Abstract

We investigate the changes in the optical properties of fused silica exposed to intense infrared femtosecond pulses. The laser-induced absorption spectrum reveals the creation of color centers inside the glass matrix, comparable with those observed in ultraviolet-exposed fused silica. The laser-induced absorption is associated with a laser-induced refractive-index change, which can be used for waveguide fabrication. The change in third-order susceptibility in such waveguides is measured by third-harmonic-generation microscopy as a function of the irradiation parameters.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-1313 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Lett. 29, 1840-1842 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with stigmatically shaped beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kajihara, Y. Ikuta, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Power dependence of defect formation in SiO2 glass by F2 laser irradiation," Opt. Lett. 81, 3164-3166 (2002).
  8. L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, and D. N. Payne, "Photoinduced absorption change in germanosilicate performs: evidence for the color-center model of photosensitivity," Appl. Opt. 34, 3436-3440 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. M. Davis, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. O. M. Efimov, K. Gabel, S. V. Garnov, L. B. Glebov, S. Grantham, M. Richardson, and M. J. Soileau, "Color-center generation in silicate glasses exposed to infrared femtosecond pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 193-199 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2496-2504 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Stevens-Kalceff, A. Stesmans, and J. Wong, "Defects induced in fused silica by high fluence ultraviolet laser pulses at 355 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 758-760 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Lin, V. A. Mashkov, and R. G. Leisure, "Multiple interconversions of the E′ and oxygen-hole defect centers in high-purity amorphous silica during anneal-interrupted x irradiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1605-1608 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. A. Stevens-Kalceff, "Micromodification of silicon dioxide in a variable pressure/environmental scanning electron microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3050-3052 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. Skuja, "The origin of the intrinsic 1.9 eV luminescence band in glassy SiO2," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 51-69 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. Leclerc, C. Pfleiderer, H. Hitzler, J. Wolfrum, K.-O. Greulich, S. Thomas, H. Fabian, R. Takke, and W. Englisch, "Transient 210-nm absorption in fused silica induced by high-power UV laser irradiation," Opt. Lett. 16, 940-942 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Mohanty, N. C. Mishra, S. V. Bhat, P. K. Basu, and D. Kanjilal, "Dense electronic excitation induced defects in fused silica," J. Phys. D 36, 3151-3155 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, Optics and Photonics Series (Academic, 2000).
  19. G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, "Third order nonlinear integrated optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953-970 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. N. Christodoulides and E. D. Eugenieva, "Blocking and routing discrete solitons in two-dimensional networks of nonlinear waveguide arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 233901 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 468-470 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Brocas, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, "Efficient selection of focusing optics in non linear microscopy design through THG analysis," Opt. Express 12, 2317-2326 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, "Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Phys. Rev. E 66, 67602-1-67602-4 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1726-1728 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. A. Cerqua-Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, "Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 10, 155-159 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (4)

2003 (3)

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with stigmatically shaped beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Mohanty, N. C. Mishra, S. V. Bhat, P. K. Basu, and D. Kanjilal, "Dense electronic excitation induced defects in fused silica," J. Phys. D 36, 3151-3155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Study of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2496-2504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Stevens-Kalceff, A. Stesmans, and J. Wong, "Defects induced in fused silica by high fluence ultraviolet laser pulses at 355 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 758-760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajihara, Y. Ikuta, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Power dependence of defect formation in SiO2 glass by F2 laser irradiation," Opt. Lett. 81, 3164-3166 (2002).

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, "Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Phys. Rev. E 66, 67602-1-67602-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1726-1728 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Stevens-Kalceff, "Micromodification of silicon dioxide in a variable pressure/environmental scanning electron microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3050-3052 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Christodoulides and E. D. Eugenieva, "Blocking and routing discrete solitons in two-dimensional networks of nonlinear waveguide arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 233901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

O. M. Efimov, K. Gabel, S. V. Garnov, L. B. Glebov, S. Grantham, M. Richardson, and M. J. Soileau, "Color-center generation in silicate glasses exposed to infrared femtosecond pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 193-199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Cerqua-Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, "Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 10, 155-159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, and D. N. Payne, "Photoinduced absorption change in germanosilicate performs: evidence for the color-center model of photosensitivity," Appl. Opt. 34, 3436-3440 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lin, V. A. Mashkov, and R. G. Leisure, "Multiple interconversions of the E′ and oxygen-hole defect centers in high-purity amorphous silica during anneal-interrupted x irradiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1605-1608 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. Skuja, "The origin of the intrinsic 1.9 eV luminescence band in glassy SiO2," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 51-69 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, "Third order nonlinear integrated optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953-970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J. L.

Barille, R.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, "Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Phys. Rev. E 66, 67602-1-67602-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Basu, P. K.

T. Mohanty, N. C. Mishra, S. V. Bhat, P. K. Basu, and D. Kanjilal, "Dense electronic excitation induced defects in fused silica," J. Phys. D 36, 3151-3155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, S. V.

