Abstract

A brief review is given of topics relating to dynamical processes arising in nonlinear interactions between light and resonant systems (atoms or molecules) in the presence of a magnetic field.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1201 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Auzinsh and R. Ferber, Optical Polarization of Molecules (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1995).
  3. We will use the word "particle" to refer to either atoms or molecules.
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    [CrossRef]
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  8. M. Auzinsh, "Angular momenta dynamics in magnetic and electric field: Classical and quantum approach," Can. J. Phys. 75, 853-872 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. M. Rochester and D. Budker, "Atomic polarization visualized," Am. J. Phys. 69, 450-454 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. P. Auzinsh and R. S. Ferber, "Optical pumping of diatomic molecules in the electronic ground state: classical and quantum approaches," Phys. Rev. A 43, 2374-2386 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Dyakonov, "Theory of resonance scattering of light by a gas in the presence of a magnetic field," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 47, 2213-2221 (1964).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  21. The quantum-beat frequency must be higher than the relaxation rate for quantum-beat dynamics to be clearly observed. In molecules, for example, the excited-state relaxation rate is often dominated by radiative decay and is typically ∼108 s−1 , which is greater than the typical ground-state relaxation rate (∼106 s−1 ). Thus larger magnetic fields are required to observe excited-state Zeeman beats than for the observation of ground-state quantum beats.
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  30. R. S. Ferber, A. I. Okunevich, O. A. Shmit, and M. Y. Tamanis, "Landé factor measurements for the 130Te2 electronic ground state," Chem. Phys. Lett. 90, 476-480 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Auzinsh, K. Nasyrov, M. Tamanis, R. Ferber, and A. Shalagin, "Resonance of quantum beats in a system of magnetic sublevels of the electronic ground state of molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 65, 891-897 (1987).
  32. M. P. Auzinsh, K. A. Nasyrov, M. Y. Tamanis, R. S. Ferber, and A. M. Shalagin, "Determination of the ground-state Landé factor for diatomic molecules by a beat-resonance method," Chem. Phys. Lett. 167, 129-136 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. P. Jacobs, W. M. Klipstein, S. K. Lamoreaux, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, "Limit on the electric-dipole moment of 199Hg using synchronous optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3521-3540 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. M. V. Romalis, W. C. Griffith, J. P. Jacobs, and E. N. Fortson, "New limit on the permanent electric dipole moment of 199Hg," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2505-2508 (2001).
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  37. V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, Y. P. Malakyan, and S. M. Rochester, "Selective addressing of high-rank atomic polarization moments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253001 (2003).
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  38. Y. P. Malakyan, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation of frequency-modulated light resonant with a low-J transition," Phys. Rev. A 69, 013817 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  51. J. D. Xu, G. Wäckerle, and M. Mehring, "Multiple-quantum spin coherence in the ground state of alkali atomic vapors," Phys. Rev. A 55, 206-213 (1997).
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  53. A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, and M. S. Zubairy, "Enhancement of Kerr nonlinearity by multiphoton coherence," Opt. Lett. 28, 96-98 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  56. D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, "Sensitive magnetometry based on nonlinear magneto-optical rotation," Phys. Rev. A 62, 043403 (2000).
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  61. V. V. Yashchuk, J. Granwehr, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, A. Trabesinger, J. T. Urban, D. Budker, and A. Pines, "Hyperpolarized xenon nuclear spins detected by optical atomic magnetometry" (2004), http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0404090.
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  63. M. Auzinsh, M. Tamanis, and R. Ferber, "Zeeman quantum beats after optical depopulation of the ground electronic state of diatomic molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 63, 688-693 (1986).
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  71. S. Rochester, C. J. Bowers, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, "Measurement of lifetimes and tensor polarizabilities of odd-parity states of atomic samarium," Phys. Rev. A 59, 3480-3494 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  72. D. Budker, D. Demille, E. D. Commins, and M. S. Zolotorev, "Experimental investigation of excited states in atomic dysprosium," Phys. Rev. A 50, 132-143 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  73. A. T. Nguyen, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, "Search for parity nonconservation in atomic dysprosium," Phys. Rev. A 56, 3453-3463 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  74. E. B. Aleksandrov and V. S. Zapasskii, "Magnetic resonance in the Faraday rotation noise spectrum," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 132-138 (1981).
  75. M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzweig, and A. Lezama, "Noise spectroscopy of non-linear magneto-optical resonances in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809, (2004).
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  79. When the excitation light has a spectral profile broader than the homogeneous absorption linewidth, calculations can also be simplified by using rate equations for the Zeeman coherences.8081 It has been demonstrated that in many cases these rate equations give very good agreement between the model and experimental results. Recently, a detailed analysis82 of the application limits for the rate equations for Zeeman coherences for nonlinear magneto-optical effects was carried out.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2004 (4)

Y. P. Malakyan, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation of frequency-modulated light resonant with a low-J transition," Phys. Rev. A 69, 013817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Kawall, F. Bay, S. Bickman, Y. Jiang, and D. DeMille, "Precision Zeeman-Stark spectroscopy of the metastable a(1)[3Sigma+] state of PbO," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133007 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzweig, and A. Lezama, "Noise spectroscopy of non-linear magneto-optical resonances in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809, (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Blushs and M. P. Auzinsh, "Validity of rate equations for Zeeman coherences for analysis of nonlinear interaction of atoms with laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 69, 063806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, G. R. Welch, and M. S. Zubairy, "Enhancement of Kerr nonlinearity by multiphoton coherence," Opt. Lett. 28, 96-98 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, Y. P. Malakyan, and S. M. Rochester, "Selective addressing of high-rank atomic polarization moments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Failache, P. Valente, G. Ban, V. Lorent, and A. Lezama, "Inhibition of electromagnetically induced absorption due to excited state decoherence in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 67, 043810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Andreeva, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Two-color coherent population trapping in a single Cs hyperfine transition, with application in magnetometry," Appl. Phys. B 76, 667-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Geremia, J. K. Stockton, A. C. Doherty, and H. Mabuchi, "Quantum Kalman filtering and the Heisenberg limit in atomic magnetometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 25801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, "Nonlinear magneto optical rotation with frequency-modulated light," Phys. Rev. A 65, 055403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Regan, D. Commins, C. J. Schmidt, and D. DeMille, "New limit on the electron electric dipole moment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 071805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

H. Gilles, J. Hamel, and B. Cheron, "Laser pumped 4He magnetometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2253-2260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Romalis, W. C. Griffith, J. P. Jacobs, and E. N. Fortson, "New limit on the permanent electric dipole moment of 199Hg," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2505-2508 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Rochester and D. Budker, "Atomic polarization visualized," Am. J. Phys. 69, 450-454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, "Sensitive magnetometry based on nonlinear magneto-optical rotation," Phys. Rev. A 62, 043403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

S. Rochester, C. J. Bowers, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, "Measurement of lifetimes and tensor polarizabilities of odd-parity states of atomic samarium," Phys. Rev. A 59, 3480-3494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nasyrov, "Wigner representation of rotational motion," J. Phys. A 32, 6663-6678 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Auzinsh, "The evolution and revival structure of angular momentum quantum wave packets," Can. J. Phys. 77, 491-503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (6)

M. Auzinsh, "Angular momenta dynamics in magnetic and electric field: Classical and quantum approach," Can. J. Phys. 75, 853-872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Hahn, "Concepts of NMR in quantum optics," Concepts Magn. Reson. 9, 69-81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Nguyen, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, "Search for parity nonconservation in atomic dysprosium," Phys. Rev. A 56, 3453-3463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Lobodzin´ski and W. Gawlik, "Role of trap states in forward scattering of resonance light," Phys. Scr. T70, 138-44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Xu, G. Wäckerle, and M. Mehring, "Multiple-quantum spin coherence in the ground state of alkali atomic vapors," Phys. Rev. A 55, 206-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Xu, G. Wäckerle, and M. Mehring, "Optical detection of spin multipole order in the ground state of alkali atoms," Z. Phys. D 42, 5-13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

B. Lobodzin´ski and W. Gawlik, "Multipole moments and trap states in forward scattering of resonance light," Phys. Rev. A 54, 2238-52 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cheron, H. Gilles, J. Hamel, O. Moreau, and E. Noel, "4He optical pumping with frequency modulated light," J. Phys. II 6, 175-185 (1996).

