Abstract

The possibility to enhance the self-nonlinear emission characteristics in Nd-activated nonlinear crystals by direct pumping into the emitting level  4F3/2 is discussed. It is inferred that the reduction of threshold and the increase of the slope efficiency for the intracavity emission at the fundamental frequency caused by the reduction of quantum defect between the pump and the emitted quanta in the case of direct pumping are strongly amplified in the self-nonlinear processes. Moreover, the diminished heat generation could contribute to a more stable emission and to the scaling to a higher power. The possibility to use the direct pumping is determined by the spectroscopic properties of the laser material. This is illustrated for Nd3+ in Ca4GdO(BO3)3, where, for direct pumping, the thermally activated transition  4I9/2(Z2)4F3/2(R1) at 887 nm is suitable. Pumping in this band induces an enhancement of the self-doubled emission power at 530 nm by ∼2.5 times for an absorbed power four to five times above threshold as compared with the 811-nm pumping into the level  4F5/2 of Nd3+.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2003 (3)

A. Brenier, A. Majchrowski, E. Michalski, and T. Lukasiewics, “Evaluation of GdCOB:Nd3+ for self-frequency doubling in the optimum phase matching directions,” Opt. Commun. 217, 395–400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, Z. Zhong, J. Xu, J. Lao, W. Hua, and S. Fan, “Bridgman growth and characterization of nonlinear optical crystals Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 97, 283–287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Lupei, “Efficiency enhancement and power scaling of Nd lasers,” Opt. Mater. 24, 353–368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

V. Lupei, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Enhanced fundamental and self-frequency doubling laser emission efficiency in 4F3/2 directly pumped Nd-activated nonlinear crystals: the case of GdCa4O(BO3)3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 811–813 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Lupei, E. Antic-Fidancev, G. Aka, D. Vivien, P. Aschehoug, Ph. Goldner, F. Pelle, and L. Gheorghe, “Spectroscopic and crystal field studies of Nd3+ in GdCOB and YCOB,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224518 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Xia, W. Q. Zhang, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, X. F. Cheng, and Z. H. Yang, “Raman measurement and optical properties of Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5060–5067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (5)

D. Vivien, F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Nd:GdCOB: overview of its infrared, green and blue laser performances,” Opt. Mater. 16, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, M. Huang, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Determination of the optimum phase matching directions for the self-frequency conversion of Nd:GdCOB and Nd:YCOB crystals,” Opt. Commun. 196, 299–307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Xu, C. Q. Wang, S. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Chen, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Intracavity second-harmonic generation of 1.064 microns in GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 163–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Modeling of the self-sum-frequency mixing laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 646–656 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, S. Georgescu, T. Taira, Y. Sato, and A. Ikesue, “The effect of Nd concentration on the spectroscopic and emission decay properties of highly doped Nd:YAG ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 092102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (6)

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, W. A. Gambling, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, and H. C. Chen, “Efficient self-frequency doubling of Nd:GdCOB crystal by type-I phase matching out of its principal planes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 471–474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Brenier, “The self-doubling and summing lasers: overview and modeling,” J. Lumin. 91, 121–132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Maunier, J. L. Doualan, G. Aka, J. Landais, E. Antic-Fidancev, R. Moncorge, and D. Vivien, “Excited state absorption of self-frequency doubling laser material Nd:GdCOB,” Opt. Commun. 184, 209–214 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Lucas-Leclin, F. Auge, S. C. Auzaneau, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Diode-pumped self-frequency-doubling Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 lasers: toward green microchip lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1526–1530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, F. Mougel, F. Auge, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Overview of the laser and non-linear optical properties of calcium-gadolinium oxo-borate Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Alloys Compd. 303–304, 401–408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. Pajczkowska, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ and Yb3+ in Ca4GdO(BO3)3 crystals,” J. Mol. Struct. 55, 213–218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

F. Mougel, A. Kahn-Harari, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Structural and thermal stability of Czochralski-grown GdCOB oxoborate single crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 8, 1619–1623 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. P. Damelet, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium oxoborate crystal, Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238–2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Iwai, T. Kobayashi, H. Furuya, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “Crystal growth and optical characterization of rare-earth (Re) calcium oxyborate ReCa4O(BO3)3 (Re=Y or Gd) as new nonlinear optical material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 36, L276–L279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

R. Norrestam, M. Nguyen, and J. O. Bovin, “Structural investigation of new calcium-rare earth (R) oxyborates with the composition Ca4RE(BO3)3,” Chem. Mater. 4, 737–743 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aka, G.

