Abstract

We report femtosecond pump–probe experiments in He plasma waveguides using 800-nm, 80-fs pump pulses of 0.2×1018 W/cm2 peak guided intensity and single orthogonally polarized 800-nm probe pulses ∼0.1% as intense as the pump. Single-shot spectra and spatial profiles of the probe pulses exiting the channels are measured through a crossed-polarization analyzer at various pump–probe time delays Δt. At |Δt|100 fs, we observe frequency-domain interference between the probe and a weak component of the exiting pump created by hybridization of its polarization state through interaction with the channel. Frequency-domain interference measurements show this “depolarized” component differs substantially in mode structure from the injected pump pulse. This component is nearly undetectable by direct measurements of pump leakage without the probe. We analyze possible causes of depolarization within the channel and near its entrance and exit regions. At Δt0, i.e., the probe pulse propagates in the leading edge of the pump pulse, we observe spectral blueshifts in the transmitted-probe spectrum that are not evident in the transmitted pump. The evidence indicates that pump depolarization and probe blueshifts both originate primarily near the channel entrance.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  6. C. G. Durfee III, J. Lynch, and H. M. Milchberg, “Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 2368–2389 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2003 (1)

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

H. Kotaki, M. Kando, T. Oketa, S. Masuda, J. K. Koga, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, T. Yokoyama, T. Matoba, and K. Nakajima, “Direct measurement of coherent ultrahigh wake-fields excited by intense ultrashort laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 1392–1400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124–4126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Butler, D. J. Spence, and S. M. Hooker, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses with a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 185003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

1999 (5)

P. Volfbeyn, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Guiding of laser pulses in plasma channels created by the ignitor-heater technique,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 2269–2277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Nikitin, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, and H. M. Milchberg, “High efficiency coupling and guiding of intense femtosecond laser pulses in preformed plasma channels in an elongated gas jet,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R3839–R3842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Sprangle and B. Hafizi, “Guiding and stability of short laser pulses in partially stripped ionizing plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1683–1689 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

D. Kaganovich, P. Sasorov, C. Cohen, and A. Zigler, “Variable profile capillary discharge for improved phase matching in a laser wakefield accelerator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 772–774 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Grimes, A. R. Rundquist, Y.-S. Lee, and M. C. Downer, “Experimental identification of vacuum heating at femtosecond-laser-irradiated metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4010–4013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. R. Marques, R. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

S. P. Le Blanc, M. C. Downer, R. Wagner, S.-Y. Chen, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, and D. Umstadter, “Temporal characterization of a self-modulated laser wakefield,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5381–5384 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ting, K. Krushelnick, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, E. Esarey, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Temporal evolution of self-modulated laser wakefields measured by coherent Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5377–5380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Blanc, P. Audebert, F. Fallies, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Dos Santos, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Antonetti, “Phase dynamics of reflected probe pulses from sub-100-fs laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 118–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

C. G. Durfee III, J. Lynch, and H. M. Milchberg, “Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 2368–2389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Lepetit, G. Cheriaux, and M. Joffre, “Linear techniques of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2467–2474 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, W. B. Mori, T. Katsouleas, and M. E. Jones, “Photon accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2600–2603 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

W. K. Burns, Robert P. Moeller, and Chin-lin Chen, “Depolarization in a single-mode optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 44–49 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Alexeev, I.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124–4126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Nikitin, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, and H. M. Milchberg, “High efficiency coupling and guiding of intense femtosecond laser pulses in preformed plasma channels in an elongated gas jet,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R3839–R3842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Amiranoff, F.

J. R. Marques, R. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

J. R. Marques, R. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Blanc, P. Audebert, F. Fallies, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Dos Santos, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Antonetti, “Phase dynamics of reflected probe pulses from sub-100-fs laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 118–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Antonsen, T. M.

J. R. Marques, R. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Audebert, P.

J. R. Marques, R. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Blanc, P. Audebert, F. Fallies, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Dos Santos, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Antonetti, “Phase dynamics of reflected probe pulses from sub-100-fs laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 118–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Augst, S.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babine, A.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanc, P.

Burns, W. K.

W. K. Burns, Robert P. Moeller, and Chin-lin Chen, “Depolarization in a single-mode optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 44–49 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Burris, H. R.