1995 (2)

B. Cheron, H. Gilles, J. Hamel, O. Moreau, and E. Noel, "A new optical pumping scheme using a frequency modulated semi-conductor laser for 4He magnetometers," Opt. Commun. 115, 71-74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Jacobs, W. M. Klipstein, S. K. Lamoreaux, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, "Limit on the electric-dipole moment of 199Hg using synchronous optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3521-3540 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

D. Suter and T. Marty, "Experimental observation of the rotation properties of atomic multipoles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 242-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. Demille, E. D. Commins, and M. S. Zolotorev, "Experimental investigation of excited states in atomic dysprosium," Phys. Rev. A 50, 132-143 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1991 (2)

M. P. Auzinsh and R. S. Ferber, "Optical pumping of diatomic molecules in the electronic ground state: classical and quantum approaches," Phys. Rev. A 43, 2374-2386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Hack and J. Huber, "Quantum-beat spectroscopy of molecules," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 10, 287-317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

P. K. Majumder, B. J. Venema, S. K. Lamoreaux, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, "Test of the linearity of quantum mechanics in optically pumped 201Hg," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2931-2934 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Auzinsh, "Nonlinear phase resonance of quantum beats in the dimer ground state," Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 750-752 (1990).

M. P. Auzinsh, K. A. Nasyrov, M. Y. Tamanis, R. S. Ferber, and A. M. Shalagin, "Determination of the ground-state Landé factor for diatomic molecules by a beat-resonance method," Chem. Phys. Lett. 167, 129-136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

M. Auzinsh, K. Nasyrov, M. Tamanis, R. Ferber, and A. Shalagin, "Resonance of quantum beats in a system of magnetic sublevels of the electronic ground state of molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 65, 891-897 (1987).

E. B. Aleksandrov, M. V. Balabas, and V. A. Bonch-Bruevich, "Nutation caused by a change in relaxation rate," Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 45, 309-310 (1987).

1986 (1)

M. Auzinsh, M. Tamanis, and R. Ferber, "Zeeman quantum beats after optical depopulation of the ground electronic state of diatomic molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 63, 688-693 (1986).

1985 (1)

M. P. Auzinsh, M. Y. Tamanis, and R. S. Ferber, "Observation of quantum beats in the kinetics of the thermalization of diatomic molecules in the electronic ground state," JETP Lett. 42, 160-163 (1985).

1984 (1)

M. Auzinsh and R. Ferber, "Observation of quantum-beat resonance between magnetic sublevels with DeltaM=4," JETP Lett. 39, 452-455 (1984).

1983 (1)

M. P. Auzinsh, R. S. Ferber, and I. Pirags, "K2 ground-state relaxation studies from transient process kinetics," J. Phys. B 16, 2759-2771 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. S. Ferber, A. I. Okunevich, O. A. Shmit, and M. Y. Tamanis, "Landé factor measurements for the 130Te2 electronic ground state," Chem. Phys. Lett. 90, 476-480 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

E. B. Aleksandrov and V. S. Zapasskii, "Magnetic resonance in the Faraday rotation noise spectrum," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 132-138 (1981).

K. A. Nasyrov and A. M. Shalagin, "Interaction between intense radiation and atoms or molecules experiencing classical rotary motion," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 6649-6663 (1981).

1978 (1)

W. Lange and J. Mlynek, "Quantum beats in transmission by time-resolved polarization spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1373-1375 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

M. Ducloy, "Non-linear effects in optical pumping with lasers. I. General theory of the classical limit for levels of large angular momenta," J. Phys. B 9, 357-381 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (4)

R. Wallenstein, J. A. Paisner, and A. L. Schawlow, "Observation of Zeeman quantum beats in molecular iodine," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1333-1336 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Okunevich, "Parametric relaxation resonance of optically oriented atoms in a transverse magnetic field," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 66, 1578-1580 (1974).

L. Novikov, "Optically excited parametric resonance," C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. B 278, 1063-1065 (1974).

A. I. Okunevich, "Parametric relaxation resonance of optically oriented metastable 4He atoms in an effective magnetic field," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 67, 881-889 (1974).

1972 (1)

E. B. Aleksandrov, "Optical manifestation of interference of non-degenerate atomic states," Sov. Phys. Usp. 15, 436-451 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. Dupont-Roc, "Determination of the three components of a weak magnetic field by optical methods," Rev. Phys. Appl. 5, 853-864 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. DuPont-Roc, S. Haroche, and F. Laloë, "Detection of the static magnetic field produced by the oriented nuclei of optically pumped 3He gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 758-760 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1964 (3)

E. Aleksandrov, "Luminiscence beats induced by pulsed excitation of coherent states," Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 17, 522-523 (1964).

J. N. Dodd, R. Kaul, and D. Warington, "The modulation of resonance fluorescence excited by pulsed light," Proc. Phys. Soc. London, Sect. A 84, 176-178 (1964).
[CrossRef]

M. Dyakonov, "Theory of resonance scattering of light by a gas in the presence of a magnetic field," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 47, 2213-2221 (1964).

1963 (1)

E. B. Aleksandrov, "Quantum beats of luminescence under modulated light excitation," Opt. Spectrosc. 14, 233-234 (1963).

1962 (2)

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Theorie quantique du cycle de pompage optique. Verification experimentale des noveaux effets prevus (1-re partie)," Ann. Phys. (Paris) 7, 423-461 (1962).

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Theorie quantique du cycle de pompage optique. Verification experimentale des noveaux effets prevus (2-e partie)," Ann. Phys. (Paris) 7, 469-504 (1962).

1961 (2)

W. Bell and A. Bloom, "Optically driven spin precession," Phys. Rev. Lett. 6, 280-281 (1961).
[CrossRef]

W. Bell and A. Bloom, "Observation of forbidden resonances in optically driven spin systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 6, 623-624 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Aleksandrov, E.

E. Aleksandrov, "Luminiscence beats induced by pulsed excitation of coherent states," Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 17, 522-523 (1964).

Aleksandrov, E. B.

E. B. Aleksandrov, M. V. Balabas, and V. A. Bonch-Bruevich, "Nutation caused by a change in relaxation rate," Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 45, 309-310 (1987).

Aleksandrov , E. B.

E. B. Aleksandrov and V. S. Zapasskii, "Magnetic resonance in the Faraday rotation noise spectrum," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 132-138 (1981).

Aleksandrov, E. B.

E. B. Aleksandrov, "Optical manifestation of interference of non-degenerate atomic states," Sov. Phys. Usp. 15, 436-451 (1972).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Aleksandrov, "Quantum beats of luminescence under modulated light excitation," Opt. Spectrosc. 14, 233-234 (1963).

Andreeva, C.

C. Andreeva, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Two-color coherent population trapping in a single Cs hyperfine transition, with application in magnetometry," Appl. Phys. B 76, 667-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Auzinsh, M.

M. Auzinsh, "The evolution and revival structure of angular momentum quantum wave packets," Can. J. Phys. 77, 491-503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Auzinsh, "Angular momenta dynamics in magnetic and electric field: Classical and quantum approach," Can. J. Phys. 75, 853-872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Auzinsh, "Nonlinear phase resonance of quantum beats in the dimer ground state," Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 750-752 (1990).

M. Auzinsh, K. Nasyrov, M. Tamanis, R. Ferber, and A. Shalagin, "Resonance of quantum beats in a system of magnetic sublevels of the electronic ground state of molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 65, 891-897 (1987).

M. Auzinsh, M. Tamanis, and R. Ferber, "Zeeman quantum beats after optical depopulation of the ground electronic state of diatomic molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 63, 688-693 (1986).

Auzinsh , M.

