," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84, 348-352 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

D. L. Dexter, "A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids," J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Gandrud and H. W. Moos, "Rare-earth infrared lifetimes and exciton migration rates in trichloride crystals," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 2170-2182 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (3)

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, and J. R. Lindle, "Spectroscopic analysis laser modeling of neodymium-doped potassium lead chloride," J. Lumin. 97, 127-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Tigreat, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, and B. Ferrand, "Spectroscopic investigation of a 1.55 µm emission band in Dy3+-doped CsCdBr3 and KPb2Cl5 single crystals," J. Lumin. 94-95, 107-111 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, "Spectroscopy of potential mid-infrared laser transitions in gallium lanthanum sulfide glass," J. Lumin. 72, 419-421 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. (1)

G. Özen and B. DiBartolo, "The microscopic interaction parameter for Tm-to-Ho resonant energy transfer in LiYF4," J. Phys. 13, 195-202 (2001).

Laser Phys. (1)

T. T. Basiev, Yu. V. Orlovskii, B. I. Galagan, M. E. Doroshenko, I. N. Vorob'ev, L. N. Dmitruk, A. G. Papashvili, V. N. Skvortsov, V. A. Konyushkin, K. K. Pukhov, G. A. Ermamakov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, and S. Smith, "Evaluation of rare-earth doped crystals and glasses for 4-5 µm lasing," Laser Phys. 12, 859-877 (2002).

Mater. Sci. Eng., B (1)

L. Isaenko, A. Yelisseyev, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Vatnik, A. Merkulov, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New laser crystal based on KPb2Cl5 for IR region," Mater. Sci. Eng., B 81, 188-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. H. Maiman, "Stimulated optical radiation from ruby," Nature 187, 493-494 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O'Conner, S. K. Searles, and J. Ganem, "Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals," Opt. Mater. 22, 311-320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, P. Schmidt, N. W. Jenkins, and S. R. Bowman, "Thulium cross-relaxation in a low phonon energy crystalline host," Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101-1-245101-14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Room temperature CaGa2S4:Dy3+ laser action at 2.43 µm and 4.31 µm and KPb2Cl5 laser action at 2.43 µm," in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M.M.Fejer, H.Injeyan, and U.Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 1999), pp. 441-449.

M. C. Nostrand, S. A. Payne, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, "Laser demonstration of rare-earth ions in low-phonon chloride and sulfide crystals," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, H.Injeyan, U.Keller, and C.Marshal, eds., Vol. 34 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2000), pp. 459-463.

L. Isaenko, A. Tkachuk, S. Ivanova, S. Payne, R. Page, and M. Nostrand, "New low-phonon frequency crystals based on rare-earth-doped double halogenides for multiwavelength diode-pumped solid state laser," in Seventh International Symposium on Laser Metrology Applied to Science, Industry, and Everyday Life, Y.V.Chugui, S.N.Bagayev, A.Weckenmann, and P.H.Osanna, eds., Proc. SPIE 4900, 962-972 (2002).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Unpolarized, room-temperature absorption spectra of Nd: KPb 2 Cl 5 and Tm: KPb 2 Cl 5 . The dashed curve corresponds to Tm: KPb 2 Cl 5 and the solid curve corresponds to Nd: KPb 2 Cl 5 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Room-temperature emission bands from Tm: KPb 2 Cl 5 originating from the H 4 3 , H 5 3 , and F 4 3 energy levels. The inset is the energy-level diagram for Tm: KPb 2 Cl 5 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Room-temperature 5 μ m emission transients emitted from the I 11 2 4 excited state of Nd in Nd: KPb 2 Cl 5 and Tm,Nd: KPb 2 Cl 5 . The codoped sample has a Tm sample concentration of 1.9 × 10 20 cm 3 and a Nd concentration of 5.8 × 10 19 cm 3 , and the singly doped has a Nd concentration of 8.4 × 10 19 cm 3 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Energy-level diagram for 3-for-1 and 2-for-1 cross-relaxation processes within the low-lying levels of Nd 3 + .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Proposed energy-transfer channel from the Tm H 4 3 energy level to Nd I 13 2 4 : H 4 3 + I 9 2 4 H 5 3 + I 13 2 4 and (b) overlap of the H 4 3 H 5 3 emission band of Tm 3 + and the I 9 2 4 I 13 2 4 absorption band of Nd 3 + .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Room-temperature decay transients of Tm: KPb 2 Cl 5 and Tm,Nd: KPb 2 Cl 5 emitted from the H 4 3 excited state of Tm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Proposed energy-transfer channel from the Tm H 4 3 energy level to Nd F 5 2 4 : H 4 3 + I 9 2 4 H 6 3 + F 5 2 4 and (b) overlap of the H 4 3 H 6 3 emission band of Tm 3 + and the I 9 2 4 F 5 2 4 absorption band of Nd 3 + .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Decay transients of Tm: KPb 2 Cl 5 and Tm,Nd: KPb 2 Cl 5 emitted from the (a) F 4 3 and (b) H 5 3 energy levels of Tm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Proposed energy-transfer channel from Tm H 5 3 energy level to Nd I 11 2 4 energy level and (b) overlap of the H 5 3 F 4 3 emission band of Tm 3 + and the I 9 2 4 I 11 2 4 absorption band of Nd 3 + .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Proposed energy-transfer channel from Tm F 4 3 energy level to Nd I 15 2 4 energy level and (b) overlap of the F 4 3 H 6 3 emission band of Tm 3 + and the I 9 2 4 I 15 2 4 absorption band of Nd 3 + .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Emission Quantum Efficiency of 5 μ m and Measured Tm and Nd ion Concentration in One Nd: KPb 2 Cl 5 Sample and Three Samples of Tm,Nd: KPb 2 Cl 5

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N photons = E absorbed h ν p η QE ,
E absorbed = E pump ( 1 R ) ( 1 T ) ( 1 R T ) ,
η Tm Nd = 1 τ f τ 0 ,
R 0 6 = 3 c τ 0 8 π 4 n 2 σ emiss ( λ ) σ abs ( λ ) d λ ,
R = ( 1 N 1 3 ) ,

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