A. Ting, K. Krushelnick, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, E. Esarey, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Temporal evolution of self-modulated laser wakefields measured by coherent Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5377–5380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butler, A.

A. Butler, D. J. Spence, and S. M. Hooker, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses with a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 185003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Chin-lin

W. K. Burns, Robert P. Moeller, and Chin-lin Chen, “Depolarization in a single-mode optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 44–49 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-Y.

S. P. Le Blanc, M. C. Downer, R. Wagner, S.-Y. Chen, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, and D. Umstadter, “Temporal characterization of a self-modulated laser wakefield,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5381–5384 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheriaux, G.

Chessa, P.

J. R. Marques, R. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, C.

D. Kaganovich, P. Sasorov, C. Cohen, and A. Zigler, “Variable profile capillary discharge for improved phase matching in a laser wakefield accelerator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 772–774 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawson, J. M.

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, W. B. Mori, T. Katsouleas, and M. E. Jones, “Photon accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2600–2603 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dewa, H.

Dorchies, R.

J. R. Marques, R. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dos Santos, A.

Downer, M. C.

S. P. Le Blanc, E. W. Gaul, N. M. Matlis, A. R. Rundquist, and M. C. Downer, “Single-shot measurement of temporal phase shifts by frequency-domain holography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 764–766 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Gaul, S. P. Le Blanc, A. R. Rundquist, R. Zgadzaj, H. Langhoff, and M. C. Downer, “Production and characterization of a fully ionized He plasma channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4112–4114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Grimes, A. R. Rundquist, Y.-S. Lee, and M. C. Downer, “Experimental identification of vacuum heating at femtosecond-laser-irradiated metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4010–4013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Le Blanc, M. C. Downer, R. Wagner, S.-Y. Chen, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, and D. Umstadter, “Temporal characterization of a self-modulated laser wakefield,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5381–5384 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee III, C. G.

C. G. Durfee III, J. Lynch, and H. M. Milchberg, “Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 2368–2389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehrlich, Y.

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esarey, E.

P. Volfbeyn, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Guiding of laser pulses in plasma channels created by the ignitor-heater technique,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 2269–2277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ting, K. Krushelnick, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, E. Esarey, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Temporal evolution of self-modulated laser wakefields measured by coherent Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5377–5380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fallies, F.

Fan, J.

S. P. Nikitin, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, and H. M. Milchberg, “High efficiency coupling and guiding of intense femtosecond laser pulses in preformed plasma channels in an elongated gas jet,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R3839–R3842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, D.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaul, E. W.

E. W. Gaul, S. P. Le Blanc, A. R. Rundquist, R. Zgadzaj, H. Langhoff, and M. C. Downer, “Production and characterization of a fully ionized He plasma channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4112–4114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Le Blanc, E. W. Gaul, N. M. Matlis, A. R. Rundquist, and M. C. Downer, “Single-shot measurement of temporal phase shifts by frequency-domain holography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 764–766 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J. C.

J. R. Marques, R. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Blanc, P. Audebert, F. Fallies, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Dos Santos, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Antonetti, “Phase dynamics of reflected probe pulses from sub-100-fs laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 118–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Geindre, J. P.

J. R. Marques, R. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Blanc, P. Audebert, F. Fallies, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Dos Santos, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Antonetti, “Phase dynamics of reflected probe pulses from sub-100-fs laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 118–124 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grimes, M. K.

M. K. Grimes, A. R. Rundquist, Y.-S. Lee, and M. C. Downer, “Experimental identification of vacuum heating at femtosecond-laser-irradiated metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4010–4013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hafizi, B.

P. Sprangle and B. Hafizi, “Guiding and stability of short laser pulses in partially stripped ionizing plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1683–1689 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, N.

Hooker, S. M.

A. Butler, D. J. Spence, and S. M. Hooker, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses with a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 185003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horioka, K.

Hosokai, T.

Joffre, M.

Jones, M. E.

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, W. B. Mori, T. Katsouleas, and M. E. Jones, “Photon accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2600–2603 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaganovich, D.

D. Kaganovich, P. Sasorov, C. Cohen, and A. Zigler, “Variable profile capillary discharge for improved phase matching in a laser wakefield accelerator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 772–774 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kanazawa, S.

H. Kotaki, M. Kando, T. Oketa, S. Masuda, J. K. Koga, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, T. Yokoyama, T. Matoba, and K. Nakajima, “Direct measurement of coherent ultrahigh wake-fields excited by intense ultrashort laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 1392–1400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kando, M.