M. Auzinsh and R. Ferber, "Observation of quantum-beat resonance between magnetic sublevels with DeltaM=4," JETP Lett. 39, 452-455 (1984).

Auzinsh, M. P.

K. Blushs and M. P. Auzinsh, "Validity of rate equations for Zeeman coherences for analysis of nonlinear interaction of atoms with laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 69, 063806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Auzinsh , M. P.

M. P. Auzinsh and R. S. Ferber, "Optical pumping of diatomic molecules in the electronic ground state: classical and quantum approaches," Phys. Rev. A 43, 2374-2386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Auzinsh, M. P.

M. P. Auzinsh, K. A. Nasyrov, M. Y. Tamanis, R. S. Ferber, and A. M. Shalagin, "Determination of the ground-state Landé factor for diatomic molecules by a beat-resonance method," Chem. Phys. Lett. 167, 129-136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Auzinsh, M. Y. Tamanis, and R. S. Ferber, "Observation of quantum beats in the kinetics of the thermalization of diatomic molecules in the electronic ground state," JETP Lett. 42, 160-163 (1985).

M. P. Auzinsh, R. S. Ferber, and I. Pirags, "K2 ground-state relaxation studies from transient process kinetics," J. Phys. B 16, 2759-2771 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Balabas, M. V.

E. B. Aleksandrov, M. V. Balabas, and V. A. Bonch-Bruevich, "Nutation caused by a change in relaxation rate," Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 45, 309-310 (1987).

Ban, G.

H. Failache, P. Valente, G. Ban, V. Lorent, and A. Lezama, "Inhibition of electromagnetically induced absorption due to excited state decoherence in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 67, 043810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bay, F.

D. Kawall, F. Bay, S. Bickman, Y. Jiang, and D. DeMille, "Precision Zeeman-Stark spectroscopy of the metastable a(1)[3Sigma+] state of PbO," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133007 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bell , W.

W. Bell and A. Bloom, "Optically driven spin precession," Phys. Rev. Lett. 6, 280-281 (1961).
[CrossRef]

W. Bell and A. Bloom, "Observation of forbidden resonances in optically driven spin systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 6, 623-624 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Bevilacqua, G.

C. Andreeva, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Two-color coherent population trapping in a single Cs hyperfine transition, with application in magnetometry," Appl. Phys. B 76, 667-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, V.

C. Andreeva, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Two-color coherent population trapping in a single Cs hyperfine transition, with application in magnetometry," Appl. Phys. B 76, 667-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bickman, S.

D. Kawall, F. Bay, S. Bickman, Y. Jiang, and D. DeMille, "Precision Zeeman-Stark spectroscopy of the metastable a(1)[3Sigma+] state of PbO," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133007 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, A.

W. Bell and A. Bloom, "Observation of forbidden resonances in optically driven spin systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 6, 623-624 (1961).
[CrossRef]

W. Bell and A. Bloom, "Optically driven spin precession," Phys. Rev. Lett. 6, 280-281 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Blushs , K.

K. Blushs and M. P. Auzinsh, "Validity of rate equations for Zeeman coherences for analysis of nonlinear interaction of atoms with laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 69, 063806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bonch-Bruevich, V. A.

E. B. Aleksandrov, M. V. Balabas, and V. A. Bonch-Bruevich, "Nutation caused by a change in relaxation rate," Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 45, 309-310 (1987).

Bowers, C. J.

S. Rochester, C. J. Bowers, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, "Measurement of lifetimes and tensor polarizabilities of odd-parity states of atomic samarium," Phys. Rev. A 59, 3480-3494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

Y. P. Malakyan, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation of frequency-modulated light resonant with a low-J transition," Phys. Rev. A 69, 013817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, Y. P. Malakyan, and S. M. Rochester, "Selective addressing of high-rank atomic polarization moments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, "Nonlinear magneto optical rotation with frequency-modulated light," Phys. Rev. A 65, 055403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Rochester and D. Budker, "Atomic polarization visualized," Am. J. Phys. 69, 450-454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, "Sensitive magnetometry based on nonlinear magneto-optical rotation," Phys. Rev. A 62, 043403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Rochester, C. J. Bowers, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, "Measurement of lifetimes and tensor polarizabilities of odd-parity states of atomic samarium," Phys. Rev. A 59, 3480-3494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Nguyen, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, "Search for parity nonconservation in atomic dysprosium," Phys. Rev. A 56, 3453-3463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. Demille, E. D. Commins, and M. S. Zolotorev, "Experimental investigation of excited states in atomic dysprosium," Phys. Rev. A 50, 132-143 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cartaleva, S.

C. Andreeva, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Two-color coherent population trapping in a single Cs hyperfine transition, with application in magnetometry," Appl. Phys. B 76, 667-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheron, B.

H. Gilles, J. Hamel, and B. Cheron, "Laser pumped 4He magnetometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2253-2260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Cheron, H. Gilles, J. Hamel, O. Moreau, and E. Noel, "4He optical pumping with frequency modulated light," J. Phys. II 6, 175-185 (1996).

B. Cheron, H. Gilles, J. Hamel, O. Moreau, and E. Noel, "A new optical pumping scheme using a frequency modulated semi-conductor laser for 4He magnetometers," Opt. Commun. 115, 71-74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. DuPont-Roc, S. Haroche, and F. Laloë, "Detection of the static magnetic field produced by the oriented nuclei of optically pumped 3He gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 758-760 (1969).
[CrossRef]

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Theorie quantique du cycle de pompage optique. Verification experimentale des noveaux effets prevus (1-re partie)," Ann. Phys. (Paris) 7, 423-461 (1962).

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Theorie quantique du cycle de pompage optique. Verification experimentale des noveaux effets prevus (2-e partie)," Ann. Phys. (Paris) 7, 469-504 (1962).

Commins, D.

B. C. Regan, D. Commins, C. J. Schmidt, and D. DeMille, "New limit on the electron electric dipole moment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 071805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Commins, E. D.

D. Budker, D. Demille, E. D. Commins, and M. S. Zolotorev, "Experimental investigation of excited states in atomic dysprosium," Phys. Rev. A 50, 132-143 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cruz, L. S.

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzweig, and A. Lezama, "Noise spectroscopy of non-linear magneto-optical resonances in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dancheva, Y.

C. Andreeva, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Two-color coherent population trapping in a single Cs hyperfine transition, with application in magnetometry," Appl. Phys. B 76, 667-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

DeMille, D.

D. Kawall, F. Bay, S. Bickman, Y. Jiang, and D. DeMille, "Precision Zeeman-Stark spectroscopy of the metastable a(1)[3Sigma+] state of PbO," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133007 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Regan, D. Commins, C. J. Schmidt, and D. DeMille, "New limit on the electron electric dipole moment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 071805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rochester, C. J. Bowers, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, "Measurement of lifetimes and tensor polarizabilities of odd-parity states of atomic samarium," Phys. Rev. A 59, 3480-3494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Nguyen, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, "Search for parity nonconservation in atomic dysprosium," Phys. Rev. A 56, 3453-3463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. Demille, E. D. Commins, and M. S. Zolotorev, "Experimental investigation of excited states in atomic dysprosium," Phys. Rev. A 50, 132-143 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dodd, J. N.

J. N. Dodd, R. Kaul, and D. Warington, "The modulation of resonance fluorescence excited by pulsed light," Proc. Phys. Soc. London, Sect. A 84, 176-178 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Doherty, A. C.

J. M. Geremia, J. K. Stockton, A. C. Doherty, and H. Mabuchi, "Quantum Kalman filtering and the Heisenberg limit in atomic magnetometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 25801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ducloy, M.

M. Ducloy, "Non-linear effects in optical pumping with lasers. I. General theory of the classical limit for levels of large angular momenta," J. Phys. B 9, 357-381 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Dupont-Roc, J.

J. Dupont-Roc, "Determination of the three components of a weak magnetic field by optical methods," Rev. Phys. Appl. 5, 853-864 (1970).
[CrossRef]

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. DuPont-Roc, S. Haroche, and F. Laloë, "Detection of the static magnetic field produced by the oriented nuclei of optically pumped 3He gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 758-760 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Dyakonov, M.

