Abstract

We report on a detailed investigation of optical planar waveguides fabricated in the new nonlinear Ca4GdO(BO3)3 crystal by ionic implantation. Both single and multiple He+ implantations are investigated. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) in He+ multiple-implanted samples are achieved by type I phase matching for fundamental light propagating along the y axis and polarized along the z axis at 823 nm and for light propagating along the x axis and polarized along the z axis at 960 nm. SHG operates with low-power pumping of a cw Ti:sapphire laser. Analyses of SHG within the waveguides are presented. The results indicate that the nonlinearity of the material remains in the guiding area after ion implantation. The conversion efficiency was found to be 102. This value is increased by 10% after 1 h annealing at 220°C.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. H. T. Chai, "Advances in bulk inorganic nonlinear optical materials," Opt. Photonics News 10, 31-38 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Laurell, "Periodically poled materials for miniature light sources," Opt. Mater. 11, 235-244 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and J. Lang, "Visible laser sources based on frequency doubling in non linear waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673-1686 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien,F. Salin, and CRISMATEC Co., "Les borates mixtes M4LnO(BO3)3 (M2+=Ca2+,Sr2+; Ln3+=Y3+, Gd3+,La3+,Lu3+), cristaux non linéaires et leurs applications," French patent FR 95/01963, European patent extension 9690452.4-2205 (International patent extension pending).
  5. G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. L. Damelet, "Linear and nonlinear-optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium crystal Ca4GdO(BO3)3," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238-2247 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Mougel, "Les oxoborates de calcium et de terres rares (TR) Ca4TRO(BO3)3. Une nouvelle famille de matériaux à fonction multiples pour l'optique: croissance cristalline, propriétés non linéaires et laser," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Paris VI, 1999).
  7. F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert,J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser per-formances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3(Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:sapphire or laser diode," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W.R.Bosenberg and M.M.Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Server (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 53-55.
  9. F. Mougel, K. Dardenne, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Vivien, "Ytterbium-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3: an efficient infrared laser and self-frequency doubling crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 164-172 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Mougel, F. Augé, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 laser," Appl. Phys. B 67, 533-535 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and G. Aka, "Formation of planar waveguides in the new nonlinear gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3, crystal by 2-MeV He+ implantation," Opt. Lett. 23, 1680-1682 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford,"Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Fouchet, A. Carenco, C. Daguet, R. Guglielmi, and L. Riviere, "Wavelength dispersion of Ti induced refractive index change in LiNbO3 as a function of diffusion parameters," J. Lightwave Technol. , LT-5, 700-708 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, "Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate planar waveguides," Opt. Lett. 24, 1299-1301 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, "Mode propagation losses in He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 628-639 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, "Waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by proton implantation," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 323-238 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Boudrioua, F. Laurell, P. Moretti, and J. C. Loulergue, "Nonlinear optical properties of (H+,He+)-implanted planar waveguides in Z-cut LiNbO3: annealing effect," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1832-1840 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Boudrioua, S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, R. Kremer, and J. C. Loulergue, "Electro-optic coefficients in H+-ion implanted LiNbO3 planar waveguide," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 393-398 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. P. Biersach, J. F. Ziegler, and U. Littmark, Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, 1985).
  21. R. Ulrich and R. Torge, "Measurement of thin film parameters with a prism coupler," Appl. Opt. 12, 2901-2909 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. S. Chiang, "Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385-391 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "Blue light second harmonic generation in ion implanted KNbO3 channel waveguides of new design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4133-4135 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. L. Babsail, G. Lifante, and P. D. Townsend, "Second-harmonic generation in ion-implanted quartz planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 384-386 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919-933 (1973).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford,"Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

1998 (4)

