Abstract

An injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on periodically poled KTiOPO4 is pumped at 532 nm by relatively long (∼27-ns) pulses from a specially constructed Nd:YAG laser. This pulsed OPO system generates continuously tunable, single-longitudinal-mode output at signal wavelengths near 842 nm, which is suitable for high-resolution spectroscopy. Optical-heterodyne measurements show that chirp in the instantaneous frequency of the pulsed OPO signal output radiation increases linearly as the seed frequency is detuned from the free-running (unseeded) OPO frequency. The frequency chirp can be maintained below 10 MHz, which is substantially less than the Fourier-transform-limited optical bandwidth (17.5 MHz full width at half-maximum for a 25-ns OPO signal pulse) and is insensitive to variation of the fluence of the pump radiation. The effects of detuning the OPO cavity length from resonance with the seed frequency and the onset of partially seeded OPO operation are also investigated.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2004 (1)

2003 (3)

M. A. Payne, A. P. Milce, M. J. Frost, and B. J. Orr, “Rovibrational energy transfer in the 4νCH manifold of acetylene, viewed by IR–UV double resonance spectroscopy. I. Foundation studies at low J,” J. Phys. Chem. 107, 10,759–10,770 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, “Pulsed injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator with low frequency chirp for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1248–1250 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Sprengers, W. Ubachs, K. G. H. Baldwin, B. R. Lewis, and W.-Ü. L. Tchang-Brillet, “Extreme ultraviolet laser excitation of isotopic molecular nitrogen: the dipole-allowed spectrum of 15N2 and 14N 15N,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3160–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. C. Bapna and K. Dasgupta, “Frequency shift in signal and idler gain peaks due to nonlinear refractive index in narrow-band optical parametric oscillators,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1777–1782 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (5)

P. Bakule, P. E. G. Baird, M. G. Boshier, S. L. Cornish, D. F. Heller, K. Jungmann, I. C. Lane, V. Meyer, P. H. G. Sandars, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, and J. C. Walling, “A chirp-compensated, injection-seeded alexandrite laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1 1S–2 1S transition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599–1606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Milce and B. J. Orr, “The νCC+3νCH rovibrational manifold of acetylene. II. Intramolecular perturbations and symmetry-breaking processes,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 9319–9334 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. A. Payne, A. P. Milce, M. J. Frost, and B. J. Orr, “Symmetry-breaking collisional energy transfer in the 4νCH rovibrational manifold of acetylene: spectroscopic evidence of a quasi-continuum of background states,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 324, 48–56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. W. Nibler, and B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, G. W. Baxter, and B. J. Orr, “Locking the cavity of a pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator to the wavelength of a continuous-wave injection seeder by an ‘intensity-dip’ method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3203–3213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. Cussat-Blanc, R. Maleck Rassoul, A. Ivanov, E. Freysz, and A. Ducasse, “Influence of cascading phenomena on a type I second-harmonic wave generated by an intense femtosecond pulse: application to the measurement of the effective second-order coefficient,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1585–1587 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1 1S–2 1S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (3)

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. Fisher von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Putlitz, “Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 63, 467–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Precision measurement in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 1 1S–2 1P transition isotope shift,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216–1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurement in the 1 1S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (3)

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Self-focusing and self-defocusing by cascaded second-order effects in KTP,” Opt. Lett. 17, 28–30 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, “Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911–4924 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, and K. K. Lehmann, “High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Alford, W. J.

Austin, B. D. W.

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. W. Nibler, and B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baird, P. E. G.

P. Bakule, P. E. G. Baird, M. G. Boshier, S. L. Cornish, D. F. Heller, K. Jungmann, I. C. Lane, V. Meyer, P. H. G. Sandars, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, and J. C. Walling, “A chirp-compensated, injection-seeded alexandrite laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, H. J.

Bakule, P.

P. Bakule, P. E. G. Baird, M. G. Boshier, S. L. Cornish, D. F. Heller, K. Jungmann, I. C. Lane, V. Meyer, P. H. G. Sandars, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, and J. C. Walling, “A chirp-compensated, injection-seeded alexandrite laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, A.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1 1S–2 1S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, K. G. H.