M. Dyakonov, "Theory of resonance scattering of light by a gas in the presence of a magnetic field," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 47, 2213-2221 (1964).

Failache, H.

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzweig, and A. Lezama, "Noise spectroscopy of non-linear magneto-optical resonances in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809, (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Failache, P. Valente, G. Ban, V. Lorent, and A. Lezama, "Inhibition of electromagnetically induced absorption due to excited state decoherence in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 67, 043810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Felinto, D.

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzweig, and A. Lezama, "Noise spectroscopy of non-linear magneto-optical resonances in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferber, R.

M. Auzinsh, K. Nasyrov, M. Tamanis, R. Ferber, and A. Shalagin, "Resonance of quantum beats in a system of magnetic sublevels of the electronic ground state of molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 65, 891-897 (1987).

M. Auzinsh, M. Tamanis, and R. Ferber, "Zeeman quantum beats after optical depopulation of the ground electronic state of diatomic molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 63, 688-693 (1986).

M. Auzinsh and R. Ferber, "Observation of quantum-beat resonance between magnetic sublevels with DeltaM=4," JETP Lett. 39, 452-455 (1984).

Ferber, R. S.

M. P. Auzinsh and R. S. Ferber, "Optical pumping of diatomic molecules in the electronic ground state: classical and quantum approaches," Phys. Rev. A 43, 2374-2386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Auzinsh, K. A. Nasyrov, M. Y. Tamanis, R. S. Ferber, and A. M. Shalagin, "Determination of the ground-state Landé factor for diatomic molecules by a beat-resonance method," Chem. Phys. Lett. 167, 129-136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Auzinsh, M. Y. Tamanis, and R. S. Ferber, "Observation of quantum beats in the kinetics of the thermalization of diatomic molecules in the electronic ground state," JETP Lett. 42, 160-163 (1985).

M. P. Auzinsh, R. S. Ferber, and I. Pirags, "K2 ground-state relaxation studies from transient process kinetics," J. Phys. B 16, 2759-2771 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Ferber, A. I. Okunevich, O. A. Shmit, and M. Y. Tamanis, "Landé factor measurements for the 130Te2 electronic ground state," Chem. Phys. Lett. 90, 476-480 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fortson, E. N.

M. V. Romalis, W. C. Griffith, J. P. Jacobs, and E. N. Fortson, "New limit on the permanent electric dipole moment of 199Hg," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2505-2508 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Jacobs, W. M. Klipstein, S. K. Lamoreaux, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, "Limit on the electric-dipole moment of 199Hg using synchronous optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3521-3540 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Majumder, B. J. Venema, S. K. Lamoreaux, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, "Test of the linearity of quantum mechanics in optically pumped 201Hg," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2931-2934 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gawlik, W.

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, Y. P. Malakyan, and S. M. Rochester, "Selective addressing of high-rank atomic polarization moments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Lobodzin´ski and W. Gawlik, "Role of trap states in forward scattering of resonance light," Phys. Scr. T70, 138-44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Lobodzin´ski and W. Gawlik, "Multipole moments and trap states in forward scattering of resonance light," Phys. Rev. A 54, 2238-52 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geremia, J. M.

J. M. Geremia, J. K. Stockton, A. C. Doherty, and H. Mabuchi, "Quantum Kalman filtering and the Heisenberg limit in atomic magnetometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 25801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gilles, H.

H. Gilles, J. Hamel, and B. Cheron, "Laser pumped 4He magnetometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2253-2260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Cheron, H. Gilles, J. Hamel, O. Moreau, and E. Noel, "4He optical pumping with frequency modulated light," J. Phys. II 6, 175-185 (1996).

B. Cheron, H. Gilles, J. Hamel, O. Moreau, and E. Noel, "A new optical pumping scheme using a frequency modulated semi-conductor laser for 4He magnetometers," Opt. Commun. 115, 71-74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Griffith, W. C.

M. V. Romalis, W. C. Griffith, J. P. Jacobs, and E. N. Fortson, "New limit on the permanent electric dipole moment of 199Hg," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2505-2508 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hack , E.

E. Hack and J. Huber, "Quantum-beat spectroscopy of molecules," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 10, 287-317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, E. L.

E. L. Hahn, "Concepts of NMR in quantum optics," Concepts Magn. Reson. 9, 69-81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hamel, J.

H. Gilles, J. Hamel, and B. Cheron, "Laser pumped 4He magnetometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2253-2260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Cheron, H. Gilles, J. Hamel, O. Moreau, and E. Noel, "4He optical pumping with frequency modulated light," J. Phys. II 6, 175-185 (1996).

B. Cheron, H. Gilles, J. Hamel, O. Moreau, and E. Noel, "A new optical pumping scheme using a frequency modulated semi-conductor laser for 4He magnetometers," Opt. Commun. 115, 71-74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. DuPont-Roc, S. Haroche, and F. Laloë, "Detection of the static magnetic field produced by the oriented nuclei of optically pumped 3He gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 758-760 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Heckel, B. R.

J. P. Jacobs, W. M. Klipstein, S. K. Lamoreaux, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, "Limit on the electric-dipole moment of 199Hg using synchronous optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3521-3540 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Majumder, B. J. Venema, S. K. Lamoreaux, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, "Test of the linearity of quantum mechanics in optically pumped 201Hg," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2931-2934 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, J.

E. Hack and J. Huber, "Quantum-beat spectroscopy of molecules," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 10, 287-317 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, J. P.

M. V. Romalis, W. C. Griffith, J. P. Jacobs, and E. N. Fortson, "New limit on the permanent electric dipole moment of 199Hg," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2505-2508 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Jacobs, W. M. Klipstein, S. K. Lamoreaux, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, "Limit on the electric-dipole moment of 199Hg using synchronous optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3521-3540 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Y.

D. Kawall, F. Bay, S. Bickman, Y. Jiang, and D. DeMille, "Precision Zeeman-Stark spectroscopy of the metastable a(1)[3Sigma+] state of PbO," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133007 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karaulanov, T.

C. Andreeva, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Two-color coherent population trapping in a single Cs hyperfine transition, with application in magnetometry," Appl. Phys. B 76, 667-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaul, R.

J. N. Dodd, R. Kaul, and D. Warington, "The modulation of resonance fluorescence excited by pulsed light," Proc. Phys. Soc. London, Sect. A 84, 176-178 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Kawall, D.

D. Kawall, F. Bay, S. Bickman, Y. Jiang, and D. DeMille, "Precision Zeeman-Stark spectroscopy of the metastable a(1)[3Sigma+] state of PbO," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133007 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, D. F.

Y. P. Malakyan, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation of frequency-modulated light resonant with a low-J transition," Phys. Rev. A 69, 013817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, Y. P. Malakyan, and S. M. Rochester, "Selective addressing of high-rank atomic polarization moments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, "Nonlinear magneto optical rotation with frequency-modulated light," Phys. Rev. A 65, 055403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, "Sensitive magnetometry based on nonlinear magneto-optical rotation," Phys. Rev. A 62, 043403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klepel, H.

Klipstein, W. M.

J. P. Jacobs, W. M. Klipstein, S. K. Lamoreaux, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, "Limit on the electric-dipole moment of 199Hg using synchronous optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3521-3540 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laloë, F.

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. DuPont-Roc, S. Haroche, and F. Laloë, "Detection of the static magnetic field produced by the oriented nuclei of optically pumped 3He gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 758-760 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lamoreaux, S. K.

J. P. Jacobs, W. M. Klipstein, S. K. Lamoreaux, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, "Limit on the electric-dipole moment of 199Hg using synchronous optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3521-3540 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Majumder, B. J. Venema, S. K. Lamoreaux, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, "Test of the linearity of quantum mechanics in optically pumped 201Hg," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2931-2934 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lange , W.

W. Lange and J. Mlynek, "Quantum beats in transmission by time-resolved polarization spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1373-1375 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lezama, A.

