Abstract

We analyzed a ring laser made with twin off-axially cut neodymium-doped yttrium örthovanadate (Nd:YVO4) crystals in a compact linear cavity by using the Jones matrix, figured out its eigenstates including its eigenpolarizations and eigenfrequencies, and confirmed theoretically the single-longitudinal-mode operation of this laser. A spectral measurement of the output laser beam was performed with a scanning Fabry–Perot interferometer, which demonstrated single-mode operation of the ring laser as theoretical analyses had predicted. Experimental observation of the polarization states of the output laser clearly verified that ring circulation of polarized laser beams took place inside the twin off-axially cut Nd:YVO4 crystals.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. G. Danielmeyer, “Progress in Nd:YAG lasers,” in Lasers, A. K. Levine and A. J. DeMaria, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1976), Vol. 4.
  2. J. Harrison, A. Finch, J. H. Flint, and P. F. Moulton, “Broad-band rapid tuning of a single-frequency diode-pumped neodymium laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1123–1130 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “High-power diode-bar-pumped intracavity-frequency-doubled Nd:YLF ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 156, 49–52 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Zhang, H. Chang, X. Jia, H. Lei, R. Wang, C. Xie, and K. Peng, “Suppression of the intensity noise of a laser-diode-pumped single-frequency ring Nd:YVO4 KTP green laser by optoelectronic feedback,” Opt. Lett. 26, 695–697 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. I. Martion, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Stable, high-power, single-frequency generation at 532 nm from a diode-bar-pumped Nd:YAG ring laser with an intracavity LBO frequency doubler,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4149–4152 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. J. Kane and R. L. Byer, “Monolithic, unidirectional single-mode Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 10, 65–67 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. Freitag, A. Tunnermann, and H. Well, “Power scaling of diode-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG lasers to output powers of several watts,” Opt. Commun. 115, 511–515 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Wu, S. Yang, and G. Wei, “The non-planar single-frequency ring laser with variable output coupling,” Opt. Commun. 203, 323–326 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Freitag, A. Tunnermann, and H. Well, “Passively Q-switched NdYAG ring lasers with high average output power in single-frequency operation,” Opt. Lett. 22, 706–708 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, N. H. Tran, P. Tanguy, and A. L. Floch, “Spatially resolved eigenstates for traveling and standing waves in ring lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 146–154 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Vallet, A. L. Floch, F. Bretenaker, J. Marty, and E. Molva, “Coherent addition of adjacent lasers by forked eigenstate operation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2402–2406 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Chen, E. Wu, Z. Sun, and H. Zeng, “A novel ring laser resonator of linear geometry with twin off-axially cut Nd:YVO4,” Opt. Commun. 220, 179–186 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Brunel, A. Le Floch, and F. Bretenaker, “Multiaxis laser eigenstates,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 946–960 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Suzuki, K. Shimomura, A. Eda, and K. Muro, “Low-noise diode-pumped intracavity-doubled laser with off-axially cut Nd:YVO4,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1624–1626 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Wallmeroth and P. Peuser, “High power, cw single-frequency, TEM00, diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1086–1088 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. S. Adams, J. Vorberg, and J. Mlynek, “Single-frequency operation of a diode-pumped lanthanum-neodymium-hexaaluminate laser by using a twisted-mode cavity,” Opt. Lett. 18, 420–422 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. Chen, E. Wu, Z. Sun, and H. Zeng, “A novel ring laser resonator of linear geometry with twin off-axially cut Nd:YVO4,” Opt. Commun. 220, 179–186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Wu, S. Yang, and G. Wei, “The non-planar single-frequency ring laser with variable output coupling,” Opt. Commun. 203, 323–326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (2)

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “High-power diode-bar-pumped intracavity-frequency-doubled Nd:YLF ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 156, 49–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Vallet, A. L. Floch, F. Bretenaker, J. Marty, and E. Molva, “Coherent addition of adjacent lasers by forked eigenstate operation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2402–2406 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, N. H. Tran, P. Tanguy, and A. L. Floch, “Spatially resolved eigenstates for traveling and standing waves in ring lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 146–154 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Freitag, A. Tunnermann, and H. Well, “Power scaling of diode-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG lasers to output powers of several watts,” Opt. Commun. 115, 511–515 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

J. Harrison, A. Finch, J. H. Flint, and P. F. Moulton, “Broad-band rapid tuning of a single-frequency diode-pumped neodymium laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1123–1130 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. Wallmeroth and P. Peuser, “High power, cw single-frequency, TEM00, diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1086–1088 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Adams, C. S.

Bretenaker, F.

Brunel, M.

Byer, R. L.

Chang, H.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, E. Wu, Z. Sun, and H. Zeng, “A novel ring laser resonator of linear geometry with twin off-axially cut Nd:YVO4,” Opt. Commun. 220, 179–186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Eda, A.

Finch, A.

J. Harrison, A. Finch, J. H. Flint, and P. F. Moulton, “Broad-band rapid tuning of a single-frequency diode-pumped neodymium laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1123–1130 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Flint, J. H.

J. Harrison, A. Finch, J. H. Flint, and P. F. Moulton, “Broad-band rapid tuning of a single-frequency diode-pumped neodymium laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1123–1130 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Floch, A. L.

Freitag, I.

I. Freitag, A. Tunnermann, and H. Well, “Passively Q-switched NdYAG ring lasers with high average output power in single-frequency operation,” Opt. Lett. 22, 706–708 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Freitag, A. Tunnermann, and H. Well, “Power scaling of diode-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG lasers to output powers of several watts,” Opt. Commun. 115, 511–515 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

Hardman, P. J.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “High-power diode-bar-pumped intracavity-frequency-doubled Nd:YLF ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 156, 49–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, J.