R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, “Control of frequency chirp in nanosecond-pulsed laser spectroscopy. 1. Optical-heterodyne chirp analysis techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1577–1585 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, “Pulsed injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator with low frequency chirp for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1248–1250 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Sprengers, W. Ubachs, K. G. H. Baldwin, B. R. Lewis, and W.-Ü. L. Tchang-Brillet, “Extreme ultraviolet laser excitation of isotopic molecular nitrogen: the dipole-allowed spectrum of 15N2 and 14N 15N,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3160–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1 1S–2 1S transition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599–1606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1 1S–2 1S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bapna, R. C.

R. C. Bapna and K. Dasgupta, “Frequency shift in signal and idler gain peaks due to nonlinear refractive index in narrow-band optical parametric oscillators,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1777–1782 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. C.

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, and W. Edwards, “Injection seeding. II. Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, and W. Edwards, “Injection seeding. II. Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, G. W.

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. W. Nibler, and B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, G. W. Baxter, and B. J. Orr, “Locking the cavity of a pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator to the wavelength of a continuous-wave injection seeder by an ‘intensity-dip’ method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3203–3213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, J. G. Haub, and B. J. Orr, “Backconversion in a pulsed optical parametric oscillator: evidence from injection-seeded sidebands,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2723–2730 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bergeson, S. D.

S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1 1S–2 1S transition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599–1606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1 1S–2 1S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boshier, M. G.

P. Bakule, P. E. G. Baird, M. G. Boshier, S. L. Cornish, D. F. Heller, K. Jungmann, I. C. Lane, V. Meyer, P. H. G. Sandars, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, and J. C. Walling, “A chirp-compensated, injection-seeded alexandrite laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, M. S.

Cheng, C. H.

S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1 1S–2 1S transition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599–1606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1 1S–2 1S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, “Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911–4924 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornish, S. L.

P. Bakule, P. E. G. Baird, M. G. Boshier, S. L. Cornish, D. F. Heller, K. Jungmann, I. C. Lane, V. Meyer, P. H. G. Sandars, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, and J. C. Walling, “A chirp-compensated, injection-seeded alexandrite laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cussat-Blanc, S.

Danzmann, K.

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, “Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911–4924 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasgupta, K.

R. C. Bapna and K. Dasgupta, “Frequency shift in signal and idler gain peaks due to nonlinear refractive index in narrow-band optical parametric oscillators,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1777–1782 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DeSalvo, R.

Ducasse, A.

Edwards, W.

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, and W. Edwards, “Injection seeding. II. Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eikema, K. S. E.

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Precision measurement in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 1 1S–2 1P transition isotope shift,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216–1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurement in the 1 1S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eyler, E. E.

S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1 1S–2 1S transition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599–1606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1 1S–2 1S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Eyler, A. Yiannopoulou, S. Gangopadhyay, and N. Melikechi, “Chirp-free nanosecond laser amplifier for precision spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 22, 49–51 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Melikechi, S. Gangopadhyay, and E. E. Eyler, “Phase dynamics in nanosecond pulsed dye laser amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2402–2411 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Gangopadhyay, N. Melikechi, and E. E. Eyler, “Optical phase perturbations in nanosecond pulsed amplification and second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 231–241 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fee, M. S.

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, “Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911–4924 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher von Weikersthal, B.

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. Fisher von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Putlitz, “Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 63, 467–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fix, A.

Freysz, E.

Frost, M. J.

M. A. Payne, A. P. Milce, M. J. Frost, and B. J. Orr, “Rovibrational energy transfer in the 4νCH manifold of acetylene, viewed by IR–UV double resonance spectroscopy. I. Foundation studies at low J,” J. Phys. Chem. 107, 10,759–10,770 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Payne, A. P. Milce, M. J. Frost, and B. J. Orr, “Symmetry-breaking collisional energy transfer in the 4νCH rovibrational manifold of acetylene: spectroscopic evidence of a quasi-continuum of background states,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 324, 48–56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gabrysch, M.

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. Fisher von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Putlitz, “Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 63, 467–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, S.

Hagan, D. J.

Halloway, C. A.