H. Kotaki, M. Kando, T. Oketa, S. Masuda, J. K. Koga, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, T. Yokoyama, T. Matoba, and K. Nakajima, “Direct measurement of coherent ultrahigh wake-fields excited by intense ultrashort laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 1392–1400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Hosokai, M. Kando, H. Dewa, H. Kotaki, S. Kondo, N. Hasegawa, K. Nakajima, and K. Horioka, “Optical guidance of terawatt laser pulses by the implosion phase of a fast Z-pinch discharge in a gas-filled capillary,” Opt. Lett. 25, 10–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Katsouleas, T.

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, W. B. Mori, T. Katsouleas, and M. E. Jones, “Photon accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2600–2603 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K. Y.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124–4126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koga, J. K.

H. Kotaki, M. Kando, T. Oketa, S. Masuda, J. K. Koga, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, T. Yokoyama, T. Matoba, and K. Nakajima, “Direct measurement of coherent ultrahigh wake-fields excited by intense ultrashort laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 1392–1400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, S.

H. Kotaki, M. Kando, T. Oketa, S. Masuda, J. K. Koga, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, T. Yokoyama, T. Matoba, and K. Nakajima, “Direct measurement of coherent ultrahigh wake-fields excited by intense ultrashort laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 1392–1400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Hosokai, M. Kando, H. Dewa, H. Kotaki, S. Kondo, N. Hasegawa, K. Nakajima, and K. Horioka, “Optical guidance of terawatt laser pulses by the implosion phase of a fast Z-pinch discharge in a gas-filled capillary,” Opt. Lett. 25, 10–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kotaki, H.

H. Kotaki, M. Kando, T. Oketa, S. Masuda, J. K. Koga, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, T. Yokoyama, T. Matoba, and K. Nakajima, “Direct measurement of coherent ultrahigh wake-fields excited by intense ultrashort laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 1392–1400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Hosokai, M. Kando, H. Dewa, H. Kotaki, S. Kondo, N. Hasegawa, K. Nakajima, and K. Horioka, “Optical guidance of terawatt laser pulses by the implosion phase of a fast Z-pinch discharge in a gas-filled capillary,” Opt. Lett. 25, 10–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krall, J.

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ting, K. Krushelnick, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, E. Esarey, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Temporal evolution of self-modulated laser wakefields measured by coherent Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5377–5380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krushelnick, K.

A. Ting, K. Krushelnick, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, E. Esarey, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Temporal evolution of self-modulated laser wakefields measured by coherent Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5377–5380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langhoff, H.

E. W. Gaul, S. P. Le Blanc, A. R. Rundquist, R. Zgadzaj, H. Langhoff, and M. C. Downer, “Production and characterization of a fully ionized He plasma channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4112–4114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Le Blanc, S. P.

E. W. Gaul, S. P. Le Blanc, A. R. Rundquist, R. Zgadzaj, H. Langhoff, and M. C. Downer, “Production and characterization of a fully ionized He plasma channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4112–4114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Le Blanc, E. W. Gaul, N. M. Matlis, A. R. Rundquist, and M. C. Downer, “Single-shot measurement of temporal phase shifts by frequency-domain holography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 764–766 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Le Blanc, M. C. Downer, R. Wagner, S.-Y. Chen, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, and D. Umstadter, “Temporal characterization of a self-modulated laser wakefield,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5381–5384 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-S.

M. K. Grimes, A. R. Rundquist, Y.-S. Lee, and M. C. Downer, “Experimental identification of vacuum heating at femtosecond-laser-irradiated metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4010–4013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leemans, W. P.

P. Volfbeyn, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Guiding of laser pulses in plasma channels created by the ignitor-heater technique,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 2269–2277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lepetit, L.

Lynch, J.

C. G. Durfee III, J. Lynch, and H. M. Milchberg, “Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 2368–2389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maksimchuk, A.

S. P. Le Blanc, M. C. Downer, R. Wagner, S.-Y. Chen, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, and D. Umstadter, “Temporal characterization of a self-modulated laser wakefield,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5381–5384 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marques, J. R.