T. Mohanty, N. C. Mishra, S. V. Bhat, P. K. Basu, and D. Kanjilal, "Dense electronic excitation induced defects in fused silica," J. Phys. D 36, 3151-3155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Brocas, A.

Burghoff, J.

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 468-470 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Canioni, L.

A. Brocas, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, "Efficient selection of focusing optics in non linear microscopy design through THG analysis," Opt. Express 12, 2317-2326 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, "Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Phys. Rev. E 66, 67602-1-67602-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cerqua-Richardson, K. A.

K. A. Cerqua-Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, "Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 10, 155-159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chan, J. W.

Christodoulides, D. N.

D. N. Christodoulides and E. D. Eugenieva, "Blocking and routing discrete solitons in two-dimensional networks of nonlinear waveguide arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 233901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, K. M.

De Silvestri, S.

Dong, L.

Efimov, O. M.

Englisch, W.

Eugenieva, E. D.

D. N. Christodoulides and E. D. Eugenieva, "Blocking and routing discrete solitons in two-dimensional networks of nonlinear waveguide arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 233901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabian, H.

Finlayson, N.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, "Third order nonlinear integrated optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953-970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gabel, K.

Gaeta, A. L.

Garnov, S. V.

Glebov, L. B.

Grantham, S.

Greulich, K.-O.

Hirano, M.

K. Kajihara, Y. Ikuta, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Power dependence of defect formation in SiO2 glass by F2 laser irradiation," Opt. Lett. 81, 3164-3166 (2002).

Hirao, K.

Hitzler, H.

Hô, N.

Homoelle, D.

Hosono, H.

K. Kajihara, Y. Ikuta, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Power dependence of defect formation in SiO2 glass by F2 laser irradiation," Opt. Lett. 81, 3164-3166 (2002).

Huser, T.

Ikuta, Y.

K. Kajihara, Y. Ikuta, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Power dependence of defect formation in SiO2 glass by F2 laser irradiation," Opt. Lett. 81, 3164-3166 (2002).

Joshi, S.

K. A. Cerqua-Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, "Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 10, 155-159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kajihara, K.

K. Kajihara, Y. Ikuta, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Power dependence of defect formation in SiO2 glass by F2 laser irradiation," Opt. Lett. 81, 3164-3166 (2002).

Kanjilal, D.

T. Mohanty, N. C. Mishra, S. V. Bhat, P. K. Basu, and D. Kanjilal, "Dense electronic excitation induced defects in fused silica," J. Phys. D 36, 3151-3155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

Laporta, P.

Lawrence, B.

K. A. Cerqua-Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, "Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 10, 155-159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leclerc, N.

Lederer, F.

Leisure, R. G.

Z. Lin, V. A. Mashkov, and R. G. Leisure, "Multiple interconversions of the E′ and oxygen-hole defect centers in high-purity amorphous silica during anneal-interrupted x irradiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1605-1608 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

Z. Lin, V. A. Mashkov, and R. G. Leisure, "Multiple interconversions of the E′ and oxygen-hole defect centers in high-purity amorphous silica during anneal-interrupted x irradiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1605-1608 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

Marangoni, M.

Mashkov, V. A.

Z. Lin, V. A. Mashkov, and R. G. Leisure, "Multiple interconversions of the E′ and oxygen-hole defect centers in high-purity amorphous silica during anneal-interrupted x irradiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1605-1608 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McKinley, J. M.

K. A. Cerqua-Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, "Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 10, 155-159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, N. C.

T. Mohanty, N. C. Mishra, S. V. Bhat, P. K. Basu, and D. Kanjilal, "Dense electronic excitation induced defects in fused silica," J. Phys. D 36, 3151-3155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mohanty, T.

T. Mohanty, N. C. Mishra, S. V. Bhat, P. K. Basu, and D. Kanjilal, "Dense electronic excitation induced defects in fused silica," J. Phys. D 36, 3151-3155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 468-470 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, Optics and Photonics Series (Academic, 2000).

Osellame, R.

Payne, D. N.

Pertsch, T.

Peschel, U.

Pfleiderer, C.

Polli, D.

Ramponi, R.

Reekie, L.

Richardson, K.

Richardson, M.

Risbud, S.

Rivero, C.

Rivoire, G.

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, "Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Phys. Rev. E 66, 67602-1-67602-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Sarger, L.

A. Brocas, L. Canioni, and L. Sarger, "Efficient selection of focusing optics in non linear microscopy design through THG analysis," Opt. Express 12, 2317-2326 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, "Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Phys. Rev. E 66, 67602-1-67602-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

Seaton, C. T.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, "Third order nonlinear integrated optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953-970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Skuja, L.

L. Skuja, "The origin of the intrinsic 1.9 eV luminescence band in glassy SiO2," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 51-69 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C.

