Abstract

The fabrication and operation of Ti:sapphire channel-waveguide lasers is presented, in which both the gain medium and the waveguide are formed by the thermal diffusion of titanium. Lasing was observed between wavelengths of 775 nm and 821 nm, with the lowest launched pump-power threshold being 210±40 mW for a pump wavelength of 514.5 nm.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  41. V. Apostolopoulos, L. M. B. Hickey, D. A. Sager, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Gallium-diffused waveguides in sapphire,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1586–1588 (2001).
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  47. R. Moon and M. R. Philips, “Defect clustering and color in Fe, Ti:α-Al2O3,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 2, 356–367 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. Mahnke, S. Weichmann, H. J. Heider, O. Blume, and J. Müller, “Aluminum oxide doped with erbium, titanium and chromium for active integrated optical applications,” Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEÜ) 55, 342–348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Apostolopoulos, L. M. B. Hickey, D. A. Sager, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Gallium-diffused waveguides in sapphire,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1586–1588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

J. C. McCallum and L. D. Morpeth, “Synthesis of Ti:sapphire by ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 726–729 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Naumenko and I. S. Didenko, “High-velocity surface acoustic waves in diamond and sapphire with zinc oxide film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3029–3031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Uetsuhara, S. Goto, Y. Nakata, N. Vasa, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Fabrication of a Ti:sapphire planar waveguide by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S719–S722 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Manoravi, P. R. Willmott, J. R. Huber, and T. Greber, “Deposition of Ti:sapphire thin films by reactive pulsed laser ablation using liquid metals and oxygen,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S865–S867 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, “Growth of single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Ponce and D. P. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386, 351–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Schafer, I. Baumann, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and S. Westenhofer, “Diode-pumped and packaged acousto-optically tunable Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of wide tuning range,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1636–1641 (1997).

I. T. McKinnie, A. L. Oien, D. M. Warrington, P. N. Tonga, L. A. W. Gloster, and T. A. King, “Ti3+ ion concentration and Ti:sapphire laser performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1221–1230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Ti:sapphire planar waveguide laser grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1556–1558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

L. M. B. Hickey and J. S. Wilkinson, “Titanium diffused waveguides in sapphire,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2238–2239 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schafer, J. Sochtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 335–365 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Dyer, S. R. Jackson, P. H. Key, W. J. Metheringham, and M. J. J. Schmidt, “Excimer laser ablation and film deposition of Ti:sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 96–98, 849–854 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. S. Wu, A. M. Wang, J. M. Wu, L. Wei, G. X. Zhu, and S. Ying, “Growth and laser properties of Ti:sapphire single crystal fibres,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1151–1152 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

M. Oguma, T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, and M. Horiguchi, “Tunable Er-doped Y-branched waveguide laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 586–587 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Moon and M. R. Philips, “Defect clustering and color in Fe, Ti:α-Al2O3,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 2, 356–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Amin, M. Hempstead, J. E. Román, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Tunable coupled-cavity waveguide laser at room temperature in Nd-diffused Ti:LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1541–1543 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

1988 (5)

W. P. Risk, “Modelling of longitudinally pumped solid-state lasers exhibiting reabsorption losses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1412–1423 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Rapoport and C. P. Khattak, “Titanium sapphire laser characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2677–2684 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djévahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, “Optical properties and tunable laser action of Verneuil-grown single crystals of Al2O3:Ti3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, “Residual infrared absorption in As-grown and annealed crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003–1008 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Sanchez, A. J. Strauss, R. L. Aggarwal, and R. E. Fahey, “Crystal growth spectroscopy and laser characteristics of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 995–1002 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

L. G. Deshazer, K. W. Kangas, R. Route, and R. S. Feigelson, “Tunable titanium doped sapphire fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 843, 118 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946-nm Nd:YAG Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 605–612 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (5)

1985 (1)

P. Lacovara and L. Esterowitz, “Growth, spectroscopy and lasing of titanium doped sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1614–1618 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

B. R. Appleton, H. Naramoto, C. W. White, O. W. Holland, C. J. McHargue, G. Farlow, J. Narayan, and J. M. Williams, “Ion implantation, ion beam mixing, and annealing studies of metals in Al2O3, SiC and Si3N4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 1, 167–175 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

H. Naramoto, C. W. White, J. M. Williams, C. J. McHargue, O. W. Holland, M. M. Abraham, and B. R. Appleton, “Ion implantation and thermal anealing of α-Al2O3 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 683–698 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1974 (1)

R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, “Metal-diffused opticalwaveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458–460 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

H. Malitson, “Refraction and dispersion of synthetic sapphire,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 52, 1377–1379 (1962).
[CrossRef]

S. McClure, “Optical spectra of transition metal ions in corundum,” J. Phys. Chem. 36, 2757–2779 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

Abraham, M. M.