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and G. Aka, "Formation of planar waveguides in the new nonlinear gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3, crystal by 2-MeV He+ implantation," Opt. Lett. 23, 1680-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, "Mode propagation losses in He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 628-639 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, R. Kremer, and J. C. Loulergue, "Electro-optic coefficients in H+-ion implanted LiNbO3 planar waveguide," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 393-398 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, F. Augé, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 laser," Appl. Phys. B 67, 533-535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert,J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser per-formances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3(Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. L. Damelet, "Linear and nonlinear-optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium crystal Ca4GdO(BO3)3," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238-2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "Blue light second harmonic generation in ion implanted KNbO3 channel waveguides of new design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4133-4135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and J. Lang, "Visible laser sources based on frequency doubling in non linear waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673-1686 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, "Waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by proton implantation," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 323-238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

L. Babsail, G. Lifante, and P. D. Townsend, "Second-harmonic generation in ion-implanted quartz planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 384-386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. Fouchet, A. Carenco, C. Daguet, R. Guglielmi, and L. Riviere, "Wavelength dispersion of Ti induced refractive index change in LiNbO3 as a function of diffusion parameters," J. Lightwave Technol. , LT-5, 700-708 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

K. S. Chiang, "Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385-391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919-933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich and R. Torge, "Measurement of thin film parameters with a prism coupler," Appl. Opt. 12, 2901-2909 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aka, G.

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, "Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate planar waveguides," Opt. Lett. 24, 1299-1301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, K. Dardenne, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Vivien, "Ytterbium-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3: an efficient infrared laser and self-frequency doubling crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 164-172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, J. C. Loulergue, and G. Aka, "Formation of planar waveguides in the new nonlinear gadolinium calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3, crystal by 2-MeV He+ implantation," Opt. Lett. 23, 1680-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, F. Augé, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 laser," Appl. Phys. B 67, 533-535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert,J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser per-formances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3(Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. L. Damelet, "Linear and nonlinear-optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium crystal Ca4GdO(BO3)3," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238-2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien,F. Salin, and CRISMATEC Co., "Les borates mixtes M4LnO(BO3)3 (M2+=Ca2+,Sr2+; Ln3+=Y3+, Gd3+,La3+,Lu3+), cristaux non linéaires et leurs applications," French patent FR 95/01963, European patent extension 9690452.4-2205 (International patent extension pending).

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:sapphire or laser diode," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W.R.Bosenberg and M.M.Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Server (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 53-55.

Aschiéri, P.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford,"Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Augé, F.

F. Mougel, F. Augé, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 laser," Appl. Phys. B 67, 533-535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:sapphire or laser diode," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W.R.Bosenberg and M.M.Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Server (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 53-55.

Babsail, L.

L. Babsail, G. Lifante, and P. D. Townsend, "Second-harmonic generation in ion-implanted quartz planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 384-386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baldi, P.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford,"Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Balembois, F.

F. Mougel, F. Augé, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 laser," Appl. Phys. B 67, 533-535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:sapphire or laser diode," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W.R.Bosenberg and M.M.Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Server (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 53-55.

Bamford, D. J.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford,"Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, St.

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "Blue light second harmonic generation in ion implanted KNbO3 channel waveguides of new design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4133-4135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, L.

T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, "Mode propagation losses in He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 628-639 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "Blue light second harmonic generation in ion implanted KNbO3 channel waveguides of new design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4133-4135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Benitez, J. M.

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert,J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser per-formances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3(Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biersach, J. P.

J. P. Biersach, J. F. Ziegler, and U. Littmark, Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, 1985).

Bloch, L.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien,F. Salin, and CRISMATEC Co., "Les borates mixtes M4LnO(BO3)3 (M2+=Ca2+,Sr2+; Ln3+=Y3+, Gd3+,La3+,Lu3+), cristaux non linéaires et leurs applications," French patent FR 95/01963, European patent extension 9690452.4-2205 (International patent extension pending).

Boudrioua, A.

Brun, A.

F. Mougel, F. Augé, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 laser," Appl. Phys. B 67, 533-535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:sapphire or laser diode," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W.R.Bosenberg and M.M.Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Server (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 53-55.

Buchal, C.

Buchal, Ch.

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "Blue light second harmonic generation in ion implanted KNbO3 channel waveguides of new design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4133-4135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carenco, A.

