Abstract

We have observed experimentally, for the first time to our knowledge, one-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial solitons in LiNbO3:Fe crystal by using incoherent white light. We have also fabricated a directional coupler consisting of two waveguides induced by two mutually incoherent white-light photovoltaic dark spatial solitons propagating in parallel in close proximity. It was found that the light field of a probe laser beam launched into one of the two proximate waveguides can be efficiently coupled into the other waveguide because of the presence of evanescent waves. We also studied the dependence of the coupling efficiency on the distance between the two proximate soliton-induced waveguides.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Denz, T. Dellwig, J. Lembcke, and T. Tschudi, “Parallel optical image addition and subtraction in a dynamic photorefrective memory by phase-code multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 21, 278–280 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity,” Science 286, 1518–1523 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Krolikowski, B. Luther-Davies, C. Denz, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, A. Stepken, and M. Belie, “Interaction of two-dimensional spatial incoherent solitons in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 975–982 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Devies, “Collision-induced shape transformations of partially coherent solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654–4658 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Directional coupler with soliton-induced waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 475–477 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. N. I. Nikolov, D. Neshev, W. Kolikowski, O. Bang, J. J. Rasmussen, and P. L. Christiansen, “Attraction of nonlocal dark optical solitons,” Opt. Lett. 29, 286–288 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

X. S. Wang and W. L. She, “Partially spatially incoherent photovoltaic spatial soliton,” Acta Phys. Sin. 51, 573–577 (2002).

1999 (8)

G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity,” Science 286, 1518–1523 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Denz, W. Krolikowski, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, T. Tschudi, M. R. Belic, F. Kaiser, and A. Stepken, “Dynamics of formation and interaction of photorefractive screening soliton,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 6222–6225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Krolikowski, B. Luther-Davies, C. Denz, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, A. Stepken, and M. Belie, “Interaction of two-dimensional spatial incoherent solitons in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 975–982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Devies, “Collision-induced shape transformations of partially coherent solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, “Dark incoherent soliton splitting and ‘phase-memory’ effects: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4777–R4780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Sukhorukov and N. N. Akhmediev, “Coherent and incoherent contributions to multisoliton complexes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4736–4739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Directional coupler with soliton-induced waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 475–477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and R. S. Feigelson, “Waveguides formed by incoherent dark solitons,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1160–1162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Segev and G. Stegeman, “Self-trapping of optical beams: spatial solitons,” Phys. Today 51 (X), 42–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

1996 (6)

1995 (3)

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2066–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Carvalho, S. R. Singh, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-deflection of steady-state bright spatial solitons in biased photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Commun. 120, 311–315 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

L. Lerner, D. J. Mitchell, and A. W. Snyder, “Interacting gray solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1302–1304 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

Akhmediev, N.

W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Devies, “Collision-induced shape transformations of partially coherent solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N. N.

A. A. Sukhorukov and N. N. Akhmediev, “Coherent and incoherent contributions to multisoliton complexes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4736–4739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Bashaw, M. C.

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belic, M. R.

C. Denz, W. Krolikowski, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, T. Tschudi, M. R. Belic, F. Kaiser, and A. Stepken, “Dynamics of formation and interaction of photorefractive screening soliton,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 6222–6225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Belie, M.

W. Krolikowski, B. Luther-Davies, C. Denz, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, A. Stepken, and M. Belie, “Interaction of two-dimensional spatial incoherent solitons in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 975–982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carvalho, M. I.

M. I. Carvalho, S. R. Singh, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-deflection of steady-state bright spatial solitons in biased photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Commun. 120, 311–315 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Directional coupler with soliton-induced waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 475–477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, “Dark incoherent soliton splitting and ‘phase-memory’ effects: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4777–R4780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and R. S. Feigelson, “Waveguides formed by incoherent dark solitons,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1160–1162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, “Waveguides induced by photorefractive screening solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091–3101 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of incoherently coupled photorefractive spatial soliton pairs,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1436–1438 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christiansen, P. L.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and R. S. Feigelson, “Waveguides formed by incoherent dark solitons,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1160–1162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, “Dark incoherent soliton splitting and ‘phase-memory’ effects: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4777–R4780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of incoherently coupled photorefractive spatial soliton pairs,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1436–1438 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Carvalho, S. R. Singh, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-deflection of steady-state bright spatial solitons in biased photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Commun. 120, 311–315 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coskun, T. H.

T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, “Dark incoherent soliton splitting and ‘phase-memory’ effects: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4777–R4780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of incoherently coupled photorefractive spatial soliton pairs,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1436–1438 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crosignani, B.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delisle, C.

Dellwig, T.

DelRe, E.

Denz, C.

C. Denz, W. Krolikowski, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, T. Tschudi, M. R. Belic, F. Kaiser, and A. Stepken, “Dynamics of formation and interaction of photorefractive screening soliton,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 6222–6225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Krolikowski, B. Luther-Davies, C. Denz, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, A. Stepken, and M. Belie, “Interaction of two-dimensional spatial incoherent solitons in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 975–982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Denz, T. Dellwig, J. Lembcke, and T. Tschudi, “Parallel optical image addition and subtraction in a dynamic photorefrective memory by phase-code multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 21, 278–280 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duree, G.