Soileau, M. J.

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, "Third order nonlinear integrated optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953-970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stesmans, A.

M. A. Stevens-Kalceff, A. Stesmans, and J. Wong, "Defects induced in fused silica by high fluence ultraviolet laser pulses at 355 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 758-760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stevens-Kalceff, M. A.

M. A. Stevens-Kalceff, A. Stesmans, and J. Wong, "Defects induced in fused silica by high fluence ultraviolet laser pulses at 355 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 758-760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Stevens-Kalceff, "Micromodification of silicon dioxide in a variable pressure/environmental scanning electron microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3050-3052 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Streltsov, A. M.

Sugimoto, N.

Taccheo, S.

Takke, R.

Thomas, S.

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Vallée, R.

Villeneuve, A.

K. A. Cerqua-Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, "Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 10, 155-159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wielandy, S.

Will, M.

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 468-470 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolfrum, J.

Wong, J.

M. A. Stevens-Kalceff, A. Stesmans, and J. Wong, "Defects induced in fused silica by high fluence ultraviolet laser pulses at 355 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 758-760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, "Third order nonlinear integrated optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953-970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zanoni, R.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, "Third order nonlinear integrated optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953-970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zoubir, A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. A. Stevens-Kalceff, A. Stesmans, and J. Wong, "Defects induced in fused silica by high fluence ultraviolet laser pulses at 355 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 758-760 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Stevens-Kalceff, "Micromodification of silicon dioxide in a variable pressure/environmental scanning electron microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3050-3052 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, "Third order nonlinear integrated optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953-970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

L. Skuja, "The origin of the intrinsic 1.9 eV luminescence band in glassy SiO2," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 51-69 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. D (1)

T. Mohanty, N. C. Mishra, S. V. Bhat, P. K. Basu, and D. Kanjilal, "Dense electronic excitation induced defects in fused silica," J. Phys. D 36, 3151-3155 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (9)

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1726-1728 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 468-470 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Leclerc, C. Pfleiderer, H. Hitzler, J. Wolfrum, K.-O. Greulich, S. Thomas, H. Fabian, R. Takke, and W. Englisch, "Transient 210-nm absorption in fused silica induced by high-power UV laser irradiation," Opt. Lett. 16, 940-942 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajihara, Y. Ikuta, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, "Power dependence of defect formation in SiO2 glass by F2 laser irradiation," Opt. Lett. 81, 3164-3166 (2002).

K. M. Davis, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, "Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 1311-1313 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, C. Lopez, M. Richardson, and K. Richardson, "Femtosecond laser fabrication of tubular waveguides in poly(methyl methacrylate)," Opt. Lett. 29, 1840-1842 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) (1)

K. A. Cerqua-Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, S. Joshi, and A. Villeneuve, "Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form," Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 10, 155-159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

R. Barille, L. Canioni, L. Sarger, and G. Rivoire, "Nonlinearity measurements of thin films by third-harmonic-generation microscopy," Phys. Rev. E 66, 67602-1-67602-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. N. Christodoulides and E. D. Eugenieva, "Blocking and routing discrete solitons in two-dimensional networks of nonlinear waveguide arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 233901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lin, V. A. Mashkov, and R. G. Leisure, "Multiple interconversions of the E′ and oxygen-hole defect centers in high-purity amorphous silica during anneal-interrupted x irradiation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1605-1608 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, Optics and Photonics Series (Academic, 2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption change spectra after irradiation to IR fs pulses measured for two different energy doses (i.e., translation speeds) in fused silica.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Evolution of the 5.8 eV peak intensity as a function of time at 25 ° C and after a 2 h annealing process at 200 ° C .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Excitation and emission spectra of defects in fused silica induced by IR fs pulses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive-index change and waveguide morphology for different writing pulse energies. The insets show the mode profiles at 633 nm corresponding to the LP 01 and LP 11 modes at the waveguide outputs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Waveguide diameter and third-order susceptibility changes as a function of pulse energy for different translation speeds. The insets are the corresponding THG micrographs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the input laser spectrum, the broadened spectrum of the coupled light, and the calculated spectrum corresponding to a nonlinear phase shift of 3.1 π due to self-phase modulation.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D = E p f A v .
V = 2 π λ a n 1 2 n 0 2 .
I 3 ω = K 1 ω 4 P ω 3 τ p 3 J 2 ,
K = χ ( 3 ) 2 48 π c ϵ 0 F ,
Δ χ ( 3 ) χ ( 3 ) = ( I 3 ω ex I 3 ω un ) 1 2 1 ,
S ( z , ω ) E ̃ ( z , ω ) 2 = E ( 0 , t ) exp [ i Δ ϕ NL ( z , t ) + i ( ω ω 0 ) t ] d t 2 .
Δ ϕ NL = k 0 n 2 I 0 L .

Metrics