A. Lupei, E. Antic-Fidancev, G. Aka, D. Vivien, P. Aschehoug, Ph. Goldner, F. Pelle, and L. Gheorghe, “Spectroscopic and crystal field studies of Nd3+ in GdCOB and YCOB,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224518 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Lupei, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Enhanced fundamental and self-frequency doubling laser emission efficiency in 4F3/2 directly pumped Nd-activated nonlinear crystals: the case of GdCa4O(BO3)3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 811–813 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Vivien, F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Nd:GdCOB: overview of its infrared, green and blue laser performances,” Opt. Mater. 16, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Lucas-Leclin, F. Auge, S. C. Auzaneau, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Diode-pumped self-frequency-doubling Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 lasers: toward green microchip lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1526–1530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, F. Mougel, F. Auge, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Overview of the laser and non-linear optical properties of calcium-gadolinium oxo-borate Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Alloys Compd. 303–304, 401–408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Maunier, J. L. Doualan, G. Aka, J. Landais, E. Antic-Fidancev, R. Moncorge, and D. Vivien, “Excited state absorption of self-frequency doubling laser material Nd:GdCOB,” Opt. Commun. 184, 209–214 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, A. Kahn-Harari, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Structural and thermal stability of Czochralski-grown GdCOB oxoborate single crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 8, 1619–1623 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. P. Damelet, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium oxoborate crystal, Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238–2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Antic-Fidancev, E.

A. Lupei, E. Antic-Fidancev, G. Aka, D. Vivien, P. Aschehoug, Ph. Goldner, F. Pelle, and L. Gheorghe, “Spectroscopic and crystal field studies of Nd3+ in GdCOB and YCOB,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224518 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Maunier, J. L. Doualan, G. Aka, J. Landais, E. Antic-Fidancev, R. Moncorge, and D. Vivien, “Excited state absorption of self-frequency doubling laser material Nd:GdCOB,” Opt. Commun. 184, 209–214 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aschehoug, P.

A. Lupei, E. Antic-Fidancev, G. Aka, D. Vivien, P. Aschehoug, Ph. Goldner, F. Pelle, and L. Gheorghe, “Spectroscopic and crystal field studies of Nd3+ in GdCOB and YCOB,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224518 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Auge, F.

D. Vivien, F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Nd:GdCOB: overview of its infrared, green and blue laser performances,” Opt. Mater. 16, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, F. Mougel, F. Auge, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Overview of the laser and non-linear optical properties of calcium-gadolinium oxo-borate Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Alloys Compd. 303–304, 401–408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Lucas-Leclin, F. Auge, S. C. Auzaneau, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Diode-pumped self-frequency-doubling Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 lasers: toward green microchip lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1526–1530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Auzaneau, S. C.

Balembois, F.

D. Vivien, F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Nd:GdCOB: overview of its infrared, green and blue laser performances,” Opt. Mater. 16, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Lucas-Leclin, F. Auge, S. C. Auzaneau, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Diode-pumped self-frequency-doubling Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 lasers: toward green microchip lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1526–1530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, F. Mougel, F. Auge, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Overview of the laser and non-linear optical properties of calcium-gadolinium oxo-borate Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Alloys Compd. 303–304, 401–408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benitez, J. M.

D. Vivien, F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Nd:GdCOB: overview of its infrared, green and blue laser performances,” Opt. Mater. 16, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, F. Mougel, F. Auge, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Overview of the laser and non-linear optical properties of calcium-gadolinium oxo-borate Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Alloys Compd. 303–304, 401–408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bovin, J. O.