H. Naramoto, C. W. White, J. M. Williams, C. J. McHargue, O. W. Holland, M. M. Abraham, and B. R. Appleton, “Ion implantation and thermal anealing of α-Al2O3 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 683–698 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, R. L.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, “Residual infrared absorption in As-grown and annealed crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003–1008 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Sanchez, A. J. Strauss, R. L. Aggarwal, and R. E. Fahey, “Crystal growth spectroscopy and laser characteristics of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 995–1002 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, R. E. Fahey, and A. J. Strauss, “Magnetic and optical measurements on Ti:Al2O3 crystal for laser applications: concentration and absorption cross section of Ti3+ ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1345–1347 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Albers, P.

Amin, J.

Anderson, A.

A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Ti:sapphire planar waveguide laser grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1556–1558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, “Growth of single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Apostolopoulos, V.

Appleton, B. R.

B. R. Appleton, H. Naramoto, C. W. White, O. W. Holland, C. J. McHargue, G. Farlow, J. Narayan, and J. M. Williams, “Ion implantation, ion beam mixing, and annealing studies of metals in Al2O3, SiC and Si3N4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 1, 167–175 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. Naramoto, C. W. White, J. M. Williams, C. J. McHargue, O. W. Holland, M. M. Abraham, and B. R. Appleton, “Ion implantation and thermal anealing of α-Al2O3 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 683–698 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

Baumann, I.

K. Schafer, I. Baumann, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and S. Westenhofer, “Diode-pumped and packaged acousto-optically tunable Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of wide tuning range,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1636–1641 (1997).

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schafer, J. Sochtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 335–365 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, M.

Blume, O.

M. Mahnke, S. Weichmann, H. J. Heider, O. Blume, and J. Müller, “Aluminum oxide doped with erbium, titanium and chromium for active integrated optical applications,” Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEÜ) 55, 342–348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bosso, S.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schafer, J. Sochtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 335–365 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djévahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, “Optical properties and tunable laser action of Verneuil-grown single crystals of Al2O3:Ti3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

F. A. Ponce and D. P. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386, 351–359 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmann, R.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schafer, J. Sochtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 335–365 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946-nm Nd:YAG Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 605–612 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cagnard, R.

R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djévahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, “Optical properties and tunable laser action of Verneuil-grown single crystals of Al2O3:Ti3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Collongues, R.

R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djévahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, “Optical properties and tunable laser action of Verneuil-grown single crystals of Al2O3:Ti3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Corsini, R.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schafer, J. Sochtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 335–365 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DeFranzo, C.

Deshazer, L. G.

L. G. Deshazer, K. W. Kangas, R. Route, and R. S. Feigelson, “Tunable titanium doped sapphire fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 843, 118 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Didenko, I. S.

N. F. Naumenko and I. S. Didenko, “High-velocity surface acoustic waves in diamond and sapphire with zinc oxide film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3029–3031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dinand, M.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schafer, J. Sochtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 335–365 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Djévahirdjian, V.

R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djévahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, “Optical properties and tunable laser action of Verneuil-grown single crystals of Al2O3:Ti3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, P. E.

P. E. Dyer, S. R. Jackson, P. H. Key, W. J. Metheringham, and M. J. J. Schmidt, “Excimer laser ablation and film deposition of Ti:sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 96–98, 849–854 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Ti:sapphire planar waveguide laser grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1556–1558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, “Growth of single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Esterowitz, L.

P. Lacovara and L. Esterowitz, “Growth, spectroscopy and lasing of titanium doped sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1614–1618 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fahey, R. E.