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. W. Nibler, and B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haub, J. G.

He, Y.

R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, “Control of frequency chirp in nanosecond-pulsed laser spectroscopy. 1. Optical-heterodyne chirp analysis techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1577–1585 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, “Pulsed injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator with low frequency chirp for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1248–1250 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. He and B. J. Orr, “Tunable single-mode operation of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator pumped by a multimode laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4836–4848 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. W. Nibler, and B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, G. W. Baxter, and B. J. Orr, “Locking the cavity of a pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator to the wavelength of a continuous-wave injection seeder by an ‘intensity-dip’ method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3203–3213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heller, D. F.

P. Bakule, P. E. G. Baird, M. G. Boshier, S. L. Cornish, D. F. Heller, K. Jungmann, I. C. Lane, V. Meyer, P. H. G. Sandars, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, and J. C. Walling, “A chirp-compensated, injection-seeded alexandrite laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hogervorst, W.

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Precision measurement in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 1 1S–2 1P transition isotope shift,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216–1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurement in the 1 1S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hovde, D. C.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, and K. K. Lehmann, “High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, A.

Johnson, M. J.

Jungmann, K.

P. Bakule, P. E. G. Baird, M. G. Boshier, S. L. Cornish, D. F. Heller, K. Jungmann, I. C. Lane, V. Meyer, P. H. G. Sandars, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, and J. C. Walling, “A chirp-compensated, injection-seeded alexandrite laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. Fisher von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Putlitz, “Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 63, 467–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kono, M.

Kuipers, L.

Lagendijk, A.

Lane, I. C.

P. Bakule, P. E. G. Baird, M. G. Boshier, S. L. Cornish, D. F. Heller, K. Jungmann, I. C. Lane, V. Meyer, P. H. G. Sandars, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, and J. C. Walling, “A chirp-compensated, injection-seeded alexandrite laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, K. K.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, and K. K. Lehmann, “High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, B. R.

J. P. Sprengers, W. Ubachs, K. G. H. Baldwin, B. R. Lewis, and W.-Ü. L. Tchang-Brillet, “Extreme ultraviolet laser excitation of isotopic molecular nitrogen: the dipole-allowed spectrum of 15N2 and 14N 15N,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3160–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lucatorto, T. B.

S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1 1S–2 1S transition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599–1606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1 1S–2 1S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Maleck Rassoul, R.

Marangos, J. P.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1 1S–2 1S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McIlrath, T. J.

S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1 1S–2 1S transition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599–1606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1 1S–2 1S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Melikechi, N.

Meyer, V.

P. Bakule, P. E. G. Baird, M. G. Boshier, S. L. Cornish, D. F. Heller, K. Jungmann, I. C. Lane, V. Meyer, P. H. G. Sandars, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, and J. C. Walling, “A chirp-compensated, injection-seeded alexandrite laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Milce, A. P.

M. A. Payne, A. P. Milce, M. J. Frost, and B. J. Orr, “Rovibrational energy transfer in the 4νCH manifold of acetylene, viewed by IR–UV double resonance spectroscopy. I. Foundation studies at low J,” J. Phys. Chem. 107, 10,759–10,770 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Milce and B. J. Orr, “The νCC+3νCH rovibrational manifold of acetylene. II. Intramolecular perturbations and symmetry-breaking processes,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 9319–9334 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. A. Payne, A. P. Milce, M. J. Frost, and B. J. Orr, “Symmetry-breaking collisional energy transfer in the 4νCH rovibrational manifold of acetylene: spectroscopic evidence of a quasi-continuum of background states,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 324, 48–56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. W. Nibler, and B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Milce and B. J. Orr, “The νCC+3νCH rovibrational manifold of acetylene. I. Collision-induced state-to-state transfer kinetics,” J. Chem. Phys. 106, 3592–3606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nibler, J. W.

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. W. Nibler, and B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O’Brian, T. R.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1 1S–2 1S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Orr, B. J.