S. Fouchet, A. Carenco, C. Daguet, R. Guglielmi, and L. Riviere, "Wavelength dispersion of Ti induced refractive index change in LiNbO3 as a function of diffusion parameters," J. Lightwave Technol. , LT-5, 700-708 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chai, B. H.

B. H. T. Chai, "Advances in bulk inorganic nonlinear optical materials," Opt. Photonics News 10, 31-38 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, P. J.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Chanvillard, L.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford,"Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, "Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385-391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Colin, P.

Daguet, C.

S. Fouchet, A. Carenco, C. Daguet, R. Guglielmi, and L. Riviere, "Wavelength dispersion of Ti induced refractive index change in LiNbO3 as a function of diffusion parameters," J. Lightwave Technol. , LT-5, 700-708 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Damelet, J. L.

Dardenne, K.

de Micheli, M.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford,"Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, D.

T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, "Mode propagation losses in He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 628-639 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "Blue light second harmonic generation in ion implanted KNbO3 channel waveguides of new design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4133-4135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fouchet, S.

S. Fouchet, A. Carenco, C. Daguet, R. Guglielmi, and L. Riviere, "Wavelength dispersion of Ti induced refractive index change in LiNbO3 as a function of diffusion parameters," J. Lightwave Technol. , LT-5, 700-708 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Georges, P.

F. Mougel, F. Augé, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 laser," Appl. Phys. B 67, 533-535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:sapphire or laser diode," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W.R.Bosenberg and M.M.Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Server (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 53-55.

Godard, J.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien,F. Salin, and CRISMATEC Co., "Les borates mixtes M4LnO(BO3)3 (M2+=Ca2+,Sr2+; Ln3+=Y3+, Gd3+,La3+,Lu3+), cristaux non linéaires et leurs applications," French patent FR 95/01963, European patent extension 9690452.4-2205 (International patent extension pending).

Guglielmi, R.

S. Fouchet, A. Carenco, C. Daguet, R. Guglielmi, and L. Riviere, "Wavelength dispersion of Ti induced refractive index change in LiNbO3 as a function of diffusion parameters," J. Lightwave Technol. , LT-5, 700-708 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, "Mode propagation losses in He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 628-639 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "Blue light second harmonic generation in ion implanted KNbO3 channel waveguides of new design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4133-4135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, P.

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, "Waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by proton implantation," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 323-238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford,"Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hubert, H.

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert,J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser per-formances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3(Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jacquier, B.

Kahn-Harari, A.

F. Mougel, K. Dardenne, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Vivien, "Ytterbium-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3: an efficient infrared laser and self-frequency doubling crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 164-172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, F. Augé, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 laser," Appl. Phys. B 67, 533-535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert,J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser per-formances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3(Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. L. Damelet, "Linear and nonlinear-optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium crystal Ca4GdO(BO3)3," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238-2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien,F. Salin, and CRISMATEC Co., "Les borates mixtes M4LnO(BO3)3 (M2+=Ca2+,Sr2+; Ln3+=Y3+, Gd3+,La3+,Lu3+), cristaux non linéaires et leurs applications," French patent FR 95/01963, European patent extension 9690452.4-2205 (International patent extension pending).

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:sapphire or laser diode," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W.R.Bosenberg and M.M.Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Server (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 53-55.

Kremer, R.

A. Boudrioua, S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, R. Kremer, and J. C. Loulergue, "Electro-optic coefficients in H+-ion implanted LiNbO3 planar waveguide," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 393-398 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lang, J.

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and J. Lang, "Visible laser sources based on frequency doubling in non linear waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673-1686 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

Lifante, G.

L. Babsail, G. Lifante, and P. D. Townsend, "Second-harmonic generation in ion-implanted quartz planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 384-386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Littmark, U.

J. P. Biersach, J. F. Ziegler, and U. Littmark, Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, 1985).

Loulergue, J. C.

Moretti, P.

Mougel, F.