R. Norrestam, M. Nguyen, and J. O. Bovin, “Structural investigation of new calcium-rare earth (R) oxyborates with the composition Ca4RE(BO3)3,” Chem. Mater. 4, 737–743 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Brenier, A.

A. Brenier, A. Majchrowski, E. Michalski, and T. Lukasiewics, “Evaluation of GdCOB:Nd3+ for self-frequency doubling in the optimum phase matching directions,” Opt. Commun. 217, 395–400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Brenier, “The self-doubling and summing lasers: overview and modeling,” J. Lumin. 91, 121–132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brun, A.

D. Vivien, F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Nd:GdCOB: overview of its infrared, green and blue laser performances,” Opt. Mater. 16, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Lucas-Leclin, F. Auge, S. C. Auzaneau, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Diode-pumped self-frequency-doubling Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 lasers: toward green microchip lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1526–1530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, F. Mougel, F. Auge, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Overview of the laser and non-linear optical properties of calcium-gadolinium oxo-borate Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Alloys Compd. 303–304, 401–408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

J. Liu, X. Xu, C. Q. Wang, S. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Chen, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Intracavity second-harmonic generation of 1.064 microns in GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 163–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. C.

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, W. A. Gambling, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, and H. C. Chen, “Efficient self-frequency doubling of Nd:GdCOB crystal by type-I phase matching out of its principal planes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 471–474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, M. Huang, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Determination of the optimum phase matching directions for the self-frequency conversion of Nd:GdCOB and Nd:YCOB crystals,” Opt. Commun. 196, 299–307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Modeling of the self-sum-frequency mixing laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 646–656 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X. F.

H. R. Xia, W. Q. Zhang, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, X. F. Cheng, and Z. H. Yang, “Raman measurement and optical properties of Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5060–5067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z. X.

H. R. Xia, W. Q. Zhang, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, X. F. Cheng, and Z. H. Yang, “Raman measurement and optical properties of Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5060–5067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, W. A. Gambling, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, and H. C. Chen, “Efficient self-frequency doubling of Nd:GdCOB crystal by type-I phase matching out of its principal planes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 471–474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chow, Y. T.

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, W. A. Gambling, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, and H. C. Chen, “Efficient self-frequency doubling of Nd:GdCOB crystal by type-I phase matching out of its principal planes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 471–474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colin, P.

Coquelin, P.

Damelet, J. P.

Dominiak-Dzik, G.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. Pajczkowska, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ and Yb3+ in Ca4GdO(BO3)3 crystals,” J. Mol. Struct. 55, 213–218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J. L.

C. Maunier, J. L. Doualan, G. Aka, J. Landais, E. Antic-Fidancev, R. Moncorge, and D. Vivien, “Excited state absorption of self-frequency doubling laser material Nd:GdCOB,” Opt. Commun. 184, 209–214 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. Zhou, Z. Zhong, J. Xu, J. Lao, W. Hua, and S. Fan, “Bridgman growth and characterization of nonlinear optical crystals Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 97, 283–287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Furuya, H.

M. Iwai, T. Kobayashi, H. Furuya, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “Crystal growth and optical characterization of rare-earth (Re) calcium oxyborate ReCa4O(BO3)3 (Re=Y or Gd) as new nonlinear optical material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 36, L276–L279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gambling, W. A.

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, W. A. Gambling, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, and H. C. Chen, “Efficient self-frequency doubling of Nd:GdCOB crystal by type-I phase matching out of its principal planes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 471–474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Georges, P.

D. Vivien, F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Nd:GdCOB: overview of its infrared, green and blue laser performances,” Opt. Mater. 16, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Lucas-Leclin, F. Auge, S. C. Auzaneau, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Diode-pumped self-frequency-doubling Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 lasers: toward green microchip lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1526–1530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, F. Mougel, F. Auge, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Overview of the laser and non-linear optical properties of calcium-gadolinium oxo-borate Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Alloys Compd. 303–304, 401–408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Georgescu, S.