J. Harrison, A. Finch, J. H. Flint, and P. F. Moulton, “Broad-band rapid tuning of a single-frequency diode-pumped neodymium laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1123–1130 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jia, X.

Kane, T. J.

Le Floch, A.

Lei, H.

Martion, K. I.

Marty, J.

Mlynek, J.

Molva, E.

Moulton, P. F.

J. Harrison, A. Finch, J. H. Flint, and P. F. Moulton, “Broad-band rapid tuning of a single-frequency diode-pumped neodymium laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1123–1130 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Muro, K.

Peng, K.

Peuser, P.

K. Wallmeroth and P. Peuser, “High power, cw single-frequency, TEM00, diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1086–1088 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shimomura, K.

Sun, Z.

Y. Chen, E. Wu, Z. Sun, and H. Zeng, “A novel ring laser resonator of linear geometry with twin off-axially cut Nd:YVO4,” Opt. Commun. 220, 179–186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

Tanguy, P.

Tran, N. H.

Tunnermann, A.

I. Freitag, A. Tunnermann, and H. Well, “Passively Q-switched NdYAG ring lasers with high average output power in single-frequency operation,” Opt. Lett. 22, 706–708 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Freitag, A. Tunnermann, and H. Well, “Power scaling of diode-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG lasers to output powers of several watts,” Opt. Commun. 115, 511–515 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vallet, M.

Vorberg, J.

Wallmeroth, K.

K. Wallmeroth and P. Peuser, “High power, cw single-frequency, TEM00, diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1086–1088 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.

Wei, G.

K. Wu, S. Yang, and G. Wei, “The non-planar single-frequency ring laser with variable output coupling,” Opt. Commun. 203, 323–326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Well, H.

I. Freitag, A. Tunnermann, and H. Well, “Passively Q-switched NdYAG ring lasers with high average output power in single-frequency operation,” Opt. Lett. 22, 706–708 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Freitag, A. Tunnermann, and H. Well, “Power scaling of diode-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG lasers to output powers of several watts,” Opt. Commun. 115, 511–515 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E.

Y. Chen, E. Wu, Z. Sun, and H. Zeng, “A novel ring laser resonator of linear geometry with twin off-axially cut Nd:YVO4,” Opt. Commun. 220, 179–186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.

K. Wu, S. Yang, and G. Wei, “The non-planar single-frequency ring laser with variable output coupling,” Opt. Commun. 203, 323–326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

Yang, S.

K. Wu, S. Yang, and G. Wei, “The non-planar single-frequency ring laser with variable output coupling,” Opt. Commun. 203, 323–326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

Y. Chen, E. Wu, Z. Sun, and H. Zeng, “A novel ring laser resonator of linear geometry with twin off-axially cut Nd:YVO4,” Opt. Commun. 220, 179–186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Wallmeroth and P. Peuser, “High power, cw single-frequency, TEM00, diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1086–1088 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Harrison, A. Finch, J. H. Flint, and P. F. Moulton, “Broad-band rapid tuning of a single-frequency diode-pumped neodymium laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1123–1130 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (4)

Y. Chen, E. Wu, Z. Sun, and H. Zeng, “A novel ring laser resonator of linear geometry with twin off-axially cut Nd:YVO4,” Opt. Commun. 220, 179–186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Freitag, A. Tunnermann, and H. Well, “Power scaling of diode-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG lasers to output powers of several watts,” Opt. Commun. 115, 511–515 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Wu, S. Yang, and G. Wei, “The non-planar single-frequency ring laser with variable output coupling,” Opt. Commun. 203, 323–326 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “High-power diode-bar-pumped intracavity-frequency-doubled Nd:YLF ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 156, 49–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (1)

H. G. Danielmeyer, “Progress in Nd:YAG lasers,” in Lasers, A. K. Levine and A. J. DeMaria, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1976), Vol. 4.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the laser arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical path of the laser beam propagating counterclockwise in the resonator. (b) Optical path of the laser beam propagating clockwise in the resonator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output spectrum resolved by use of a scanning F-P interferometer. (a) Spectrum of the laser output monitored with no QWPs outside the laser cavity. (b) Spectrum of the laser output monitored with a QWP outside the cavity, which was followed by a rotatable polarizer.

Equations (21)

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M+=C2+P1AAP1C2-C1-P2AAP2C1+,
P1=12 1i00i100001i00i1,
P2=12 1-i00-i100001-i00-i1,
A=0000000000100001.
C1+=exp(iϕo,1)000000exp(iϕe,1)00exp(iϕo,1)00000,
C2+=exp(iϕo,2)0000000000exp(iϕo,2)00exp(iϕe,2)0,
C1-=exp(iϕo,1)000000000exp(iϕo,1)00exp(iϕe,1)00,
C2-=exp(iϕo,2)000000exp(iϕe,2)00exp(iϕo,2)00000,
M+
=00000-exp(2iϕe+2iϕo)0000-exp(2iϕe+2iϕo)00000.
M+E=λE.
λ0=0,
λ1=-exp(2iϕe+2iϕo).
Eo+=0010;
Ee+=0100.
D=(no2-ne2)tan θne2+no2 tan2 θL,
E=AP2C1+E.
Eo+=00[exp i(ϕo+π/4)][exp i(ϕo-π/4)],
Ee=00[exp i(ϕe-π/4)][exp i(ϕe+π/4)].
ν=c2d n-arg(λ)2π,
ν=c2d n-12-ϕe+ϕoπ.

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