R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, “Control of frequency chirp in nanosecond-pulsed laser spectroscopy. 1. Optical-heterodyne chirp analysis techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1577–1585 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, “Pulsed injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator with low frequency chirp for high-resolution spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1248–1250 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Payne, A. P. Milce, M. J. Frost, and B. J. Orr, “Rovibrational energy transfer in the 4νCH manifold of acetylene, viewed by IR–UV double resonance spectroscopy. I. Foundation studies at low J,” J. Phys. Chem. 107, 10,759–10,770 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. He and B. J. Orr, “Tunable single-mode operation of a pulsed optical parametric oscillator pumped by a multimode laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4836–4848 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. W. Nibler, and B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Milce and B. J. Orr, “The νCC+3νCH rovibrational manifold of acetylene. II. Intramolecular perturbations and symmetry-breaking processes,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 9319–9334 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. A. Payne, A. P. Milce, M. J. Frost, and B. J. Orr, “Symmetry-breaking collisional energy transfer in the 4νCH rovibrational manifold of acetylene: spectroscopic evidence of a quasi-continuum of background states,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 324, 48–56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, G. W. Baxter, and B. J. Orr, “Locking the cavity of a pulsed periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator to the wavelength of a continuous-wave injection seeder by an ‘intensity-dip’ method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3203–3213 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, J. G. Haub, and B. J. Orr, “Backconversion in a pulsed optical parametric oscillator: evidence from injection-seeded sidebands,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2723–2730 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Milce and B. J. Orr, “The νCC+3νCH rovibrational manifold of acetylene. I. Collision-induced state-to-state transfer kinetics,” J. Chem. Phys. 106, 3592–3606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fix, T. Schroder, R. Wallenstein, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, and B. J. Orr, “Tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: operating characteristics with and without injection seeding,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1744–1750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Payne, M. A.

M. A. Payne, A. P. Milce, M. J. Frost, and B. J. Orr, “Rovibrational energy transfer in the 4νCH manifold of acetylene, viewed by IR–UV double resonance spectroscopy. I. Foundation studies at low J,” J. Phys. Chem. 107, 10,759–10,770 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Payne, A. P. Milce, M. J. Frost, and B. J. Orr, “Symmetry-breaking collisional energy transfer in the 4νCH rovibrational manifold of acetylene: spectroscopic evidence of a quasi-continuum of background states,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 324, 48–56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. W. Nibler, and B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

Raymond, T. D.

Reinhard, I.

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. Fisher von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Putlitz, “Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 63, 467–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rolston, S. L.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1 1S–2 1S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandars, P. H. G.

P. Bakule, P. E. G. Baird, M. G. Boshier, S. L. Cornish, D. F. Heller, K. Jungmann, I. C. Lane, V. Meyer, P. H. G. Sandars, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, and J. C. Walling, “A chirp-compensated, injection-seeded alexandrite laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sansonetti, C. J.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1 1S–2 1S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schroder, T.

Scoles, G.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, and K. K. Lehmann, “High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Smith, A. V.

Sprengers, J. P.

J. P. Sprengers, W. Ubachs, K. G. H. Baldwin, B. R. Lewis, and W.-Ü. L. Tchang-Brillet, “Extreme ultraviolet laser excitation of isotopic molecular nitrogen: the dipole-allowed spectrum of 15N2 and 14N 15N,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3160–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.

Tchang-Brillet, W.-Ü. L.

J. P. Sprengers, W. Ubachs, K. G. H. Baldwin, B. R. Lewis, and W.-Ü. L. Tchang-Brillet, “Extreme ultraviolet laser excitation of isotopic molecular nitrogen: the dipole-allowed spectrum of 15N2 and 14N 15N,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3160–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Timmermans, J. H.

D. C. Hovde, J. H. Timmermans, G. Scoles, and K. K. Lehmann, “High power injection seeded optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 86, 294–300 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Toner, W. T.

P. Bakule, P. E. G. Baird, M. G. Boshier, S. L. Cornish, D. F. Heller, K. Jungmann, I. C. Lane, V. Meyer, P. H. G. Sandars, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, and J. C. Walling, “A chirp-compensated, injection-seeded alexandrite laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Towrie, M.

P. Bakule, P. E. G. Baird, M. G. Boshier, S. L. Cornish, D. F. Heller, K. Jungmann, I. C. Lane, V. Meyer, P. H. G. Sandars, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, and J. C. Walling, “A chirp-compensated, injection-seeded alexandrite laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ubachs, W.