J. R. Marques, R. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, S.

H. Kotaki, M. Kando, T. Oketa, S. Masuda, J. K. Koga, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, T. Yokoyama, T. Matoba, and K. Nakajima, “Direct measurement of coherent ultrahigh wake-fields excited by intense ultrashort laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 1392–1400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matlis, N. M.

Matoba, T.

H. Kotaki, M. Kando, T. Oketa, S. Masuda, J. K. Koga, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, T. Yokoyama, T. Matoba, and K. Nakajima, “Direct measurement of coherent ultrahigh wake-fields excited by intense ultrashort laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 1392–1400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milchberg, H. M.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124–4126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Nikitin, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, and H. M. Milchberg, “High efficiency coupling and guiding of intense femtosecond laser pulses in preformed plasma channels in an elongated gas jet,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R3839–R3842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Durfee III, J. Lynch, and H. M. Milchberg, “Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 2368–2389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, Robert P.

W. K. Burns, Robert P. Moeller, and Chin-lin Chen, “Depolarization in a single-mode optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 44–49 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. I.

A. Ting, K. Krushelnick, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, E. Esarey, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Temporal evolution of self-modulated laser wakefields measured by coherent Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5377–5380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mora, P.

J. R. Marques, R. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mori, W. B.

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, W. B. Mori, T. Katsouleas, and M. E. Jones, “Photon accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2600–2603 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

S. P. Le Blanc, M. C. Downer, R. Wagner, S.-Y. Chen, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, and D. Umstadter, “Temporal characterization of a self-modulated laser wakefield,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5381–5384 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Nakajima, K.

H. Kotaki, M. Kando, T. Oketa, S. Masuda, J. K. Koga, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, T. Yokoyama, T. Matoba, and K. Nakajima, “Direct measurement of coherent ultrahigh wake-fields excited by intense ultrashort laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 1392–1400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Hosokai, M. Kando, H. Dewa, H. Kotaki, S. Kondo, N. Hasegawa, K. Nakajima, and K. Horioka, “Optical guidance of terawatt laser pulses by the implosion phase of a fast Z-pinch discharge in a gas-filled capillary,” Opt. Lett. 25, 10–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, S. P.

S. P. Nikitin, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, and H. M. Milchberg, “High efficiency coupling and guiding of intense femtosecond laser pulses in preformed plasma channels in an elongated gas jet,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R3839–R3842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oketa, T.

H. Kotaki, M. Kando, T. Oketa, S. Masuda, J. K. Koga, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, T. Yokoyama, T. Matoba, and K. Nakajima, “Direct measurement of coherent ultrahigh wake-fields excited by intense ultrashort laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 1392–1400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Parra, E.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rundquist, A. R.

S. P. Le Blanc, E. W. Gaul, N. M. Matlis, A. R. Rundquist, and M. C. Downer, “Single-shot measurement of temporal phase shifts by frequency-domain holography,” Opt. Lett. 25, 764–766 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Gaul, S. P. Le Blanc, A. R. Rundquist, R. Zgadzaj, H. Langhoff, and M. C. Downer, “Production and characterization of a fully ionized He plasma channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4112–4114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Grimes, A. R. Rundquist, Y.-S. Lee, and M. C. Downer, “Experimental identification of vacuum heating at femtosecond-laser-irradiated metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4010–4013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sasorov, P.

D. Kaganovich, P. Sasorov, C. Cohen, and A. Zigler, “Variable profile capillary discharge for improved phase matching in a laser wakefield accelerator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 772–774 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sergeev, A.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siders, C. W.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spence, D. J.

A. Butler, D. J. Spence, and S. M. Hooker, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses with a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 185003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sprangle, P.

P. Sprangle and B. Hafizi, “Guiding and stability of short laser pulses in partially stripped ionizing plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1683–1689 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ting, K. Krushelnick, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, E. Esarey, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Temporal evolution of self-modulated laser wakefields measured by coherent Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5377–5380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, A.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickland, D.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tajima, T.

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ting, A.

A. Ting, K. Krushelnick, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, E. Esarey, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Temporal evolution of self-modulated laser wakefields measured by coherent Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5377–5380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umstadter, D.

S. P. Le Blanc, M. C. Downer, R. Wagner, S.-Y. Chen, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, and D. Umstadter, “Temporal characterization of a self-modulated laser wakefield,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5381–5384 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volfbeyn, P.

P. Volfbeyn, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Guiding of laser pulses in plasma channels created by the ignitor-heater technique,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 2269–2277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R.