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, S. Georgescu, T. Taira, Y. Sato, and A. Ikesue, “The effect of Nd concentration on the spectroscopic and emission decay properties of highly doped Nd:YAG ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 092102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gheorghe, L.

A. Lupei, E. Antic-Fidancev, G. Aka, D. Vivien, P. Aschehoug, Ph. Goldner, F. Pelle, and L. Gheorghe, “Spectroscopic and crystal field studies of Nd3+ in GdCOB and YCOB,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224518 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Golab, S.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. Pajczkowska, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ and Yb3+ in Ca4GdO(BO3)3 crystals,” J. Mol. Struct. 55, 213–218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goldner, Ph.

A. Lupei, E. Antic-Fidancev, G. Aka, D. Vivien, P. Aschehoug, Ph. Goldner, F. Pelle, and L. Gheorghe, “Spectroscopic and crystal field studies of Nd3+ in GdCOB and YCOB,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224518 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hanuza, J.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. Pajczkowska, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ and Yb3+ in Ca4GdO(BO3)3 crystals,” J. Mol. Struct. 55, 213–218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hua, W.

J. Zhou, Z. Zhong, J. Xu, J. Lao, W. Hua, and S. Fan, “Bridgman growth and characterization of nonlinear optical crystals Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 97, 283–287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

X. Chen, M. Huang, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Determination of the optimum phase matching directions for the self-frequency conversion of Nd:GdCOB and Nd:YCOB crystals,” Opt. Commun. 196, 299–307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

X. Chen, M. Huang, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Determination of the optimum phase matching directions for the self-frequency conversion of Nd:GdCOB and Nd:YCOB crystals,” Opt. Commun. 196, 299–307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Modeling of the self-sum-frequency mixing laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 646–656 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hubert, H.

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ikesue, A.

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, S. Georgescu, T. Taira, Y. Sato, and A. Ikesue, “The effect of Nd concentration on the spectroscopic and emission decay properties of highly doped Nd:YAG ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 092102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iwai, M.

M. Iwai, T. Kobayashi, H. Furuya, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “Crystal growth and optical characterization of rare-earth (Re) calcium oxyborate ReCa4O(BO3)3 (Re=Y or Gd) as new nonlinear optical material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 36, L276–L279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jacquet, M.

D. Vivien, F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Nd:GdCOB: overview of its infrared, green and blue laser performances,” Opt. Mater. 16, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, F. Mougel, F. Auge, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Overview of the laser and non-linear optical properties of calcium-gadolinium oxo-borate Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Alloys Compd. 303–304, 401–408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

J. Liu, X. Xu, C. Q. Wang, S. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Chen, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Intracavity second-harmonic generation of 1.064 microns in GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 163–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kahn-Harari, A.

D. Vivien, F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Nd:GdCOB: overview of its infrared, green and blue laser performances,” Opt. Mater. 16, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, F. Mougel, F. Auge, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Overview of the laser and non-linear optical properties of calcium-gadolinium oxo-borate Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Alloys Compd. 303–304, 401–408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, A. Kahn-Harari, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Structural and thermal stability of Czochralski-grown GdCOB oxoborate single crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 8, 1619–1623 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. P. Damelet, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium oxoborate crystal, Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238–2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

M. Iwai, T. Kobayashi, H. Furuya, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “Crystal growth and optical characterization of rare-earth (Re) calcium oxyborate ReCa4O(BO3)3 (Re=Y or Gd) as new nonlinear optical material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 36, L276–L279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Landais, J.

C. Maunier, J. L. Doualan, G. Aka, J. Landais, E. Antic-Fidancev, R. Moncorge, and D. Vivien, “Excited state absorption of self-frequency doubling laser material Nd:GdCOB,” Opt. Commun. 184, 209–214 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lao, J.

J. Zhou, Z. Zhong, J. Xu, J. Lao, W. Hua, and S. Fan, “Bridgman growth and characterization of nonlinear optical crystals Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 97, 283–287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Le Nain, N.