J. P. Sprengers, W. Ubachs, K. G. H. Baldwin, B. R. Lewis, and W.-Ü. L. Tchang-Brillet, “Extreme ultraviolet laser excitation of isotopic molecular nitrogen: the dipole-allowed spectrum of 15N2 and 14N 15N,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3160–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurement in the 1 1S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Precision measurement in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 1 1S–2 1P transition isotope shift,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216–1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Vassen, W.

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Precision measurement in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 1 1S–2 1P transition isotope shift,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216–1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurement in the 1 1S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wallenstein, R.

Walling, J. C.

P. Bakule, P. E. G. Baird, M. G. Boshier, S. L. Cornish, D. F. Heller, K. Jungmann, I. C. Lane, V. Meyer, P. H. G. Sandars, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, and J. C. Walling, “A chirp-compensated, injection-seeded alexandrite laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. G.

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, and W. Edwards, “Injection seeding. II. Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wen, J.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1 1S–2 1S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, N.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1 1S–2 1S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

White, R. T.

Yiannopoulou, A.

zu Putlitz, G.

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (3)

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. Fisher von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Putlitz, “Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 63, 467–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Bakule, P. E. G. Baird, M. G. Boshier, S. L. Cornish, D. F. Heller, K. Jungmann, I. C. Lane, V. Meyer, P. H. G. Sandars, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, and J. C. Walling, “A chirp-compensated, injection-seeded alexandrite laser,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 11–17 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, M. A. Payne, B. D. W. Austin, C. A. Halloway, J. G. Haub, Y. He, A. P. Milce, J. W. Nibler, and B. J. Orr, “Spectroscopic diagnostics of chemical processes: applications of optical parametric oscillators,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 71, 651–663 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. A. Payne, A. P. Milce, M. J. Frost, and B. J. Orr, “Symmetry-breaking collisional energy transfer in the 4νCH rovibrational manifold of acetylene: spectroscopic evidence of a quasi-continuum of background states,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 324, 48–56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, and W. Edwards, “Injection seeding. II. Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

A. P. Milce and B. J. Orr, “The νCC+3νCH rovibrational manifold of acetylene. I. Collision-induced state-to-state transfer kinetics,” J. Chem. Phys. 106, 3592–3606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Milce and B. J. Orr, “The νCC+3νCH rovibrational manifold of acetylene. II. Intramolecular perturbations and symmetry-breaking processes,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 9319–9334 (2000), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. P. Sprengers, W. Ubachs, K. G. H. Baldwin, B. R. Lewis, and W.-Ü. L. Tchang-Brillet, “Extreme ultraviolet laser excitation of isotopic molecular nitrogen: the dipole-allowed spectrum of 15N2 and 14N 15N,” J. Chem. Phys. 119, 3160–3172 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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R. C. Bapna and K. Dasgupta, “Frequency shift in signal and idler gain peaks due to nonlinear refractive index in narrow-band optical parametric oscillators,” J. Mod. Opt. 49, 1777–1782 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