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzweig, and A. Lezama, "Noise spectroscopy of non-linear magneto-optical resonances in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809, (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Failache, P. Valente, G. Ban, V. Lorent, and A. Lezama, "Inhibition of electromagnetically induced absorption due to excited state decoherence in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 67, 043810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lobodzin´ski , B.

B. Lobodzin´ski and W. Gawlik, "Role of trap states in forward scattering of resonance light," Phys. Scr. T70, 138-44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Lobodzin´ski and W. Gawlik, "Multipole moments and trap states in forward scattering of resonance light," Phys. Rev. A 54, 2238-52 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorent, V.

H. Failache, P. Valente, G. Ban, V. Lorent, and A. Lezama, "Inhibition of electromagnetically induced absorption due to excited state decoherence in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 67, 043810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mabuchi, H.

J. M. Geremia, J. K. Stockton, A. C. Doherty, and H. Mabuchi, "Quantum Kalman filtering and the Heisenberg limit in atomic magnetometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 25801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Majumder, P. K.

P. K. Majumder, B. J. Venema, S. K. Lamoreaux, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, "Test of the linearity of quantum mechanics in optically pumped 201Hg," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2931-2934 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malakyan, Y. P.

Y. P. Malakyan, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation of frequency-modulated light resonant with a low-J transition," Phys. Rev. A 69, 013817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, Y. P. Malakyan, and S. M. Rochester, "Selective addressing of high-rank atomic polarization moments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marinelli, C.

C. Andreeva, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Two-color coherent population trapping in a single Cs hyperfine transition, with application in magnetometry," Appl. Phys. B 76, 667-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mariotti, E.

C. Andreeva, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Two-color coherent population trapping in a single Cs hyperfine transition, with application in magnetometry," Appl. Phys. B 76, 667-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzweig, and A. Lezama, "Noise spectroscopy of non-linear magneto-optical resonances in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marty, T.

Matsko, A. B.

Mehring, M.

J. D. Xu, G. Wäckerle, and M. Mehring, "Optical detection of spin multipole order in the ground state of alkali atoms," Z. Phys. D 42, 5-13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Xu, G. Wäckerle, and M. Mehring, "Multiple-quantum spin coherence in the ground state of alkali atomic vapors," Phys. Rev. A 55, 206-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

W. Lange and J. Mlynek, "Quantum beats in transmission by time-resolved polarization spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1373-1375 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Moi, L.

C. Andreeva, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Two-color coherent population trapping in a single Cs hyperfine transition, with application in magnetometry," Appl. Phys. B 76, 667-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, O.

B. Cheron, H. Gilles, J. Hamel, O. Moreau, and E. Noel, "4He optical pumping with frequency modulated light," J. Phys. II 6, 175-185 (1996).

B. Cheron, H. Gilles, J. Hamel, O. Moreau, and E. Noel, "A new optical pumping scheme using a frequency modulated semi-conductor laser for 4He magnetometers," Opt. Commun. 115, 71-74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nasyrov, K.

M. Auzinsh, K. Nasyrov, M. Tamanis, R. Ferber, and A. Shalagin, "Resonance of quantum beats in a system of magnetic sublevels of the electronic ground state of molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 65, 891-897 (1987).

Nasyrov, K. A.

K. A. Nasyrov, "Wigner representation of rotational motion," J. Phys. A 32, 6663-6678 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Auzinsh, K. A. Nasyrov, M. Y. Tamanis, R. S. Ferber, and A. M. Shalagin, "Determination of the ground-state Landé factor for diatomic molecules by a beat-resonance method," Chem. Phys. Lett. 167, 129-136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nasyrov , K. A.

K. A. Nasyrov and A. M. Shalagin, "Interaction between intense radiation and atoms or molecules experiencing classical rotary motion," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 6649-6663 (1981).

Nguyen, A. T.

A. T. Nguyen, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, "Search for parity nonconservation in atomic dysprosium," Phys. Rev. A 56, 3453-3463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noel, E.

B. Cheron, H. Gilles, J. Hamel, O. Moreau, and E. Noel, "4He optical pumping with frequency modulated light," J. Phys. II 6, 175-185 (1996).

B. Cheron, H. Gilles, J. Hamel, O. Moreau, and E. Noel, "A new optical pumping scheme using a frequency modulated semi-conductor laser for 4He magnetometers," Opt. Commun. 115, 71-74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, L.

L. Novikov, "Optically excited parametric resonance," C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. B 278, 1063-1065 (1974).

Novikova, I.

Nussenzweig, P.

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzweig, and A. Lezama, "Noise spectroscopy of non-linear magneto-optical resonances in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okunevich, A. I.

R. S. Ferber, A. I. Okunevich, O. A. Shmit, and M. Y. Tamanis, "Landé factor measurements for the 130Te2 electronic ground state," Chem. Phys. Lett. 90, 476-480 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Okunevich, "Parametric relaxation resonance of optically oriented metastable 4He atoms in an effective magnetic field," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 67, 881-889 (1974).

A. I. Okunevich, "Parametric relaxation resonance of optically oriented atoms in a transverse magnetic field," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 66, 1578-1580 (1974).

Paisner, J. A.

R. Wallenstein, J. A. Paisner, and A. L. Schawlow, "Observation of Zeeman quantum beats in molecular iodine," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1333-1336 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Pirags, I.

M. P. Auzinsh, R. S. Ferber, and I. Pirags, "K2 ground-state relaxation studies from transient process kinetics," J. Phys. B 16, 2759-2771 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Regan, B. C.

B. C. Regan, D. Commins, C. J. Schmidt, and D. DeMille, "New limit on the electron electric dipole moment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 071805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rochester, S.

S. Rochester, C. J. Bowers, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, "Measurement of lifetimes and tensor polarizabilities of odd-parity states of atomic samarium," Phys. Rev. A 59, 3480-3494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rochester, S. M.

Y. P. Malakyan, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation of frequency-modulated light resonant with a low-J transition," Phys. Rev. A 69, 013817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, Y. P. Malakyan, and S. M. Rochester, "Selective addressing of high-rank atomic polarization moments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rochester , S. M.

S. M. Rochester and D. Budker, "Atomic polarization visualized," Am. J. Phys. 69, 450-454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rochester, S. M.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, "Sensitive magnetometry based on nonlinear magneto-optical rotation," Phys. Rev. A 62, 043403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Romalis, M. V.

M. V. Romalis, W. C. Griffith, J. P. Jacobs, and E. N. Fortson, "New limit on the permanent electric dipole moment of 199Hg," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2505-2508 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schawlow, A. L.

R. Wallenstein, J. A. Paisner, and A. L. Schawlow, "Observation of Zeeman quantum beats in molecular iodine," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1333-1336 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C. J.

B. C. Regan, D. Commins, C. J. Schmidt, and D. DeMille, "New limit on the electron electric dipole moment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 071805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalagin, A.

M. Auzinsh, K. Nasyrov, M. Tamanis, R. Ferber, and A. Shalagin, "Resonance of quantum beats in a system of magnetic sublevels of the electronic ground state of molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 65, 891-897 (1987).

Shalagin, A. M.

M. P. Auzinsh, K. A. Nasyrov, M. Y. Tamanis, R. S. Ferber, and A. M. Shalagin, "Determination of the ground-state Landé factor for diatomic molecules by a beat-resonance method," Chem. Phys. Lett. 167, 129-136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nasyrov and A. M. Shalagin, "Interaction between intense radiation and atoms or molecules experiencing classical rotary motion," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 6649-6663 (1981).

Shmit, O. A.

R. S. Ferber, A. I. Okunevich, O. A. Shmit, and M. Y. Tamanis, "Landé factor measurements for the 130Te2 electronic ground state," Chem. Phys. Lett. 90, 476-480 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stockton, J. K.

J. M. Geremia, J. K. Stockton, A. C. Doherty, and H. Mabuchi, "Quantum Kalman filtering and the Heisenberg limit in atomic magnetometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 25801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suter , D.

Suter, D.

Tamanis, M.