S. P. Le Blanc, M. C. Downer, R. Wagner, S.-Y. Chen, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, and D. Umstadter, “Temporal characterization of a self-modulated laser wakefield,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5381–5384 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilks, S. C.

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, W. B. Mori, T. Katsouleas, and M. E. Jones, “Photon accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2600–2603 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, W. M.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, T.

H. Kotaki, M. Kando, T. Oketa, S. Masuda, J. K. Koga, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, T. Yokoyama, T. Matoba, and K. Nakajima, “Direct measurement of coherent ultrahigh wake-fields excited by intense ultrashort laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 1392–1400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zgadzaj, R.

E. W. Gaul, S. P. Le Blanc, A. R. Rundquist, R. Zgadzaj, H. Langhoff, and M. C. Downer, “Production and characterization of a fully ionized He plasma channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4112–4114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zigler, A.

D. Kaganovich, P. Sasorov, C. Cohen, and A. Zigler, “Variable profile capillary discharge for improved phase matching in a laser wakefield accelerator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 772–774 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. Kaganovich, P. Sasorov, C. Cohen, and A. Zigler, “Variable profile capillary discharge for improved phase matching in a laser wakefield accelerator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 772–774 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Gaul, S. P. Le Blanc, A. R. Rundquist, R. Zgadzaj, H. Langhoff, and M. C. Downer, “Production and characterization of a fully ionized He plasma channel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4112–4114 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, and H. M. Milchberg, “Single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4124–4126 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

W. K. Burns, Robert P. Moeller, and Chin-lin Chen, “Depolarization in a single-mode optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 44–49 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Plasmas (4)

J. R. Marques, R. Dorchies, F. Amiranoff, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, A. Antonetti, T. M. Antonsen, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, “Laser wakefield: experimental study of nonlinear radial electron oscillations,” Phys. Plasmas 5, 1162–1177 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Kotaki, M. Kando, T. Oketa, S. Masuda, J. K. Koga, S. Kondo, S. Kanazawa, T. Yokoyama, T. Matoba, and K. Nakajima, “Direct measurement of coherent ultrahigh wake-fields excited by intense ultrashort laser pulses in a gas-jet plasma,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 1392–1400 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Volfbeyn, E. Esarey, and W. P. Leemans, “Guiding of laser pulses in plasma channels created by the ignitor-heater technique,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 2269–2277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Sprangle and B. Hafizi, “Guiding and stability of short laser pulses in partially stripped ionizing plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 6, 1683–1689 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

S. P. Nikitin, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, and H. M. Milchberg, “High efficiency coupling and guiding of intense femtosecond laser pulses in preformed plasma channels in an elongated gas jet,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R3839–R3842 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Durfee III, J. Lynch, and H. M. Milchberg, “Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 2368–2389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (10)

S. P. Le Blanc, M. C. Downer, R. Wagner, S.-Y. Chen, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, and D. Umstadter, “Temporal characterization of a self-modulated laser wakefield,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5381–5384 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ting, K. Krushelnick, C. I. Moore, H. R. Burris, E. Esarey, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Temporal evolution of self-modulated laser wakefields measured by coherent Thomson scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5377–5380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, W. B. Mori, T. Katsouleas, and M. E. Jones, “Photon accelerator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2600–2603 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Grimes, A. R. Rundquist, Y.-S. Lee, and M. C. Downer, “Experimental identification of vacuum heating at femtosecond-laser-irradiated metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4010–4013 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-resolved explosion of intense-laser-heated clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Siders, S. P. Le Blanc, D. Fisher, T. Tajima, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. Sergeev, “Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond longitudinal interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3570–3573 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ehrlich, C. Cohen, A. Zigler, J. Krall, P. Sprangle, and E. Esarey, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses in straight and curved plasma channel experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Butler, D. J. Spence, and S. M. Hooker, “Guiding of high-intensity laser pulses with a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 185003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, “Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. M. Dias, L. Oliveira e Silva, and J. T. Mendonca, “Photon accelerator and interferometry diagnostics of laser wakefields,” in Proceedings of the 1st JAERI-Kansai International Workshop on Ultrashort-Pulse Ultrahigh-Power Lasers and Simulation for Laser–Plasma Interactions (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, 1997), pp. 1–24.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1983).