F. Mougel, K. Dardenne, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Vivien, "Ytterbium-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3: an efficient infrared laser and self-frequency doubling crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 164-172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, F. Augé, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 laser," Appl. Phys. B 67, 533-535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert,J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser per-formances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3(Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. L. Damelet, "Linear and nonlinear-optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium crystal Ca4GdO(BO3)3," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238-2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, "Les oxoborates de calcium et de terres rares (TR) Ca4TRO(BO3)3. Une nouvelle famille de matériaux à fonction multiples pour l'optique: croissance cristalline, propriétés non linéaires et laser," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Paris VI, 1999).

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:sapphire or laser diode," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W.R.Bosenberg and M.M.Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Server (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 53-55.

Nam, D. W.

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and J. Lang, "Visible laser sources based on frequency doubling in non linear waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673-1686 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford,"Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pelenc, D.

Pliska, T.

T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, "Mode propagation losses in He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 628-639 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "Blue light second harmonic generation in ion implanted KNbO3 channel waveguides of new design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4133-4135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Riviere, L.

S. Fouchet, A. Carenco, C. Daguet, R. Guglielmi, and L. Riviere, "Wavelength dispersion of Ti induced refractive index change in LiNbO3 as a function of diffusion parameters," J. Lightwave Technol. , LT-5, 700-708 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Salem, S. Ould

A. Boudrioua, S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, R. Kremer, and J. C. Loulergue, "Electro-optic coefficients in H+-ion implanted LiNbO3 planar waveguide," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 393-398 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. L. Damelet, "Linear and nonlinear-optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium crystal Ca4GdO(BO3)3," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238-2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien,F. Salin, and CRISMATEC Co., "Les borates mixtes M4LnO(BO3)3 (M2+=Ca2+,Sr2+; Ln3+=Y3+, Gd3+,La3+,Lu3+), cristaux non linéaires et leurs applications," French patent FR 95/01963, European patent extension 9690452.4-2205 (International patent extension pending).

Siala, S.

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and J. Lang, "Visible laser sources based on frequency doubling in non linear waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673-1686 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thevenard, P.

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, "Waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by proton implantation," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 323-238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Torge, R.

Townsend, P. D.

L. Babsail, G. Lifante, and P. D. Townsend, "Second-harmonic generation in ion-implanted quartz planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 384-386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

Vivien, D.

A. Boudrioua, J. C. Loulergue, P. Moretti, B. Jacquier, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, "Second-harmonic generation in He+-implanted gadolinium calcium oxoborate planar waveguides," Opt. Lett. 24, 1299-1301 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, K. Dardenne, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, and D. Vivien, "Ytterbium-doped Ca4GdO(BO3)3: an efficient infrared laser and self-frequency doubling crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 164-172 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, F. Augé, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 laser," Appl. Phys. B 67, 533-535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert,J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser per-formances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3(Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. L. Damelet, "Linear and nonlinear-optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium crystal Ca4GdO(BO3)3," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238-2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:sapphire or laser diode," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W.R.Bosenberg and M.M.Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Server (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 53-55.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien,F. Salin, and CRISMATEC Co., "Les borates mixtes M4LnO(BO3)3 (M2+=Ca2+,Sr2+; Ln3+=Y3+, Gd3+,La3+,Lu3+), cristaux non linéaires et leurs applications," French patent FR 95/01963, European patent extension 9690452.4-2205 (International patent extension pending).

Waarts, R. G.

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and J. Lang, "Visible laser sources based on frequency doubling in non linear waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673-1686 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Webjörn, J.

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and J. Lang, "Visible laser sources based on frequency doubling in non linear waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673-1686 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wirl, K.

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, "Waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by proton implantation," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 323-238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919-933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, J. F.