A. Sanchez, A. J. Strauss, R. L. Aggarwal, and R. E. Fahey, “Crystal growth spectroscopy and laser characteristics of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 995–1002 (1988).
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R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, “Residual infrared absorption in As-grown and annealed crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003–1008 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, R. E. Fahey, and A. J. Strauss, “Magnetic and optical measurements on Ti:Al2O3 crystal for laser applications: concentration and absorption cross section of Ti3+ ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1345–1347 (1986).
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B. R. Appleton, H. Naramoto, C. W. White, O. W. Holland, C. J. McHargue, G. Farlow, J. Narayan, and J. M. Williams, “Ion implantation, ion beam mixing, and annealing studies of metals in Al2O3, SiC and Si3N4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 1, 167–175 (1984).
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L. G. Deshazer, K. W. Kangas, R. Route, and R. S. Feigelson, “Tunable titanium doped sapphire fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 843, 118 (1987).
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A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, “Growth of single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
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Gloster, L. A. W.

I. T. McKinnie, A. L. Oien, D. M. Warrington, P. N. Tonga, L. A. W. Gloster, and T. A. King, “Ti3+ ion concentration and Ti:sapphire laser performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1221–1230 (1997).
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H. Uetsuhara, S. Goto, Y. Nakata, N. Vasa, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Fabrication of a Ti:sapphire planar waveguide by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S719–S722 (1999).
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P. Manoravi, P. R. Willmott, J. R. Huber, and T. Greber, “Deposition of Ti:sapphire thin films by reactive pulsed laser ablation using liquid metals and oxygen,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S865–S867 (1999).
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I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schafer, J. Sochtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 335–365 (1996).
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A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Ti:sapphire planar waveguide laser grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1556–1558 (1997).
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A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, “Growth of single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
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Harrison, J.

Hattori, K.

M. Oguma, T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, and M. Horiguchi, “Tunable Er-doped Y-branched waveguide laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 586–587 (1994).
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M. Mahnke, S. Weichmann, H. J. Heider, O. Blume, and J. Müller, “Aluminum oxide doped with erbium, titanium and chromium for active integrated optical applications,” Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEÜ) 55, 342–348 (2001).
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A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, “Growth of single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
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A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Ti:sapphire planar waveguide laser grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1556–1558 (1997).
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L. M. B. Hickey and J. S. Wilkinson, “Titanium diffused waveguides in sapphire,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2238–2239 (1996).
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B. R. Appleton, H. Naramoto, C. W. White, O. W. Holland, C. J. McHargue, G. Farlow, J. Narayan, and J. M. Williams, “Ion implantation, ion beam mixing, and annealing studies of metals in Al2O3, SiC and Si3N4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 1, 167–175 (1984).
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H. Naramoto, C. W. White, J. M. Williams, C. J. McHargue, O. W. Holland, M. M. Abraham, and B. R. Appleton, “Ion implantation and thermal anealing of α-Al2O3 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 683–698 (1983).
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M. Oguma, T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, and M. Horiguchi, “Tunable Er-doped Y-branched waveguide laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 586–587 (1994).
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Huber, J. R.

P. Manoravi, P. R. Willmott, J. R. Huber, and T. Greber, “Deposition of Ti:sapphire thin films by reactive pulsed laser ablation using liquid metals and oxygen,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S865–S867 (1999).
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P. E. Dyer, S. R. Jackson, P. H. Key, W. J. Metheringham, and M. J. J. Schmidt, “Excimer laser ablation and film deposition of Ti:sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 96–98, 849–854 (1996).
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A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, L. M. B. Hickey, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Ti:sapphire planar waveguide laser grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1556–1558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, “Growth of single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
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R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, “Metal-diffused opticalwaveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458–460 (1974).
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L. G. Deshazer, K. W. Kangas, R. Route, and R. S. Feigelson, “Tunable titanium doped sapphire fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 843, 118 (1987).
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P. E. Dyer, S. R. Jackson, P. H. Key, W. J. Metheringham, and M. J. J. Schmidt, “Excimer laser ablation and film deposition of Ti:sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 96–98, 849–854 (1996).
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R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, “Residual infrared absorption in As-grown and annealed crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003–1008 (1988).
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W. R. Rapoport and C. P. Khattak, “Titanium sapphire laser characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2677–2684 (1988).
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I. T. McKinnie, A. L. Oien, D. M. Warrington, P. N. Tonga, L. A. W. Gloster, and T. A. King, “Ti3+ ion concentration and Ti:sapphire laser performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1221–1230 (1997).
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M. Oguma, T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, and M. Horiguchi, “Tunable Er-doped Y-branched waveguide laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 586–587 (1994).
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A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, “Growth of single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
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R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djévahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, “Optical properties and tunable laser action of Verneuil-grown single crystals of Al2O3:Ti3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049–1051 (1988).
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Maeda, M.