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Plasma waveguides: addition of end funnels and generation in clustered gases,” in Advanced Accelerator Concepts, Tenth Workshop, C. E. Clayton and P. Muggli, eds. (American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 2002), pp. 646–653.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Characterization of helium plasma channels and guided pump pulses. Top row: transverse Mach–Zehnder interferograms of the expanding channel at four time delays 0.2ΔT6 ns after the line focus of the channel-forming pulse. Middle row: mode images of the exiting pump pulses, each shown below the corresponding interferograms, for guided intensity 1017 W/cm2. Bottom row: transverse interferogram of the channel entrance (left) and spatially integrated spectra of the input and output pump pulses at Iguided=2×1017 W/cm2 (right), both at ΔT=3 ns. (b) Typical frequency-domain interferogram acquired without plasma channel, showing straight fringes obtainable with well-aligned optical system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the detection system, showing polarization of the fields Epump, Eprobe, Edepol, and Eleakage relative to the spectrometer slit. Transverse mode structure of Eprobe, Edepol, and Eleakage is also shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-shot, spatially resolved frequency-domain interferograms from He channel at selected pump–probe time delays from (a) Δt=+2000 fs to (g) Δt=-2000 fs.Δt0” indicates that peak of probe pulse lies within leading edge of pump pulse. A nonoscillating background has been subtracted off in all cases except Δt0 to highlight the Δt-dependent fringes along the λ axis. Note fringe tilt that reverses direction as Δt changes sign. For Δt0, note blueshifted portion of spectrum (785–790 nm) near the channel axis at x=0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lineouts of single-shot interferograms in Fig. 3 without background subtraction (solid curves), compared with spectra of a split-off portion of probe pulse that bypassed the channel (dashed curves). Envelopes of interferogram lineouts coincide closely with reference spectra for |Δt|50 fs [(a)–(c) and (e)–(g)]. At Δt0 [panel (d)], a blueshift of Δλ5 nm is evident in the on-axis lineout of the channeled probe.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spatially averaged, time-resolved single-shot spectra of 400-nm probe pulses under three conditions: (1) entering the channel; (2) exiting the channel following injection at Δt0 behind the pump pulse; (3) after copropagating with pump at Δt0 through 700-Torr He gas without channel. Spectra of 400-nm probe pulses exiting the channel at |Δt|100 fs were indistinguishable from those of the entering pulses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phasor diagrams depicting the effect of adding the copolarized fields Edepol(x)=|Edepol|exp(iΦ)x exp(-x2) and Eleakage (taken as a pure real quantity) on the phase Δϕ(x) of the resultant field Epump(x) at three transverse spatial positions: (a) x=+x0, (b) x=0, and (c) x=-x0. The horizontal and vertical axes denote the real and imaginary components, respectively, of each field. For the example shown, there is an x equals independent phase difference Φπ/4 between Edepol and Eleakage.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Model of FD interferograms produced by interference of Gaussian guided probe pulse with depolarized pump light produced in a ∼300-µm entrance region of the channel.

Equations (14)

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[|Eleakage(ω)|2+|Eprobe(ω)|2
+2|Eleakage(ω)||Eprobe(ω)|cos(ωΔt)]exp(-2x2/w02).
|Eleakagemin(ω)exp(-x2/w02)+Edepol(ω, x)|2
+|Eprobe(ω)|2 exp(-2x2/w02)
+2|Eleakagemin(ω)exp(-x2/w02)
+Edepol(ω, x)||Eprobe(ω)|
×exp(-x2/ω02)cos[ωΔt+Δϕ(x)],
Δλprobezλprobe3 re2πc dnedt
×1×B=ω2c2 B,
-2ik0 Bz=2-ωp2-ωp02c2B+1×[×B].
-2ik0 Bz=2-ωp02r2c2rch2B-2ωp02ω2rch2 Bxy-Byx × (xyˆ-yxˆ),
-2ik0 Byz=2-ωp02r2c2rch2By+B0 ωp02ω2rch2 2xyσ2 × exp[-(x2+y2)/2σ2]exp(-iΔkz),
By(x, y, z)=B0 ωp022ω2 xyrch2 exp[-(x2+y2)/2σ2] × exp(-iΔkz){1-exp[-i(Δk1-Δk)z]},
|By/B0|max=(ωp0/ω)2(σ/rch)2.

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