A. Fix, T. Schroder, R. Wallenstein, J. G. Haub, M. J. Johnson, and B. J. Orr, “Tunable β-barium borate optical parametric oscillator: operating characteristics with and without injection seeding,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1744–1750 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Baxter, J. G. Haub, and B. J. Orr, “Backconversion in a pulsed optical parametric oscillator: evidence from injection-seeded sidebands,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2723–2730 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Melikechi, S. Gangopadhyay, and E. E. Eyler, “Phase dynamics in nanosecond pulsed dye laser amplification,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2402–2411 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1 1S–2 1S transition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599–1606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Smith, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and M. S. Bowers, “Comparison of a numerical model with measured performance of a seeded, nanosecond KTP optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2253–2267 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, “Control of frequency chirp in nanosecond-pulsed laser spectroscopy. 1. Optical-heterodyne chirp analysis techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1577–1585 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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M. A. Payne, A. P. Milce, M. J. Frost, and B. J. Orr, “Rovibrational energy transfer in the 4νCH manifold of acetylene, viewed by IR–UV double resonance spectroscopy. I. Foundation studies at low J,” J. Phys. Chem. 107, 10,759–10,770 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1 1S–2 1S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
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Phys. Scr. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Other (4)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the long-pulse injection-seeded PPKTP OPO and the OH detection system: A1, A2, attenuators; BS1, BS2, beam splitters; WM, wavemeter; SF, spatial filter; OI, optical isolator; AOM, acousto-optic modulator (∼730-MHz); PZT, piezoelectric translator; MMO, mode-matching optics; DO, digital oscilloscope; M1–M4, cavity mirrors; TDL, tunable diode laser; PD1, PD2, photodetectors; L1–L4, lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature dependence of the measured phase-matched wavelength λfree for signal output from the free-running PPKTP OPO. The ordinate intercept is 883.4 nm, and the slope is -0.326 nm K-1. The wavelength tuning range of the TDL injection seeder is 834–851 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Total output signal pulse energy (from both output couplers, M1 and M2) as a function of pump-pulse energy incident upon the OPO for seeded (○) and unseeded (×) operation. The roll-off in the seeded curve is discussed in the text. The threshold for seeded operation is 19 µJ, and the slope efficiency is 38% (before roll-off) and 22% (after roll-off). The corresponding unseeded results are 27 µJ and 34%, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Instantaneous-frequency finst(t) profiles extracted by the FT algorithm for several injection-seeder wavelengths above and below λfree (841.75 nm). The pump-pulse energy is twice the unseeded threshold level, and the PPKTP temperature is maintained at 125 °C. Vertical dashed lines, 10%-intensity points of the OPO pulses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Frequency chirp as a function of OPO signal wavelength λs for the linear-fit (×) and the Δfinst (○) definitions.12 Each entry is an average of four pulse measurements as in Fig. 4, at a PPKTP temperature of 125 °C. Solid line, unweighted straight-line fit to the Δfinst data points; error bars show the scatter of Δfinst values that contribute to each point. The fit has a slope of 292±17 MHz nm-1, and it predicts a minimum-chirp wavelength of 841.76 nm. Vertical dashed line, free-running signal wavelength, λfree (841.75 nm).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Set of ten finst(t) profiles for seeded OPO operation at λfree (841.75 nm at a PPKTP temperature of 125 °C) and pumped at twice the unseeded threshold. Vertical short- and long-dashed lines, 10%- and 50%-intensity points for which the mean unsigned overall chirp values |Δfinst| are 11±3 and 7±2 MHz, respectively. Absolute-frequency scatter (amounting to ±9 MHz) for these pulses is not shown.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Δfinst as a function of OPO signal wavelength λs for several pump-pulse energies, with ratio Rp ranging from 0.69 to 3 times the threshold for the unseeded PPKTP OPO. Solid lines, straight-line fits to the data. In all cases these lines predict a minimum-chirp wavelength of 841.76 nm, virtually identical to λfree=841.75±0.01 nm. Two extreme data points with Rp=3 (marked ×) have been rejected, as explained in the text.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Slope d(Δfinst)/dλs of straight-line least-squares fits to the Δfinst signal-wavelength plots in Fig. 7 plotted against pump-pulse energy ratio Rp. An error bar indicates the standard deviation of each slope fit. The two different data points for Rp=3 are explained in the text.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Partially seeded behavior in the signal output from the long-pulse PPKTP OPO system pumped at three times the unseeded threshold (Rp=3). Top, raw OH beat waveform. Center, OPO signal intensity profiles, raw (dashed curve) and reconstructed narrowband component (solid curve). Bottom, finst profile extracted with the FT algorithm; vertical dashed lines, 10% raw-intensity limits.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E(z, t)=E0(t)exp[iωt+iϕ(z, t)]+c.c.=E0(t)exp[i(ϕ0+ωt-k(z, t)z)]+c.c.,
k(L, t)=(ω/cL)0Ln(z, t)dz,
finst(L, t)=(2π)-1ϕ(L, t)/t,
finst(L, t)=-(2π)-1L[k(L, t)/t]=-(2πc)-1ωL[n(t)/t],

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