D. Vivien, F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Nd:GdCOB: overview of its infrared, green and blue laser performances,” Opt. Mater. 16, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, F. Mougel, F. Auge, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Overview of the laser and non-linear optical properties of calcium-gadolinium oxo-borate Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Alloys Compd. 303–304, 401–408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, X. Xu, C. Q. Wang, S. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Chen, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Intracavity second-harmonic generation of 1.064 microns in GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 163–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lucas-Leclin, C.

Lukasiewics, T.

A. Brenier, A. Majchrowski, E. Michalski, and T. Lukasiewics, “Evaluation of GdCOB:Nd3+ for self-frequency doubling in the optimum phase matching directions,” Opt. Commun. 217, 395–400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z.

X. Chen, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Modeling of the self-sum-frequency mixing laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 646–656 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, M. Huang, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Determination of the optimum phase matching directions for the self-frequency conversion of Nd:GdCOB and Nd:YCOB crystals,” Opt. Commun. 196, 299–307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lupei, A.

A. Lupei, E. Antic-Fidancev, G. Aka, D. Vivien, P. Aschehoug, Ph. Goldner, F. Pelle, and L. Gheorghe, “Spectroscopic and crystal field studies of Nd3+ in GdCOB and YCOB,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224518 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, S. Georgescu, T. Taira, Y. Sato, and A. Ikesue, “The effect of Nd concentration on the spectroscopic and emission decay properties of highly doped Nd:YAG ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 092102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lupei, V.

V. Lupei, “Efficiency enhancement and power scaling of Nd lasers,” Opt. Mater. 24, 353–368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Lupei, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Enhanced fundamental and self-frequency doubling laser emission efficiency in 4F3/2 directly pumped Nd-activated nonlinear crystals: the case of GdCa4O(BO3)3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 811–813 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, S. Georgescu, T. Taira, Y. Sato, and A. Ikesue, “The effect of Nd concentration on the spectroscopic and emission decay properties of highly doped Nd:YAG ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 092102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Macalik, L.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. Pajczkowska, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ and Yb3+ in Ca4GdO(BO3)3 crystals,” J. Mol. Struct. 55, 213–218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Majchrowski, A.

A. Brenier, A. Majchrowski, E. Michalski, and T. Lukasiewics, “Evaluation of GdCOB:Nd3+ for self-frequency doubling in the optimum phase matching directions,” Opt. Commun. 217, 395–400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maunier, C.

C. Maunier, J. L. Doualan, G. Aka, J. Landais, E. Antic-Fidancev, R. Moncorge, and D. Vivien, “Excited state absorption of self-frequency doubling laser material Nd:GdCOB,” Opt. Commun. 184, 209–214 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Michalski, E.

A. Brenier, A. Majchrowski, E. Michalski, and T. Lukasiewics, “Evaluation of GdCOB:Nd3+ for self-frequency doubling in the optimum phase matching directions,” Opt. Commun. 217, 395–400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moncorge, R.

C. Maunier, J. L. Doualan, G. Aka, J. Landais, E. Antic-Fidancev, R. Moncorge, and D. Vivien, “Excited state absorption of self-frequency doubling laser material Nd:GdCOB,” Opt. Commun. 184, 209–214 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

M. Iwai, T. Kobayashi, H. Furuya, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “Crystal growth and optical characterization of rare-earth (Re) calcium oxyborate ReCa4O(BO3)3 (Re=Y or Gd) as new nonlinear optical material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 36, L276–L279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mougel, F.

D. Vivien, F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Nd:GdCOB: overview of its infrared, green and blue laser performances,” Opt. Mater. 16, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Lucas-Leclin, F. Auge, S. C. Auzaneau, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Diode-pumped self-frequency-doubling Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 lasers: toward green microchip lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1526–1530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, F. Mougel, F. Auge, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Overview of the laser and non-linear optical properties of calcium-gadolinium oxo-borate Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Alloys Compd. 303–304, 401–408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, A. Kahn-Harari, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Structural and thermal stability of Czochralski-grown GdCOB oxoborate single crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 8, 1619–1623 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. P. Damelet, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium oxoborate crystal, Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238–2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, M.