H. Uetsuhara, S. Goto, Y. Nakata, N. Vasa, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Fabrication of a Ti:sapphire planar waveguide by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S719–S722 (1999).
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M. Mahnke, S. Weichmann, H. J. Heider, O. Blume, and J. Müller, “Aluminum oxide doped with erbium, titanium and chromium for active integrated optical applications,” Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEÜ) 55, 342–348 (2001).
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P. Manoravi, P. R. Willmott, J. R. Huber, and T. Greber, “Deposition of Ti:sapphire thin films by reactive pulsed laser ablation using liquid metals and oxygen,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S865–S867 (1999).
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H. Naramoto, C. W. White, J. M. Williams, C. J. McHargue, O. W. Holland, M. M. Abraham, and B. R. Appleton, “Ion implantation and thermal anealing of α-Al2O3 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 683–698 (1983).
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I. T. McKinnie, A. L. Oien, D. M. Warrington, P. N. Tonga, L. A. W. Gloster, and T. A. King, “Ti3+ ion concentration and Ti:sapphire laser performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1221–1230 (1997).
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P. E. Dyer, S. R. Jackson, P. H. Key, W. J. Metheringham, and M. J. J. Schmidt, “Excimer laser ablation and film deposition of Ti:sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 96–98, 849–854 (1996).
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R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djévahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, “Optical properties and tunable laser action of Verneuil-grown single crystals of Al2O3:Ti3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049–1051 (1988).
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R. Moon and M. R. Philips, “Defect clustering and color in Fe, Ti:α-Al2O3,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 2, 356–367 (1994).
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J. C. McCallum and L. D. Morpeth, “Synthesis of Ti:sapphire by ion implantation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 726–729 (1999).
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Müller, J.

M. Mahnke, S. Weichmann, H. J. Heider, O. Blume, and J. Müller, “Aluminum oxide doped with erbium, titanium and chromium for active integrated optical applications,” Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEÜ) 55, 342–348 (2001).
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H. Uetsuhara, S. Goto, Y. Nakata, N. Vasa, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Fabrication of a Ti:sapphire planar waveguide by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S719–S722 (1999).
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B. R. Appleton, H. Naramoto, C. W. White, O. W. Holland, C. J. McHargue, G. Farlow, J. Narayan, and J. M. Williams, “Ion implantation, ion beam mixing, and annealing studies of metals in Al2O3, SiC and Si3N4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 1, 167–175 (1984).
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H. Naramoto, C. W. White, J. M. Williams, C. J. McHargue, O. W. Holland, M. M. Abraham, and B. R. Appleton, “Ion implantation and thermal anealing of α-Al2O3 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 683–698 (1983).
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B. R. Appleton, H. Naramoto, C. W. White, O. W. Holland, C. J. McHargue, G. Farlow, J. Narayan, and J. M. Williams, “Ion implantation, ion beam mixing, and annealing studies of metals in Al2O3, SiC and Si3N4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 1, 167–175 (1984).
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M. Oguma, T. Kitagawa, K. Hattori, and M. Horiguchi, “Tunable Er-doped Y-branched waveguide laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 586–587 (1994).
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I. T. McKinnie, A. L. Oien, D. M. Warrington, P. N. Tonga, L. A. W. Gloster, and T. A. King, “Ti3+ ion concentration and Ti:sapphire laser performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1221–1230 (1997).
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Okada, T.

H. Uetsuhara, S. Goto, Y. Nakata, N. Vasa, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Fabrication of a Ti:sapphire planar waveguide by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S719–S722 (1999).
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Pazol, B. G.

Philips, M. R.

R. Moon and M. R. Philips, “Defect clustering and color in Fe, Ti:α-Al2O3,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 2, 356–367 (1994).
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F. A. Ponce and D. P. Bour, “Nitride-based semiconductors for blue and green light-emitting devices,” Nature 386, 351–359 (1997).
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R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, “Residual infrared absorption in As-grown and annealed crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003–1008 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Rapoport and C. P. Khattak, “Titanium sapphire laser characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2677–2684 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Rines, G. A.