J. P. Biersach, J. F. Ziegler, and U. Littmark, Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, 1985).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. Mougel, F. Augé, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "New green self-frequency-doubling diode-pumped Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 laser," Appl. Phys. B 67, 533-535 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschiéri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford,"Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "Blue light second harmonic generation in ion implanted KNbO3 channel waveguides of new design," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4133-4135 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Babsail, G. Lifante, and P. D. Townsend, "Second-harmonic generation in ion-implanted quartz planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 384-386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919-933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and J. Lang, "Visible laser sources based on frequency doubling in non linear waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673-1686 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. Fouchet, A. Carenco, C. Daguet, R. Guglielmi, and L. Riviere, "Wavelength dispersion of Ti induced refractive index change in LiNbO3 as a function of diffusion parameters," J. Lightwave Technol. , LT-5, 700-708 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, "Construction of refractive index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 385-391 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

P. Moretti, P. Thevenard, K. Wirl, and P. Hertel, "Waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by proton implantation," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 323-238 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

A. Boudrioua, S. Ould Salem, P. Moretti, R. Kremer, and J. C. Loulergue, "Electro-optic coefficients in H+-ion implanted LiNbO3 planar waveguide," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 393-398 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (2)

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert,J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, "Infrared laser per-formances and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3(Nd:GdCOB)," Opt. Mater. 8, 161-173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurell, "Periodically poled materials for miniature light sources," Opt. Mater. 11, 235-244 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photonics News (1)

B. H. T. Chai, "Advances in bulk inorganic nonlinear optical materials," Opt. Photonics News 10, 31-38 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien,F. Salin, and CRISMATEC Co., "Les borates mixtes M4LnO(BO3)3 (M2+=Ca2+,Sr2+; Ln3+=Y3+, Gd3+,La3+,Lu3+), cristaux non linéaires et leurs applications," French patent FR 95/01963, European patent extension 9690452.4-2205 (International patent extension pending).

F. Augé, F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, "Self-frequency doubling of Nd:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) laser pumped by cw Ti:sapphire or laser diode," in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W.R.Bosenberg and M.M.Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Server (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 53-55.

F. Mougel, "Les oxoborates de calcium et de terres rares (TR) Ca4TRO(BO3)3. Une nouvelle famille de matériaux à fonction multiples pour l'optique: croissance cristalline, propriétés non linéaires et laser," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Paris VI, 1999).

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Biersach, J. F. Ziegler, and U. Littmark, Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, 1985).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption versus wavelength for GdCOB crystals before and after He + implantation. O.D., optical density.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive-index profiles of a single He + implantation of GdCOB. S1 sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive-index profiles of multiple He + implantations of GdCOB. GdCOB1 sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic SHG setup. P, polarizer; O, microscope objectives; D, density filter; F, IR filter; PM, photomultiplier; PC, personal computer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Second-harmonic intensity as a function of the fundamental wavelength for a He + multiple-implantation GdCOB planar waveguide. (a) GdCOB1 for SHG in the Z , X plane and (b) GdCOB2 for SHG in the Y , X plane. The curves labeled th. represent the best theoretical fit of the experimental data.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fundamental and harmonic guided-mode effective indices variation versus wavelength in the case of (a) the GdCOB1 sample (phase matching in the Z , X ) plane and (b) the GdCOB2 sample (phase matching in the Y , X plane). The crossover points predict the frequency-doubled wavelengths for different guided modes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variation of phase-matching wavelength ( λ PM ) as a function of the guide features: (a) index modification, (b) depth changes for different mode interactions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SH power as a function of the fundamental pump power for He + multiple-implantation GdCOB planar waveguides for phase matching at 822 and 960 nm, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Variation of the overlap integral ( I OVL ) as a function of (a) the guide index modification, (b) depth changes. He + -implanted GdCOB planar waveguide for different mode interactions.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Single-Implantation Conditions of GdCOB Planar Waveguides

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of Implanted GdCOB Planar Waveguide Features

Tables Icon

Table 3 Summary of SHG Experiments within He + -Implanted GdCOB Planar Waveguides

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ k = k sh 2 k f = 0 .
η = P SH P F = ( 2 ω F 2 N m N m SH F 2 c 3 ϵ 0 ) ( d eff 2 L 2 ) P F A OVL sin c 2 ( 1 2 Δ k L ) ,
A OVL = 1 I OVL 2 ,
I OVL + H y ( m , ω ) H y ( m , ω ) E y ( n , 2 ω ) d x ,

Metrics