R. Norrestam, M. Nguyen, and J. O. Bovin, “Structural investigation of new calcium-rare earth (R) oxyborates with the composition Ca4RE(BO3)3,” Chem. Mater. 4, 737–743 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Norrestam, R.

R. Norrestam, M. Nguyen, and J. O. Bovin, “Structural investigation of new calcium-rare earth (R) oxyborates with the composition Ca4RE(BO3)3,” Chem. Mater. 4, 737–743 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pajczkowska, A.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. Pajczkowska, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ and Yb3+ in Ca4GdO(BO3)3 crystals,” J. Mol. Struct. 55, 213–218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pelenc, D.

D. Vivien, F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Nd:GdCOB: overview of its infrared, green and blue laser performances,” Opt. Mater. 16, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, F. Mougel, F. Auge, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Overview of the laser and non-linear optical properties of calcium-gadolinium oxo-borate Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Alloys Compd. 303–304, 401–408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, A. Kahn-Harari, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Structural and thermal stability of Czochralski-grown GdCOB oxoborate single crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 8, 1619–1623 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. P. Damelet, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium oxoborate crystal, Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238–2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pelle, F.

A. Lupei, E. Antic-Fidancev, G. Aka, D. Vivien, P. Aschehoug, Ph. Goldner, F. Pelle, and L. Gheorghe, “Spectroscopic and crystal field studies of Nd3+ in GdCOB and YCOB,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224518 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. Pajczkowska, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ and Yb3+ in Ca4GdO(BO3)3 crystals,” J. Mol. Struct. 55, 213–218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

D. Vivien, F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Nd:GdCOB: overview of its infrared, green and blue laser performances,” Opt. Mater. 16, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, F. Mougel, F. Auge, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Overview of the laser and non-linear optical properties of calcium-gadolinium oxo-borate Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Alloys Compd. 303–304, 401–408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. P. Damelet, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium oxoborate crystal, Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238–2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

M. Iwai, T. Kobayashi, H. Furuya, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “Crystal growth and optical characterization of rare-earth (Re) calcium oxyborate ReCa4O(BO3)3 (Re=Y or Gd) as new nonlinear optical material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 36, L276–L279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, S. Georgescu, T. Taira, Y. Sato, and A. Ikesue, “The effect of Nd concentration on the spectroscopic and emission decay properties of highly doped Nd:YAG ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 092102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Z.

J. Liu, X. Xu, C. Q. Wang, S. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Chen, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Intracavity second-harmonic generation of 1.064 microns in GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 163–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Z. S.

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, W. A. Gambling, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, and H. C. Chen, “Efficient self-frequency doubling of Nd:GdCOB crystal by type-I phase matching out of its principal planes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 471–474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, S. Georgescu, T. Taira, Y. Sato, and A. Ikesue, “The effect of Nd concentration on the spectroscopic and emission decay properties of highly doped Nd:YAG ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 092102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, D.

V. Lupei, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Enhanced fundamental and self-frequency doubling laser emission efficiency in 4F3/2 directly pumped Nd-activated nonlinear crystals: the case of GdCa4O(BO3)3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 811–813 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Lupei, E. Antic-Fidancev, G. Aka, D. Vivien, P. Aschehoug, Ph. Goldner, F. Pelle, and L. Gheorghe, “Spectroscopic and crystal field studies of Nd3+ in GdCOB and YCOB,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224518 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Vivien, F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Nd:GdCOB: overview of its infrared, green and blue laser performances,” Opt. Mater. 16, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Vivien, F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Nd:GdCOB: overview of its infrared, green and blue laser performances,” Opt. Mater. 16, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, F. Mougel, F. Auge, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Overview of the laser and non-linear optical properties of calcium-gadolinium oxo-borate Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Alloys Compd. 303–304, 401–408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Lucas-Leclin, F. Auge, S. C. Auzaneau, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, F. Mougel, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Diode-pumped self-frequency-doubling Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 lasers: toward green microchip lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1526–1530 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Maunier, J. L. Doualan, G. Aka, J. Landais, E. Antic-Fidancev, R. Moncorge, and D. Vivien, “Excited state absorption of self-frequency doubling laser material Nd:GdCOB,” Opt. Commun. 184, 209–214 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, F. Mougel, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, P. Colin, D. Pelenc, and J. P. Damelet, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of a new gadolinium calcium oxoborate crystal, Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2238–2247 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Q.