M. Auzinsh, K. Nasyrov, M. Tamanis, R. Ferber, and A. Shalagin, "Resonance of quantum beats in a system of magnetic sublevels of the electronic ground state of molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 65, 891-897 (1987).

M. Auzinsh, M. Tamanis, and R. Ferber, "Zeeman quantum beats after optical depopulation of the ground electronic state of diatomic molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 63, 688-693 (1986).

Tamanis, M. Y.

M. P. Auzinsh, K. A. Nasyrov, M. Y. Tamanis, R. S. Ferber, and A. M. Shalagin, "Determination of the ground-state Landé factor for diatomic molecules by a beat-resonance method," Chem. Phys. Lett. 167, 129-136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Auzinsh, M. Y. Tamanis, and R. S. Ferber, "Observation of quantum beats in the kinetics of the thermalization of diatomic molecules in the electronic ground state," JETP Lett. 42, 160-163 (1985).

R. S. Ferber, A. I. Okunevich, O. A. Shmit, and M. Y. Tamanis, "Landé factor measurements for the 130Te2 electronic ground state," Chem. Phys. Lett. 90, 476-480 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Valente, P.

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzweig, and A. Lezama, "Noise spectroscopy of non-linear magneto-optical resonances in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809, (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Failache, P. Valente, G. Ban, V. Lorent, and A. Lezama, "Inhibition of electromagnetically induced absorption due to excited state decoherence in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 67, 043810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Venema, B. J.

P. K. Majumder, B. J. Venema, S. K. Lamoreaux, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, "Test of the linearity of quantum mechanics in optically pumped 201Hg," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2931-2934 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wäckerle, G.

J. D. Xu, G. Wäckerle, and M. Mehring, "Multiple-quantum spin coherence in the ground state of alkali atomic vapors," Phys. Rev. A 55, 206-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Xu, G. Wäckerle, and M. Mehring, "Optical detection of spin multipole order in the ground state of alkali atoms," Z. Phys. D 42, 5-13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wallenstein, R.

R. Wallenstein, J. A. Paisner, and A. L. Schawlow, "Observation of Zeeman quantum beats in molecular iodine," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1333-1336 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Warington, D.

J. N. Dodd, R. Kaul, and D. Warington, "The modulation of resonance fluorescence excited by pulsed light," Proc. Phys. Soc. London, Sect. A 84, 176-178 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Weis, A.

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Welch, G. R.

Xu, J. D.

J. D. Xu, G. Wäckerle, and M. Mehring, "Optical detection of spin multipole order in the ground state of alkali atoms," Z. Phys. D 42, 5-13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Xu, G. Wäckerle, and M. Mehring, "Multiple-quantum spin coherence in the ground state of alkali atomic vapors," Phys. Rev. A 55, 206-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yashchuk, V. V.

Y. P. Malakyan, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation of frequency-modulated light resonant with a low-J transition," Phys. Rev. A 69, 013817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, Y. P. Malakyan, and S. M. Rochester, "Selective addressing of high-rank atomic polarization moments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, "Nonlinear magneto optical rotation with frequency-modulated light," Phys. Rev. A 65, 055403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, "Sensitive magnetometry based on nonlinear magneto-optical rotation," Phys. Rev. A 62, 043403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zapasskii, V. S.

E. B. Aleksandrov and V. S. Zapasskii, "Magnetic resonance in the Faraday rotation noise spectrum," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 132-138 (1981).

Zolotorev, M.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, "Nonlinear magneto optical rotation with frequency-modulated light," Phys. Rev. A 65, 055403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, "Sensitive magnetometry based on nonlinear magneto-optical rotation," Phys. Rev. A 62, 043403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Rochester, C. J. Bowers, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, "Measurement of lifetimes and tensor polarizabilities of odd-parity states of atomic samarium," Phys. Rev. A 59, 3480-3494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Nguyen, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, "Search for parity nonconservation in atomic dysprosium," Phys. Rev. A 56, 3453-3463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zolotorev, M. S.

D. Budker, D. Demille, E. D. Commins, and M. S. Zolotorev, "Experimental investigation of excited states in atomic dysprosium," Phys. Rev. A 50, 132-143 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zubairy, M. S.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

S. M. Rochester and D. Budker, "Atomic polarization visualized," Am. J. Phys. 69, 450-454 (2001).
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Ann. Phys. (Paris) (2)

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Theorie quantique du cycle de pompage optique. Verification experimentale des noveaux effets prevus (1-re partie)," Ann. Phys. (Paris) 7, 423-461 (1962).

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Theorie quantique du cycle de pompage optique. Verification experimentale des noveaux effets prevus (2-e partie)," Ann. Phys. (Paris) 7, 469-504 (1962).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Andreeva, G. Bevilacqua, V. Biancalana, S. Cartaleva, Y. Dancheva, T. Karaulanov, C. Marinelli, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Two-color coherent population trapping in a single Cs hyperfine transition, with application in magnetometry," Appl. Phys. B 76, 667-675 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. B (1)

L. Novikov, "Optically excited parametric resonance," C. R. Seances Acad. Sci., Ser. B 278, 1063-1065 (1974).

Can. J. Phys. (2)

M. Auzinsh, "Angular momenta dynamics in magnetic and electric field: Classical and quantum approach," Can. J. Phys. 75, 853-872 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Auzinsh, "The evolution and revival structure of angular momentum quantum wave packets," Can. J. Phys. 77, 491-503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. S. Ferber, A. I. Okunevich, O. A. Shmit, and M. Y. Tamanis, "Landé factor measurements for the 130Te2 electronic ground state," Chem. Phys. Lett. 90, 476-480 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Auzinsh, K. A. Nasyrov, M. Y. Tamanis, R. S. Ferber, and A. M. Shalagin, "Determination of the ground-state Landé factor for diatomic molecules by a beat-resonance method," Chem. Phys. Lett. 167, 129-136 (1990).
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Concepts Magn. Reson. (1)

E. L. Hahn, "Concepts of NMR in quantum optics," Concepts Magn. Reson. 9, 69-81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

E. Hack and J. Huber, "Quantum-beat spectroscopy of molecules," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 10, 287-317 (1991).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. A (1)

K. A. Nasyrov, "Wigner representation of rotational motion," J. Phys. A 32, 6663-6678 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (2)

M. Ducloy, "Non-linear effects in optical pumping with lasers. I. General theory of the classical limit for levels of large angular momenta," J. Phys. B 9, 357-381 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Auzinsh, R. S. Ferber, and I. Pirags, "K2 ground-state relaxation studies from transient process kinetics," J. Phys. B 16, 2759-2771 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. II (1)

B. Cheron, H. Gilles, J. Hamel, O. Moreau, and E. Noel, "4He optical pumping with frequency modulated light," J. Phys. II 6, 175-185 (1996).

JETP Lett. (2)

M. P. Auzinsh, M. Y. Tamanis, and R. S. Ferber, "Observation of quantum beats in the kinetics of the thermalization of diatomic molecules in the electronic ground state," JETP Lett. 42, 160-163 (1985).

M. Auzinsh and R. Ferber, "Observation of quantum-beat resonance between magnetic sublevels with DeltaM=4," JETP Lett. 39, 452-455 (1984).

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Cheron, H. Gilles, J. Hamel, O. Moreau, and E. Noel, "A new optical pumping scheme using a frequency modulated semi-conductor laser for 4He magnetometers," Opt. Commun. 115, 71-74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

E. B. Aleksandrov, "Quantum beats of luminescence under modulated light excitation," Opt. Spectrosc. 14, 233-234 (1963).

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (2)

M. Auzinsh, "Nonlinear phase resonance of quantum beats in the dimer ground state," Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 68, 750-752 (1990).

E. Aleksandrov, "Luminiscence beats induced by pulsed excitation of coherent states," Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 17, 522-523 (1964).