Risk, W. P.

Ritter, E.

Rogers, K.

A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, M. Jelinek, C. Grivas, D. Lane, K. Rogers, L. M. B. Hickey, and C. Fotakis, “Growth of single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
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Román, J. E.

Route, R.

L. G. Deshazer, K. W. Kangas, R. Route, and R. S. Feigelson, “Tunable titanium doped sapphire fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE 843, 118 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sager, D. A.

Sanchez, A.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, “Residual infrared absorption in As-grown and annealed crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003–1008 (1988).
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A. Sanchez, A. J. Strauss, R. L. Aggarwal, and R. E. Fahey, “Crystal growth spectroscopy and laser characteristics of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 995–1002 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, R. E. Fahey, and A. J. Strauss, “Magnetic and optical measurements on Ti:Al2O3 crystal for laser applications: concentration and absorption cross section of Ti3+ ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1345–1347 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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K. Schafer, I. Baumann, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and S. Westenhofer, “Diode-pumped and packaged acousto-optically tunable Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of wide tuning range,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1636–1641 (1997).

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schafer, J. Sochtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 335–365 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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P. E. Dyer, S. R. Jackson, P. H. Key, W. J. Metheringham, and M. J. J. Schmidt, “Excimer laser ablation and film deposition of Ti:sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 96–98, 849–854 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, “Metal-diffused opticalwaveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458–460 (1974).
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I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schafer, J. Sochtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 335–365 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

K. Schafer, I. Baumann, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and S. Westenhofer, “Diode-pumped and packaged acousto-optically tunable Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of wide tuning range,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1636–1641 (1997).

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schafer, J. Sochtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 335–365 (1996).
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Strauss, A. J.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, “Residual infrared absorption in As-grown and annealed crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003–1008 (1988).
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A. Sanchez, A. J. Strauss, R. L. Aggarwal, and R. E. Fahey, “Crystal growth spectroscopy and laser characteristics of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 995–1002 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, R. E. Fahey, and A. J. Strauss, “Magnetic and optical measurements on Ti:Al2O3 crystal for laser applications: concentration and absorption cross section of Ti3+ ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1345–1347 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stuppi, M. M.

R. L. Aggarwal, A. Sanchez, M. M. Stuppi, R. E. Fahey, A. J. Strauss, W. R. Rapoport, and C. P. Khattak, “Residual infrared absorption in As-grown and annealed crystals of Ti:Al2O3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1003–1008 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Suche, H.

K. Schafer, I. Baumann, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and S. Westenhofer, “Diode-pumped and packaged acousto-optically tunable Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of wide tuning range,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1636–1641 (1997).

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schafer, J. Sochtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 335–365 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Tonga, P. N.

I. T. McKinnie, A. L. Oien, D. M. Warrington, P. N. Tonga, L. A. W. Gloster, and T. A. King, “Ti3+ ion concentration and Ti:sapphire laser performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1221–1230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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H. Uetsuhara, S. Goto, Y. Nakata, N. Vasa, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Fabrication of a Ti:sapphire planar waveguide by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S719–S722 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Vasa, N.

H. Uetsuhara, S. Goto, Y. Nakata, N. Vasa, T. Okada, and M. Maeda, “Fabrication of a Ti:sapphire planar waveguide by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S719–S722 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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R. Moncorgé, G. Boulon, D. Vivien, A. M. Lejus, R. Collongues, V. Djévahirdjian, and R. Cagnard, “Optical properties and tunable laser action of Verneuil-grown single crystals of Al2O3:Ti3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1049–1051 (1988).
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I. T. McKinnie, A. L. Oien, D. M. Warrington, P. N. Tonga, L. A. W. Gloster, and T. A. King, “Ti3+ ion concentration and Ti:sapphire laser performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1221–1230 (1997).
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M. Mahnke, S. Weichmann, H. J. Heider, O. Blume, and J. Müller, “Aluminum oxide doped with erbium, titanium and chromium for active integrated optical applications,” Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEÜ) 55, 342–348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schafer, J. Sochtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 335–365 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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K. Schafer, I. Baumann, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and S. Westenhofer, “Diode-pumped and packaged acousto-optically tunable Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide laser of wide tuning range,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 1636–1641 (1997).

White, C. W.