J. Liu, X. Xu, C. Q. Wang, S. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Chen, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Intracavity second-harmonic generation of 1.064 microns in GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 163–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, W. A. Gambling, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, and H. C. Chen, “Efficient self-frequency doubling of Nd:GdCOB crystal by type-I phase matching out of its principal planes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 471–474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Liu, X. Xu, C. Q. Wang, S. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Chen, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Intracavity second-harmonic generation of 1.064 microns in GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 163–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xia, H. R.

H. R. Xia, W. Q. Zhang, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, X. F. Cheng, and Z. H. Yang, “Raman measurement and optical properties of Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5060–5067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Zhou, Z. Zhong, J. Xu, J. Lao, W. Hua, and S. Fan, “Bridgman growth and characterization of nonlinear optical crystals Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 97, 283–287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

J. Liu, X. Xu, C. Q. Wang, S. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Chen, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Intracavity second-harmonic generation of 1.064 microns in GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 163–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. H.

H. R. Xia, W. Q. Zhang, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, X. F. Cheng, and Z. H. Yang, “Raman measurement and optical properties of Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5060–5067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

J. Liu, X. Xu, C. Q. Wang, S. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Chen, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Intracavity second-harmonic generation of 1.064 microns in GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 163–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. J.

H. R. Xia, W. Q. Zhang, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, X. F. Cheng, and Z. H. Yang, “Raman measurement and optical properties of Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5060–5067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, W. A. Gambling, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, and H. C. Chen, “Efficient self-frequency doubling of Nd:GdCOB crystal by type-I phase matching out of its principal planes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 471–474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. Q.

H. R. Xia, W. Q. Zhang, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, X. F. Cheng, and Z. H. Yang, “Raman measurement and optical properties of Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5060–5067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Z.

J. Zhou, Z. Zhong, J. Xu, J. Lao, W. Hua, and S. Fan, “Bridgman growth and characterization of nonlinear optical crystals Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 97, 283–287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, Z. Zhong, J. Xu, J. Lao, W. Hua, and S. Fan, “Bridgman growth and characterization of nonlinear optical crystals Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 97, 283–287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Liu, X. Xu, C. Q. Wang, S. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Chen, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Intracavity second-harmonic generation of 1.064 microns in GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 163–168 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. Lupei, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Enhanced fundamental and self-frequency doubling laser emission efficiency in 4F3/2 directly pumped Nd-activated nonlinear crystals: the case of GdCa4O(BO3)3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 811–813 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

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[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

G. Aka, F. Mougel, F. Auge, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Overview of the laser and non-linear optical properties of calcium-gadolinium oxo-borate Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” J. Alloys Compd. 303–304, 401–408 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. R. Xia, W. Q. Zhang, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, X. F. Cheng, and Z. H. Yang, “Raman measurement and optical properties of Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5060–5067 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Boyd and D. A. Kleinman, “Parametric interaction of focused Gaussian light beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3597–3639 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

A. Brenier, “The self-doubling and summing lasers: overview and modeling,” J. Lumin. 91, 121–132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

F. Mougel, A. Kahn-Harari, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Structural and thermal stability of Czochralski-grown GdCOB oxoborate single crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 8, 1619–1623 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

G. Dominiak-Dzik, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Macalik, J. Hanuza, and A. Pajczkowska, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ and Yb3+ in Ca4GdO(BO3)3 crystals,” J. Mol. Struct. 55, 213–218 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 (1)