Phys. Rev. A (13)

M. P. Auzinsh and R. S. Ferber, "Optical pumping of diatomic molecules in the electronic ground state: classical and quantum approaches," Phys. Rev. A 43, 2374-2386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Jacobs, W. M. Klipstein, S. K. Lamoreaux, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, "Limit on the electric-dipole moment of 199Hg using synchronous optical pumping," Phys. Rev. A 52, 3521-3540 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, "Nonlinear magneto optical rotation with frequency-modulated light," Phys. Rev. A 65, 055403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Malakyan, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Nonlinear magneto-optical rotation of frequency-modulated light resonant with a low-J transition," Phys. Rev. A 69, 013817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Failache, P. Valente, G. Ban, V. Lorent, and A. Lezama, "Inhibition of electromagnetically induced absorption due to excited state decoherence in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 67, 043810 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Lobodzin´ski and W. Gawlik, "Multipole moments and trap states in forward scattering of resonance light," Phys. Rev. A 54, 2238-52 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Xu, G. Wäckerle, and M. Mehring, "Multiple-quantum spin coherence in the ground state of alkali atomic vapors," Phys. Rev. A 55, 206-213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, "Sensitive magnetometry based on nonlinear magneto-optical rotation," Phys. Rev. A 62, 043403 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Martinelli, P. Valente, H. Failache, D. Felinto, L. S. Cruz, P. Nussenzweig, and A. Lezama, "Noise spectroscopy of non-linear magneto-optical resonances in Rb vapor," Phys. Rev. A 69, 043809, (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Rochester, C. J. Bowers, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, "Measurement of lifetimes and tensor polarizabilities of odd-parity states of atomic samarium," Phys. Rev. A 59, 3480-3494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Budker, D. Demille, E. D. Commins, and M. S. Zolotorev, "Experimental investigation of excited states in atomic dysprosium," Phys. Rev. A 50, 132-143 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Nguyen, D. Budker, D. DeMille, and M. Zolotorev, "Search for parity nonconservation in atomic dysprosium," Phys. Rev. A 56, 3453-3463 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Blushs and M. P. Auzinsh, "Validity of rate equations for Zeeman coherences for analysis of nonlinear interaction of atoms with laser radiation," Phys. Rev. A 69, 063806 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (11)

D. Kawall, F. Bay, S. Bickman, Y. Jiang, and D. DeMille, "Precision Zeeman-Stark spectroscopy of the metastable a(1)[3Sigma+] state of PbO," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 133007 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Wallenstein, J. A. Paisner, and A. L. Schawlow, "Observation of Zeeman quantum beats in molecular iodine," Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1333-1336 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Regan, D. Commins, C. J. Schmidt, and D. DeMille, "New limit on the electron electric dipole moment," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 071805 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. DuPont-Roc, S. Haroche, and F. Laloë, "Detection of the static magnetic field produced by the oriented nuclei of optically pumped 3He gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 758-760 (1969).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, Y. P. Malakyan, and S. M. Rochester, "Selective addressing of high-rank atomic polarization moments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 253001 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Romalis, W. C. Griffith, J. P. Jacobs, and E. N. Fortson, "New limit on the permanent electric dipole moment of 199Hg," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2505-2508 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

W. Bell and A. Bloom, "Observation of forbidden resonances in optically driven spin systems," Phys. Rev. Lett. 6, 623-624 (1961).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Majumder, B. J. Venema, S. K. Lamoreaux, B. R. Heckel, and E. N. Fortson, "Test of the linearity of quantum mechanics in optically pumped 201Hg," Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2931-2934 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lange and J. Mlynek, "Quantum beats in transmission by time-resolved polarization spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1373-1375 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Geremia, J. K. Stockton, A. C. Doherty, and H. Mabuchi, "Quantum Kalman filtering and the Heisenberg limit in atomic magnetometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 25801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (1)

B. Lobodzin´ski and W. Gawlik, "Role of trap states in forward scattering of resonance light," Phys. Scr. T70, 138-44 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Proc. Phys. Soc. London, Sect. A (1)

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[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

D. Budker, W. Gawlik, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, and A. Weis, "Resonant nonlinear magneto-optical effects in atoms," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1153-1201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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H. Gilles, J. Hamel, and B. Cheron, "Laser pumped 4He magnetometer," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2253-2260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (2)

M. Auzinsh, M. Tamanis, and R. Ferber, "Zeeman quantum beats after optical depopulation of the ground electronic state of diatomic molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 63, 688-693 (1986).

M. Auzinsh, K. Nasyrov, M. Tamanis, R. Ferber, and A. Shalagin, "Resonance of quantum beats in a system of magnetic sublevels of the electronic ground state of molecules," Sov. Phys. JETP 65, 891-897 (1987).

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. D (1)

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[CrossRef]

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (5)

A. I. Okunevich, "Parametric relaxation resonance of optically oriented atoms in a transverse magnetic field," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 66, 1578-1580 (1974).

A. I. Okunevich, "Parametric relaxation resonance of optically oriented metastable 4He atoms in an effective magnetic field," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 67, 881-889 (1974).

E. B. Aleksandrov and V. S. Zapasskii, "Magnetic resonance in the Faraday rotation noise spectrum," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 132-138 (1981).

M. Dyakonov, "Theory of resonance scattering of light by a gas in the presence of a magnetic field," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 47, 2213-2221 (1964).

K. A. Nasyrov and A. M. Shalagin, "Interaction between intense radiation and atoms or molecules experiencing classical rotary motion," Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 6649-6663 (1981).

Other (21)

E. B. Aleksandrov, M. P. Chaika, and G. I. Khvostenko, Interference of Atomic States (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993).

M. Auzinsh and R. Ferber, Optical Polarization of Molecules (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1995).

We will use the word "particle" to refer to either atoms or molecules.

S. Haroche, "Quantum beats and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy," in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy , K. Shimoda, ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1976), pp. 256-313.

J. N. Dodd and G. W. Series, "Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy," in Progress in Atomic Spectroscopy, W. Hanle and H. Kleinpoppen, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1978), Vol. 1, pp. 639-677.

J. M. Geremia, J. K. Stockton, and H. Mabuchi, "Sub-shotnoise atomic magnetometry," (2004), http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0401107.

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1997).

M. P. Auzinsh, D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, J. E. Stalnaker, A. O. Sushkov, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Can a quantum nondemolition measurement improve the sensitivity of an atomic magnetometer?" (2004), http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0403097.

The quantum-beat frequency must be higher than the relaxation rate for quantum-beat dynamics to be clearly observed. In molecules, for example, the excited-state relaxation rate is often dominated by radiative decay and is typically ∼108 s−1 , which is greater than the typical ground-state relaxation rate (∼106 s−1 ). Thus larger magnetic fields are required to observe excited-state Zeeman beats than for the observation of ground-state quantum beats.

D. Budker, D. F. Kimball, and V. V. Yashchuk, Nonlinear Magneto-Optic Atomic Magnetometry for the Earth Field Range , Technical Report LBNL PUB-5449, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (1999).

M. V. Romalis, W. C. Griffith, J. P. Jacobs, and E. N. Fortson, "Art and Symmetry in Experimental Physics: Festschrift for Eugene D. Commins," in AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 596 , D. Budker, S. J. Freedman, and P. Bucksbaum, eds. (American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 2001), pp. 47-61.

The idea of stroboscopic matching to increase coupling between systems (light and precessing spins in this context) is also omnipresent in the field of nuclear magnetic resonance. For example, Hahn and co-workers introduced various methods of coupling spin systems with different gyromagnetic ratios together by matching the Larmor frequency of one system to the Rabi frequency of the other (Kaplan-Hahn matching) or by matching the Rabi frequencies of the two systems (Hartmann-Hahn matching).24 A general review25 of the connection between concepts in quantum optics and nuclear magnetic resonance was given by Hahn.

C. P. Slichter, Principles of Magnetic Resonance , Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences (Springer, New York, 1996).

D. A. Varshalovich, A. N. Moskalev, and V. K. Khersonskii, Quantum Theory of Angular Momentum: Irreducible Tensors, Spherical Harmonics, Vector Coupling Coefficients, 3nj Symbols (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988).

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Dover, New York, 1987).