B. R. Appleton, H. Naramoto, C. W. White, O. W. Holland, C. J. McHargue, G. Farlow, J. Narayan, and J. M. Williams, “Ion implantation, ion beam mixing, and annealing studies of metals in Al2O3, SiC and Si3N4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 1, 167–175 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. Naramoto, C. W. White, J. M. Williams, C. J. McHargue, O. W. Holland, M. M. Abraham, and B. R. Appleton, “Ion implantation and thermal anealing of α-Al2O3 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 54, 683–698 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Williams, J. M.

B. R. Appleton, H. Naramoto, C. W. White, O. W. Holland, C. J. McHargue, G. Farlow, J. Narayan, and J. M. Williams, “Ion implantation, ion beam mixing, and annealing studies of metals in Al2O3, SiC and Si3N4,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 1, 167–175 (1984).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Zhu, G. X.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Other (6)

L. M. B. Hickey, “Titanium:sapphire waveguide laser by the thermal diffusion of Ti into sapphire,” Ph.D dissertation (University of Southampton, Southampton UK, 1998).

N. Yasuharu, “Formation of titanium-sapphire single crystal film,” Yokogawa Electric Corp., Japanese patent 04068589 (March 26, 1992); M. Akihiro, “Production of titanium sapphire,” Yokogawa Electric Corp., Japanese patent 03035954 (January 3, 1991).

For example, the Coherent 890 or 899 Ti:sapphire lasers.

L. M. B. Hickey, A. A. Anderson, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Ti-sapphire channel waveguide laser by thermal diffusion of titanium into sapphire,” Postdeadline Addendum to Digest of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1997), paper PD6, pp. 1–4.

Union Carbide Corporation.

L. M. B. Hickey, G. R. Quigley, J. S. Wilkinson, E. G. Moya, F. Moya, and C. Grattepain, “Ti-diffusion in sapphire for active and passive waveguide devices,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 264.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ti:sapphire waveguide laser model geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Estimated pump-power threshold for (a) no propagation losses or reabsorption losses, (b) 1-dB/cm propagation loss at the pump and signal wavelengths, (c) 1-dB/cm propagation loss at the pump and signal wavelengths, and reabsorption losses equivalent to a FOM of 50, (d) 3-dB/cm propagation loss at the pump and signal wavelengths, and (e) 5-dB/cm propagation loss at the pump and signal wavelengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental configuration for characterization of the waveguide lasers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power characteristics for waveguide lasers pumped at a wavelength of 514.5 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power characteristics of laser 2, pumped with an argon-ion laser operating multiline and at a wavelength of 488 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Pump-power threshold for pump wavelengths of 476 nm, 488 nm, 496 nm, and 514.5 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Threshold pump power for laser 2 operating with various pump duty cycles and a pump wavelength of 514.5 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Waveguide mode profiles for laser 1: (a) Ti:sapphire laser radiation; (b), (c) and (d) pump radiation at wavelengths of 514.5 nm, 488 nm, and 476 nm, respectively. Scale: full width at half-maximum of mode shown in (a) is 5×11 µm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized emission spectra for laser 1 operating with a pump wavelength of 514.5 nm, for launched pump powers in the range from 250 mW to 1050 mW.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Normalized emission spectra for laser 2 operating with a pump wavelength of 514.5 nm, for launched pump powers in the range from 250 mW to 850 mW.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Temporal behavior of laser 2 power output when pumped with an argon-ion laser operating multiline. The launched pump power is 1260 mW.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Emission spectra for laser 2 operating with a pump of wavelength 514.5 nm and 100:100-ms pump on:off time, for increasing pump powers above threshold, (a) 30 mW above threshold, (b) 100 mW above threshold, and (c) 280 mW above threshold.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N(x, y, z)=τN0σpηqhνpIp(x, y, z)f(x, y).
dPs(z)dz=N(x, y, z)Ps(z)Ss(x, y)σsdxdy-βs+N0σpFOMPs(z).
Pth=βs+N0σpFOML-ln(R1R2)2×N0σp+βpN0σp{1-exp[-(N0σp+βp)L]}×1Ss(x, y)Sp(x, y)f(x, y)dxdy hυpτηqσs.
ηs=λpλsηq T(T+δ)fovl,
(T+δ)=1-R1R2 exp-2Lβs+N0σpFOM.
N0σpN0σp+βp{1-exp[-(N0σp+βp)L]}.

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