M. Iwai, T. Kobayashi, H. Furuya, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “Crystal growth and optical characterization of rare-earth (Re) calcium oxyborate ReCa4O(BO3)3 (Re=Y or Gd) as new nonlinear optical material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 36, L276–L279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng., B (1)

J. Zhou, Z. Zhong, J. Xu, J. Lao, W. Hua, and S. Fan, “Bridgman growth and characterization of nonlinear optical crystals Ca4GdO(BO3)3,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 97, 283–287 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

A. Brenier, A. Majchrowski, E. Michalski, and T. Lukasiewics, “Evaluation of GdCOB:Nd3+ for self-frequency doubling in the optimum phase matching directions,” Opt. Commun. 217, 395–400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Maunier, J. L. Doualan, G. Aka, J. Landais, E. Antic-Fidancev, R. Moncorge, and D. Vivien, “Excited state absorption of self-frequency doubling laser material Nd:GdCOB,” Opt. Commun. 184, 209–214 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, W. A. Gambling, S. J. Zhang, Z. X. Cheng, Z. S. Shao, and H. C. Chen, “Efficient self-frequency doubling of Nd:GdCOB crystal by type-I phase matching out of its principal planes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 471–474 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, M. Huang, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Determination of the optimum phase matching directions for the self-frequency conversion of Nd:GdCOB and Nd:YCOB crystals,” Opt. Commun. 196, 299–307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (3)

V. Lupei, “Efficiency enhancement and power scaling of Nd lasers,” Opt. Mater. 24, 353–368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Mougel, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, H. Hubert, J. M. Benitez, and D. Vivien, “Infrared laser performance and self-frequency doubling of Nd3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB),” Opt. Mater. 8, 161–173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Vivien, F. Mougel, F. Auge, G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, D. Pelenc, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Le Nain, and M. Jacquet, “Nd:GdCOB: overview of its infrared, green and blue laser performances,” Opt. Mater. 16, 213–220 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. Lupei, E. Antic-Fidancev, G. Aka, D. Vivien, P. Aschehoug, Ph. Goldner, F. Pelle, and L. Gheorghe, “Spectroscopic and crystal field studies of Nd3+ in GdCOB and YCOB,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 224518 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Lupei, A. Lupei, S. Georgescu, T. Taira, Y. Sato, and A. Ikesue, “The effect of Nd concentration on the spectroscopic and emission decay properties of highly doped Nd:YAG ceramics,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 092102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. T. Liu, M. J. Finander, P. J. Corvini, A. Salokarve, K. Rakennus, T. Kuuslahti, and J. Kongas, “Reliable 20 W CW operation of 880 nm laser array with aluminium-free active regions,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), paper CtuM58, p. 197.

N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1965).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Room-temperature  4I9/24F3/2 and  4I9/24F5/2 effective absorption cross sections for Nd:GdCOB cut for frequency doubling in plane X, Y. Thick curve, EZ polarization; thin curve, EZ polarization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Room-temperature effective 1-µm emission cross section for Nd:GdCOB cut for frequency doubling in plane X, Y. Thick curve, EZ polarization; thin curve, EZ polarization.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Self-doubling emission of Nd:GdCOB under 887-nm direct pumping into  4F3/2 (squares) and 811-nm pumping into  4F5/2 (circles) for a biconcave laser resonator: (a) sample cooled at 10 °C, (b) sample heated at 70 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Self-doubling emission of Nd:GdCOB under 887-nm direct pumping into  4F3/2 (squares) and 811-nm pumping into  4F5/2 (circles) for a plane–concave resonator.

Equations (5)

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I2ω1n12n2deff2l2Iω2F(Δk),
Iω=Is2K(a)PabGAIs-1,
ISSFMIωIi(deffSSFM)2n12nSSFMl exp-12αl,
ηh=1-ηpηlηqd(l)[1-γf(l)]-ηp(1-ηl)ηqd(f)ηqe[1-γf(f)],
PSFD[ηqd(1)(λp)]2[Pab-Pth(λp)]2,

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