Feigelson, R. S.

Fejer, M. M.

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garrett, M. H.

Jerominek, H.

Kaiser, F.

C. Denz, W. Krolikowski, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, T. Tschudi, M. R. Belic, F. Kaiser, and A. Stepken, “Dynamics of formation and interaction of photorefractive screening soliton,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 6222–6225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kolikowski, W.

Krolikowski, W.

W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Devies, “Collision-induced shape transformations of partially coherent solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Krolikowski, B. Luther-Davies, C. Denz, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, A. Stepken, and M. Belie, “Interaction of two-dimensional spatial incoherent solitons in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 975–982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Denz, W. Krolikowski, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, T. Tschudi, M. R. Belic, F. Kaiser, and A. Stepken, “Dynamics of formation and interaction of photorefractive screening soliton,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 6222–6225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lan, S.

Leach, P.

Lembcke, J.

Lerner, L.

Liu, S. M.

G. Q. Zhang, S. M. Liu, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Q. Sun, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

W. Krolikowski, B. Luther-Davies, C. Denz, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, A. Stepken, and M. Belie, “Interaction of two-dimensional spatial incoherent solitons in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 975–982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Devies, B.

W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Devies, “Collision-induced shape transformations of partially coherent solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, D. J.

Mitchell, M.

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, “Waveguides induced by photorefractive screening solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091–3101 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell and M. Segev, “Self-trapping of incoherent white light,” Nature 387, 880–883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morin, M.

Neshev, D.

Nikolov, N. I.

Petter, J.

W. Krolikowski, B. Luther-Davies, C. Denz, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, A. Stepken, and M. Belie, “Interaction of two-dimensional spatial incoherent solitons in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 975–982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Denz, W. Krolikowski, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, T. Tschudi, M. R. Belic, F. Kaiser, and A. Stepken, “Dynamics of formation and interaction of photorefractive screening soliton,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 6222–6225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, J. J.

Salamo, G.

Salamo, G. J.

Segev, M.

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and R. S. Feigelson, “Waveguides formed by incoherent dark solitons,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1160–1162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity,” Science 286, 1518–1523 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, “Dark incoherent soliton splitting and ‘phase-memory’ effects: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4777–R4780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Directional coupler with soliton-induced waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 475–477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev and G. Stegeman, “Self-trapping of optical beams: spatial solitons,” Phys. Today 51 (X), 42–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, “Waveguides induced by photorefractive screening solitons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091–3101 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell and M. Segev, “Self-trapping of incoherent white light,” Nature 387, 880–883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of incoherently coupled photorefractive spatial soliton pairs,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1436–1438 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. J. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, “Two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 324–326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. J. Salamo, “Circular waveguides induced by two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 931–933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2066–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

She, W. L.

X. S. Wang and W. L. She, “Partially spatially incoherent photovoltaic spatial soliton,” Acta Phys. Sin. 51, 573–577 (2002).

Shih, M.

Singh, S. R.

M. I. Carvalho, S. R. Singh, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-deflection of steady-state bright spatial solitons in biased photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Commun. 120, 311–315 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

Stegeman, G.

M. Segev and G. Stegeman, “Self-trapping of optical beams: spatial solitons,” Phys. Today 51 (X), 42–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity,” Science 286, 1518–1523 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepken, A.

W. Krolikowski, B. Luther-Davies, C. Denz, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, A. Stepken, and M. Belie, “Interaction of two-dimensional spatial incoherent solitons in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 975–982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Denz, W. Krolikowski, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, T. Tschudi, M. R. Belic, F. Kaiser, and A. Stepken, “Dynamics of formation and interaction of photorefractive screening soliton,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 6222–6225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sukhorukov, A. A.

A. A. Sukhorukov and N. N. Akhmediev, “Coherent and incoherent contributions to multisoliton complexes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4736–4739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

G. Q. Zhang, S. M. Liu, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Q. Sun, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taya, M.

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tremblay, R.

Tschudi, T.

C. Denz, W. Krolikowski, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, T. Tschudi, M. R. Belic, F. Kaiser, and A. Stepken, “Dynamics of formation and interaction of photorefractive screening soliton,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 6222–6225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Denz, T. Dellwig, J. Lembcke, and T. Tschudi, “Parallel optical image addition and subtraction in a dynamic photorefrective memory by phase-code multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 21, 278–280 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valley, G. C.

M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. J. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, “Two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 324–326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. S.

X. S. Wang and W. L. She, “Partially spatially incoherent photovoltaic spatial soliton,” Acta Phys. Sin. 51, 573–577 (2002).

Weilnau, C.

W. Krolikowski, B. Luther-Davies, C. Denz, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, A. Stepken, and M. Belie, “Interaction of two-dimensional spatial incoherent solitons in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 975–982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Denz, W. Krolikowski, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, T. Tschudi, M. R. Belic, F. Kaiser, and A. Stepken, “Dynamics of formation and interaction of photorefractive screening soliton,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 6222–6225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. J.