When the excitation light has a spectral profile broader than the homogeneous absorption linewidth, calculations can also be simplified by using rate equations for the Zeeman coherences.8081 It has been demonstrated that in many cases these rate equations give very good agreement between the model and experimental results. Recently, a detailed analysis82 of the application limits for the rate equations for Zeeman coherences for nonlinear magneto-optical effects was carried out.

H. Lefebvre-Brion and R. W. Field, The Spectra and Dynamics of Diatomic Molecules , 2nd ed. (Academic, New York, 2004).

V. V. Yashchuk, J. Granwehr, D. F. Kimball, S. M. Rochester, A. Trabesinger, J. T. Urban, D. Budker, and A. Pines, "Hyperpolarized xenon nuclear spins detected by optical atomic magnetometry" (2004), http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0404090.

D. DeMille, F. Bay, S. Bickman, B. Kawall, L. Hunter, J. Krause, D., S. Maxwell, and K. Ulmer, "Search for the electric dipole moment of the electron using metastable PbO," in AIP Conference Proceedings, D. Budker, P. Bucksbaum, and S. J. Freedman, eds. (American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 2001), Vol. 596, pp. 72-83.

G. Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1989).

E. Arimondo, in Progress in Optics, Vol. XXXV , E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1996), pp. 259-354.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Quantum beats in Cs illustrated with surfaces representing the probability of finding the system in the state with maximal projection m=F in a given direction.8,9 This sequence is “stroboscopic” in the sense that the surfaces correspond to times chosen to have the same phase of the fast Larmor precession around the direction of the magnetic field . From the symmetry of the plots one clearly sees that orientation present in the initial state collapses and revives in the process of the temporal evolution. Temporal variation of higher polarization moments gives rise to higher-order-symmetry contributions to the probability surface (see also Fig. 3).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angular momentum spatial distribution for states composed only of population (ρ00) and the maximum possible values of the components ρ±κκ for a particular κ. κ=0, monopole moment (isotropic state with population only); κ=1, dipole moment (oriented state); κ=2, quadrupole moment (aligned state); κ=3, octupole moment; κ=4, hexadecapole moment; κ=5, triakontadipole moment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal evolution of the norms of various polarization moments of ranks κ of the F=4 ground state of Cs corresponding to the case of Figs. 1 and 4. The initial stretched state is dominated by the lowest-order moments; at t=τ2/4 the state is composed only of even-order moments.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Collapse and revival beats arising in optically pumped Cs atoms as a result of nonlinearity of Zeeman shifts. (a) Time-dependent absorption of the probe light (see text) observed on a short time scale reveals an oscillation at the Larmor frequency. (b) Observation on a longer time scale reveals the characteristic collapse and revival (beating) behavior. Note period of essentially complete collapse of the oscillation pattern. (c) At even longer time scales, the beat pattern is modified as a result of third-order nonlinearity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Signals detected at the first harmonic (a), (b) and second harmonic (c), (d) of Ωm as a function of longitudinal magnetic field. This experiment employed buffer-gas-free, paraffin-coated vapor cells containing isotopically enriched  87Rb. The laser was tuned near the D1 line, laser power was 15 µW, beam diameter ∼2 mm, Ωm=2π×1 kHz, and the modulation amplitude Δωm=2π×220 MHz. Traces (a), (c) and (b), (d) correspond to the in-phase and the quadrature outputs of the signals from the lock-in detector, respectively. The zero-field resonances observed in traces (a), (c) are similar in nature to the resonances observed in static NMOE studies (see text). The quadrature components arise because of a phase difference between the “probe” modulation and the modulation of the optical properties of the atomic medium. (Aligned atoms produce maximum optical rotation when the alignment axis is at an angle of π/4 to the light-polarization direction.) Figure from Ref. 36.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental arrangement for the polarization resonance study.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Faraday rotation angle (a) and transmission (b) dependences on magnetic field recorded with stationary linear polarization of light. Trace (c) shows light transmission as a function of magnetic field when the linear polarization is rotated at Ωm=2π×14 Hz. Coil current of 1 µA corresponds to a magnetic field of approximately 1 µG.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic of an experimental arrangement for parametric-resonance spectroscopy with magnetic field modulation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Light frequency spectrum for light-intensity modulation with 50% depth. (b) CPT resonance at double modulation frequency in the case of a F=1F=0 transition. The lower state Zeeman sublevels are split in a magnetic field applied along the quantization axis. (c) CPT resonances in the case of frequency modulation with a large modulation index.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Example of the magnetic field dependence of the FM NMOR signals showing quadrupole resonances at B=±143.0 µG and hexadecapole resonances at ±71.5 µG. Laser modulation frequency is 200 Hz, modulation amplitude is 40 MHz peak-to-peak; the central frequency is tuned to the low-frequency slope of the F=2F=1 absorption line. Plots (a), (b) show the in-phase component of the signal at two different light powers; plot (c) shows the quadrature component. Note the increase in the relative size of the hexadecapole signals at the higher power. The insets show zooms on hexadecapole resonances. Figure from Ref. 37.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Ground-state beat-resonance signal measured as a change of the degree of polarization of laser-induced fluorescence as a function of modulation frequency Ωm of excitation light. The experiment was done with K2 molecules. Two resonances were observed at twice (alignment) and four times (hexadecapole moment) the Larmor frequency ΩL. Figure from Ref. 65.

Equations (22)

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ωm2π=-Δ2(2I+1)-gIμmB±Δ21+4mξ2I+1+ξ21/2,
Tr TqκTqκ=δκκδqq
Tqκ=(-1)qT-qκ.
Jm|Tqκ|Jm=2κ+12J+11/2Jmκq|Jm,
ρ=κ=02Jq=-κκρqκTqκ,
ρqκ=Tr ρTqκ.
ρqκ=2κ+12J+11/2m,m=-JJJmκq|Jmρmm,
ρmm=κ=02Jq=-κκ2κ+12J+11/2Jmκq|Jmρqκ.
Jmκq|Jm=(-1)J-m2J+12κ+11/2JmJ-m|κq.
|Jm(θ,ϕ)=D(ϕ, θ, 0)|Jm,
=mDmmJ(ϕ, θ, 0)|Jm
Jm(θ,ϕ)|Tqκ|Jm(θ,ϕ)
=4π2J+11/2Jmκ0|JmYκq(θ, ϕ),
ρJJ(θ, ϕ)=4π2J+11/2×κ=02Jq=-κκJJκ0|JJρqκYκq*(θ, ϕ)
ρJJ(θ, ϕ)=JJ(θ,ϕ)|ρ|JJ(θ,ϕ)=m1m2Dm1JJ*Dm2JJρm1m2=mμDm+μ/2,JJ*Dm-μ/2,JJρm+μ/2,m-μ/2,
ρJJ(θ, ϕ)=(2J)!mμexp(iμϕ)[cos(θ/2)]2(J+m)[sin(θ/2)]2(J-m)ρm+μ/2,m-μ/2[(J-m-μ/2)!(J+m-μ/2)!(J-m+μ/2)!(J+m+μ/2)!]1/2.
[cos(θ/2)]2(J+m)[sin(θ/2)]2(J-m)=[1/4(1-cos θ)1-m/J(1+cos θ)1+m/J]J,
ρJJ(θ, ϕ)(2J)!4J μ(1-m/J)J-m(1+m/J)J+m exp(iμϕ)ρm+μ/2,m-μ/2[(J-m-μ/2)!(J+m-μ/2)!(J-m+μ/2)!(J+m+μ/2)!]1/2.
(2J)!4J(1-m/J)J-m(1+m/J)J+m[(J-m-μ/2)!(J+m-μ/2)!(J-m+μ/2)!(J+m+μ/2)!]1/2(2J)!4J(1-m/J)J-m(1+m/J)J+m(J-m)!(J+m)!1.
ρJJ(θ, ϕ)μ exp(iμϕ)ρm+μ/2,m-μ/2.
ρmm=3m2/J(J+1)(2J+1).
ρJJ(θ, ϕ)3 cos2 θ/2J+1.

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