G. Q. Zhang, S. M. Liu, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Q. Sun, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G. Q.

G. Q. Zhang, S. M. Liu, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Q. Sun, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

G. Q. Zhang, S. M. Liu, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Q. Sun, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

X. S. Wang and W. L. She, “Partially spatially incoherent photovoltaic spatial soliton,” Acta Phys. Sin. 51, 573–577 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

W. Krolikowski, B. Luther-Davies, C. Denz, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, A. Stepken, and M. Belie, “Interaction of two-dimensional spatial incoherent solitons in a photorefractive medium,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 975–982 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Q. Zhang, S. M. Liu, J. J. Xu, G. Y. Zhang, and Q. Sun, “Photorefractive spatial dark-soliton stripes in LiNbO3:Fe crystal and their application,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 13, 101–104 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

M. Mitchell and M. Segev, “Self-trapping of incoherent white light,” Nature 387, 880–883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. I. Carvalho, S. R. Singh, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-deflection of steady-state bright spatial solitons in biased photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Commun. 120, 311–315 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (9)

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2066–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lan, E. DelRe, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Directional coupler with soliton-induced waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 475–477 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, M. Segev, D. N. Christodoulides, and R. S. Feigelson, “Waveguides formed by incoherent dark solitons,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1160–1162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Denz, T. Dellwig, J. Lembcke, and T. Tschudi, “Parallel optical image addition and subtraction in a dynamic photorefrective memory by phase-code multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 21, 278–280 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, P. Leach, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, G. J. Salamo, and G. C. Valley, “Two-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 324–326 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. J. Salamo, “Circular waveguides induced by two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 931–933 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of incoherently coupled photorefractive spatial soliton pairs,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1436–1438 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Nikolov, D. Neshev, W. Kolikowski, O. Bang, J. J. Rasmussen, and P. L. Christiansen, “Attraction of nonlocal dark optical solitons,” Opt. Lett. 29, 286–288 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lerner, D. J. Mitchell, and A. W. Snyder, “Interacting gray solitons,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1302–1304 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

G. C. Valley, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, M. M. Fejer, and M. C. Bashaw, “Dark and bright photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R4457–R4460 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, M. M. Fejer, M. Segev, and G. C. Valley, “Observation of dark photovoltaic spatial solitons,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3095–3100 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

T. H. Coskun, D. N. Christodoulides, Z. Chen, and M. Segev, “Dark incoherent soliton splitting and ‘phase-memory’ effects: theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R4777–R4780 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Krolikowski, N. Akhmediev, and B. Luther-Devies, “Collision-induced shape transformations of partially coherent solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 59, 4654–4658 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Denz, W. Krolikowski, J. Petter, C. Weilnau, T. Tschudi, M. R. Belic, F. Kaiser, and A. Stepken, “Dynamics of formation and interaction of photorefractive screening soliton,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 6222–6225 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. A. Sukhorukov and N. N. Akhmediev, “Coherent and incoherent contributions to multisoliton complexes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4736–4739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, Z. Chen, M. Shih, and M. Segev, “Self-trapping of partially spatially incoherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 490–493 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

M. Segev and G. Stegeman, “Self-trapping of optical beams: spatial solitons,” Phys. Today 51 (X), 42–48 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, “Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity,” Science 286, 1518–1523 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Self-trapping of dark incoherent light beams,” Science 280, 889–892 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup: He–Ne, laser; Lamp, incandescent lamp; SF, spatial filter; M, mirror; L1, L4, collimating lenses; L2, L3, imaging lenses; BS, beam splitter; LN, LiNbO3:Fe crystal; AT, Attenuator; CCD, CCD camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photographs and intensity profiles showing a one-dimensional photovoltaic dark spatial soliton of incoherent white light excited from a phase mask and probe beams in the waveguide induced by the soliton: (a) input beam; (b) output beam at t=0; (c) self-trapping output beam after it has illuminated the crystal for 5 h, (d), (e) probe white beam and laser beam guided in the waveguide induced by the soliton at t=5 h, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Formation of a directional coupler with waveguides induced by two photovoltaic dark spatial solitons of incoherent white light: (a) input beams; (b) output beams at t=0; (c) self-trapping output beams at t=5 h; (d), (e) output beams with white light and laser beams as probe beams at t=5 h, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photographs showing output laser beams guided in both waveguides (first row); photographs and intensity profiles showing output laser beams when the probe laser is launched into the left-hand soliton only (middle and bottom rows) corresponding to the distances between the solitons in Figs. 4(a), 4(b), 4(c), and 4(d) as 70, 60, 50, and 45 µm, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental observation of the attraction of incoherent white-light dark solitons when the distance between them is 40 µm: (a) the input and (b) the output beams at t=0; (c), (e), (g) output beams at t=1 h, 5 h, 8 h, respectively; (d), (f), (h) the output laser beams guided by soliton-induced waveguides at t=1 h, 5 h, 8 h, respectively.

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